Search results

1 – 10 of over 7000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Anil Kumar K, Reshmi R S and Hemalatha N

In India, the number of migrants to urban areas is increasing over time. Unlike in earlier years where male migration was prominent, recent trend shows an increasing trend…

Abstract

Purpose

In India, the number of migrants to urban areas is increasing over time. Unlike in earlier years where male migration was prominent, recent trend shows an increasing trend of female and family migration. As migration and health status are highly correlated, the nature of relationship deserves greater attention from researchers. Although literature on internal migration in India is abundant, little attention is given to the research on the effect of migration on the health status of children. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper, based on National Family Health Survey 3 data, examines the health status of migrant and non-migrant children in the urban areas of India.

Findings

Distribution according to social and demographic characteristics is disadvantageous for urban children who are born to migrant women. As seen from various child health indicators, urban children’s health in general and the health situation of migrant women’s children in particular leaves much to be desired. Pattern of migration tends to have an impact on child health in urban areas; children of women who migrate from rural areas are in an adverse position. Duration of migration has a negative influence on health status of urban children. Overall, it was found that migration status of mothers has an independent effect on child health outcomes; children of migrant mothers have a lower health status.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills the need to study the health status of migrant and non-migrant children in the urban areas of India.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Neha Chhabra Roy and Viswanathan Thangaraj

This study aims to gauge the effect of rural–urban migration and its challenges on the urban development of Bengaluru. This study examines the driving forces behind…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to gauge the effect of rural–urban migration and its challenges on the urban development of Bengaluru. This study examines the driving forces behind urbanization and its impact on social, economic and environment areas. The research helps to establish the sustainable city planning, after evaluation of specific challenges of zones, and this mitigation will optimize government investment and reduce cost.

Design/methodology/approach

Bengaluru is used as a study area to examine the interaction of migration and urban development. The study covers the period between 2011 and 2019. Panel data analysis is applied to measure the effect of urban development indicators on urban migration. The authors applied the integrated urban metabolism analysis tool to quantify the urban development indicators and identified the most critical areas for migrants. Later, authors proposed mitigation measures based on alternate scenario approach.

Findings

The authors found that there is a mixed effect of urban migration on urban development across various zones in Bengaluru. Besides, the authors suggest how planned collaboration should play a significant role in urban planning and optimize city planning judiciously. Effective mitigation measures should be developed based on zone-specific core issues, and practical trainings, research, public awareness campaigns and skill up-gradation of migrants would enhance the socio-economic and environmental conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The study will support the ongoing and upcoming initiatives launched by the Government of India i.e. Awas Yojna, Atmanirbhar Bharat and Swach Bharat.

Practical implications

The structured city planning suggested in the study will help to save wastage of resources and cost and time of developers and policymakers. This will also help to upgrade the status of migrants and enhance the ambience of city around social, economic and environment fronts.

Originality/value

The first of its kind of innovative model mapped in the study area establishes a link between strategic city planning under rural–urban migration and urban development.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah, Louis Boakye-Yiadom and William Baah-Boateng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of education on migration decisions focusing on rural and urban in-migrants by comparing the 2005/2006 and 2012/2013…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of education on migration decisions focusing on rural and urban in-migrants by comparing the 2005/2006 and 2012/2013 rounds of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS5 and GLSS6). After correcting for selectivity bias, the authors observed that anticipated welfare gain and socio-economic variables such as sector of employment, sex, experience, age, educational level and marital status significantly affect an individual’s migration decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors made use of Sjaastad’s (1962) human capital framework as a basis for examining the impact of education on migration. The migration decision equation was based on the Heckman two stage procedure.

Findings

While educational attainment is observed to have a positive effect on migration decision in the period 2005/2006, the authors find a negative effect of educational attainment on migration decision in the period 2012/2013. The effect of educational attainment on migration decision in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant is higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than that of rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013.

Social implications

Based on the mixed effect of education on migration decision as evident from the study, policies to enhance the educational system in Ghana should be complemented with job creations in the entire country. Moreover, special attention should be given to the rural sector in such a way that the jobs to be created in the sector do not require skilled workers. With quality education and job creation, the welfare of individuals living in urban and rural areas will be enhanced.

