Search results

1 – 10 of over 4000
Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2011

Topher L. McDougal

Purpose – Ruralurban divides characterize many violent internecine conflicts. The lack of rural development is often cited as an underlying structural cause of this…

Abstract

Purpose – Ruralurban divides characterize many violent internecine conflicts. The lack of rural development is often cited as an underlying structural cause of this phenomenon, and thus strengthening ruralurban linkages is often touted as a way of dismantling the structural conditions for internecine violence. This chapter attempts to identify how both the strength and the form of ruralurban linkages influence the intensity of insurgent violence.

Methodology – Using geographic information systems, this chapter analyzes the intensity of specific violent attacks by rural insurgent groups in Maoist India as a function of ruralurban linkages and transportation network redundancy.

Findings – It finds that the degree of interconnectivity in transportation networks is a more robust determinant of restraint among violent actors than the sheer strength of ruralurban linkages. Production networks characterized by highly networked road systems are more likely to incent restrained behavior among rebel groups, which may be dependent on taxation or extortion through obstruction.

Limitations/implications – The chapter quantitatively analyzes a phenomenon, but does not identify causal mechanisms driving it. The policy implication is that providing transportation infrastructure within rural areas may be a more effective guard against insurgent violence than connecting urban and rural areas.

Originality – The chapter makes a methodologically unique link between the large existing literature on ruralurban linkages, and the growing literature on trade networks in violent conflict.

Details

Ethnic Conflict, Civil War and Cost of Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-131-2

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2012

Nitin Srivastava and Rajib Shaw

Over the centuries cities have undergone various types of urbanizations, thereby changing the lives of the urban residents. At the same time our earth has undergone a…

Abstract

Over the centuries cities have undergone various types of urbanizations, thereby changing the lives of the urban residents. At the same time our earth has undergone a damaging transition called climate change that is threatening the lives of millions of people across the globe. The threat is even more in cities and their adjoining regions, as they have higher concentrations of people, including the most vulnerable urban poor. Moreover, the cities and their administration are either oblivious to the emergence of such threats or have taken inadequate measures to counter the effects of the change. Besides, the focus has been predominantly on urban areas rather than urban systems.

Details

Environment Disaster Linkages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-866-4

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Samanthi Kumari Weerabahu, Premaratne Samaranayake, S.W. Sarath Dasanayaka and Chaminda Nalaka Wickramasinghe

This paper explores the challenges of food security from source to consumption of agri-food value chain by considering urbanrural linkages in city region food systems…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the challenges of food security from source to consumption of agri-food value chain by considering urbanrural linkages in city region food systems (CRFSs) and proposes a strategic framework for CRFS identifying strategies to promote urbanrural linkages among multiple stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach to a fruit and vegetable value chain from rural source to consumption in the Colombo City region identifies the challenges of food security. A snowballing sampling method was used to gather information from retailers, wholesalers, commission agent, farmers and consumers. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews, observations and secondary data sources. The data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Challenges in food security in the value chain related to five areas: input and production, infrastructure, public institutional support and policy, finance, and food market. Colombo city is heavily dependent on food sourced from other cities due to limited land and lack of locally situated commercially oriented farmers.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to a selected number of fruits and vegetables in the Colombo city region and leaves out other food items.

Originality/value

This study contributes to informing policy and decision-making processes to promote a more balanced rural to city food value chain in Colombo City that could benefit all stakeholders from rural small-scale producers to urban consumers.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah, Louis Boakye-Yiadom and William Baah-Boateng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of education on migration decisions focusing on rural and urban in-migrants by comparing the 2005/2006 and 2012/2013…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of education on migration decisions focusing on rural and urban in-migrants by comparing the 2005/2006 and 2012/2013 rounds of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS5 and GLSS6). After correcting for selectivity bias, the authors observed that anticipated welfare gain and socio-economic variables such as sector of employment, sex, experience, age, educational level and marital status significantly affect an individual’s migration decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors made use of Sjaastad’s (1962) human capital framework as a basis for examining the impact of education on migration. The migration decision equation was based on the Heckman two stage procedure.

Findings

While educational attainment is observed to have a positive effect on migration decision in the period 2005/2006, the authors find a negative effect of educational attainment on migration decision in the period 2012/2013. The effect