Originality/value

In spite of the importance of education in migration decisions, there is scanty literature on the rural-urban dimension. To the best of the author’s knowledge there is no literature in the Ghanaian context which examines the rural and urban perspective of the impact of education on migration with a much recent data. Further, the author consider how the determinants of migration decision have changed over time focusing on rural and urban perspectives.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Philipp Schäfer and Tobias Just

The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether urban tourism attractiveness affects young adult migration within Germany. Currently, factors like urban attractiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether urban tourism attractiveness affects young adult migration within Germany. Currently, factors like urban attractiveness, environmental qualities or vicinity to amenities play a more important role for the migration of young adults than in the past. This has highly asymmetric implications for the housing (and commercial real estate) markets in cities with an abundance of urban attractiveness, compared to cities without such attractions.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis focuses on the internal migration of young adults (18-30-year-olds). First, some stylized facts regarding migration patterns are presented by means of descriptive and cluster analyses (k-means methodology) with respect to the net immigration rate for the two years, 2004 and 2014. Second, ordinary least squares-regression analyses are used to estimate the connection between urban tourism attractiveness and migration.

Findings

Young adults in Germany predominantly migrate to cities. The authors find typical migration patterns, and the regression results indicate that young adult migration is highly correlated with the indicator measuring urban tourism attractiveness. This means that urban attractions matter for young adults. Finally, the authors also find that housing rents are correlated with urban tourism attractiveness.

Practical implications

Good city planning must not only be concerned with new industrial sites, but also about esthetic neighborhoods and, for example, attractive squares. Moreover, because city structures and urban amenities are both path dependent and expensive to change, it is likely that the winning cities of today will remain winners in the next decade, which is good news for risk-averse investors.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper provides the first empirical analysis of the connection between urban tourism attractiveness and the migration of young adults, in the context of German cities.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2009

Arup Mitra and Mayumi Murayama

Using the 2001 Census data, this paper analyses district‐level rural‐to‐urban migration rates (both intra‐state and inter‐state) among males and females separately. Though…

Downloads
1002

Abstract

Using the 2001 Census data, this paper analyses district‐level rural‐to‐urban migration rates (both intra‐state and inter‐state) among males and females separately. Though many of the relatively poor and backward states actually show large population mobility, male migration is also prominent in the relatively high‐income states. Rural women, on the other hand, usually migrate within the boundaries of the states. The social networks effects are prevalent among the short‐distance migrants, and the North/South divide in the Indian context is indeed a significant phenomenon, with the exception of a few metropolitan cities. Looking at the effect of factors at the place of destination, prospects for better job opportunities are a major determinant of male migration. Low castes, minority groups and women show network effects. The paper finally brings out the effect of migration on health.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Devanto Shasta Pratomo

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine which factors are important in determining the post-migration education among rural-urban migrants in Indonesia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine which factors are important in determining the post-migration education among rural-urban migrants in Indonesia. Second, to investigate whether investing in post-migration education in the cities improves the labour market performances of rural-urban migrants. The labour market performances are measured by the occupational (work) statuses and earnings (wages) at destination.

Design/methodology/approach

The determinants of post-migration education are estimated using a binary probit and ordinary least square, while a multinomial logit model and a two-step procedure of Lee’s selection-biased correction based on the multinomial logit are used to examine the effects of post-migration education on the labour market performances of migrants measured by occupational status and by wages. The main source of the data used in this study is the Rural-Urban Migration in China and Indonesia (RUMiCI) 2009-2011 survey conducted in the four largest recent migrant destination cities in Indonesia including Tangerang, Medan, Samarinda, and Makassar.

Findings

Post-migration education contributes significantly to the labour market performance in terms of work status and wages, compared to pre-migration education. In terms of work status, migrants with more post-migration education are more likely to be employed in the formal sector compared to migrants with less or no post-migration education. Relating to earnings, migrants with more post-migration education also tend to be paid more than those migrants with less or no post-migration education.

Originality/value

The role of post-migration education in the case of rural-urban migration particularly in developing countries is a relatively neglected area of research. One possible reason is because of the lack of data for rural-urban migration particularly in the case of developing countries. This study is taking advantage by using a new data set from RUMiCI focusing specifically on the rural-urban migrants in the four largest recent migrant destination cities in Indonesia including Tangerang, Medan, Samarinda, and Makassar.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jialu Liu

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the…

Downloads
1517

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries have experienced, or are experiencing, urbanization. One such example is China. Even though the large‐scale rural‐urban migration seems chaotic on the surface, there are certain underlying forces driving individual decisions. The purpose of this paper is to provide some understanding of the relationship between human capital, migration, and occupational choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper starts with an overlapping generations model. Human capital plays various roles across different occupations – it does not affect the income of farmers, it affects income of workers linearly, and it has increasing returns in rural non‐farm business. The paper then derives income profiles for individuals with heterogeneous human capital, and finds the human capital thresholds of occupations. The paper calibrates the model to China, and simulates the model to answer two questions: how does an improving human capital distribution affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants? How does a fast‐growing urban wage rate affect rural wages, quantities of migrants and return migrants?

Findings

First, depending on the initial human capital level, policies aiming to enhance human capital may have different impacts on migration. If the initial human capital level is low, these policies will yield more permanent migrants; on the contrary, if the initial human capital is at a relatively high level, then a shrinking permanent migrant class with a growing entrepreneur class can be expected. This results in an inverted U‐shaped relation between the initial human capital level and the size of the permanent migrant class. Second, even though the non‐farm business of return migrants helps raise rural wages, the income inequality between rural and urban areas is not eliminated and migration is persistent. Third, borrowing constraints limit the size of rural non‐farm businesses and slow down the development of rural industry. The fourth and final point is that, migration costs discourage labor mobility and reduce the quantities of both permanent migrants and entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This is an original paper on this subject.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Zhaopeng Frank Qu and Zhong Zhao

– The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic change of the migrant labor market in China from 2002 to 2007 using two comparable data sets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic change of the migrant labor market in China from 2002 to 2007 using two comparable data sets.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand the factors behind the wage change, the authors use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (Oaxaca, 1973; Blinder, 1973) method to study the hourly wage change over this five-year period.

Findings

The focus is on the rural-urban migration decision, the wage structure of migrants, the labor market segmentation between migrants and urban natives, and the changes of these aspects from 2002 to 2007. The paper finds that prior migration experience is a key factor for the migration decision of rural household members, and its importance keeps increasing from 2002 to 2007. The results show that there is a significant increase in wages among both migrants and urban natives over this five-year period, but migrants have enjoyed faster wage growth, and most of the increase of wages among migrants can be attributed to the increase of returns to their characteristics. The authors also find evidence suggesting convergence of urban labor markets for migrants and for urban natives during this five-year period.

Research limitations/implications

In order to make the 2002 and 2007 data sets comparable, the authors had to restrict the observations with fixed residence only, and can only include seven cities. These limit the representativeness of the sample. When interpret the findings in this paper, it is important to keep this in mind.

Originality/value

Due to the scarcity of data, there are few studies on the dynamics of the migrating population and the migrant labor market. Since the urban natives and migrants are still segmented in the labor market, the migrant labor market may have its own characteristics, and also, because of the increasing importance of the migrants in Chinese society, knowledge of the evolution of the migrant labor market is crucial for grasping the whole story behind the Chinese economic miracle.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2011

Rasel Madaha and Barbara Wejnert

This study reveals that despite the negative effects of migration, the Tanzanian government has not done enough to address migration-related health issues. This is owing…

Abstract

This study reveals that despite the negative effects of migration, the Tanzanian government has not done enough to address migration-related health issues. This is owing to inadequate data or information about effects of migration in the country. Dodoma region, the focus of this study, is selected for its migration-inducing factors as they relate to the declining health status of its inhabitants. Harsh climatic conditions causing irregular and inadequate rainfall and prolonged drought have led to a severe decline of the health of the poor. The region is entirely dependent on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. The small-scale production is locally practiced at household level. Extreme poverty motivates rural people to migrate to cities with the main migrant groups being middle school (about 13 to 15 years old) and high school dropouts (15 to 18 years old), and youth including young parents (18 to 35 years old). The rural-urban migration conjoined with harsh climatic conditions significantly downsizes local population, available agricultural labor force, and further endangers food security. More importantly, however, due to exposure to HIV in the cities, most migrants who are unable to find city jobs return home terminally ill with HIV/AIDS, which further adds to impoverishment of rural families and to downsizing of rural population.

Details

Democracies: Challenges to Societal Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-238-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Xinjie Shi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of rural–urban migration on agricultural (labor) productivity in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of rural–urban migration on agricultural (labor) productivity in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper closely follows the framework of Rozelle et al. (1999), Taylor et al. (2003) and Atamanov and Van den Berg (2012)—new economics of labor migration—to demonstrate the heterogeneous effects of migration on agricultural productivity, using simultaneous equations extended by an interaction term of off-farm income and household wealth.

Findings

The results empirically verify two key theoretical predictions: the loss of labor available for agricultural activities decreases rice yield per worker per day, and the off-farm income that may relax liquidity constraints has a positive offsetting effect, which becomes weaker with increasing household wealth. The final calculation based on these two contradictory influences indicates that the lost-labor effect dominates across all levels of household wealth, resulting in a negative net impact of rural–urban migration on agricultural productivity. The key results are shown to hold for land productivity as well.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, it is the first paper to examine the impacts of rural–urban migration on labor productivity and the heterogeneity across households with different levels of wealth. A major policy issue facing national leaders is whether the massive and ongoing outflow of labor will be a threat to China’s rural development and its food security in the future. This paper provides insightful ideas in a different way.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 7000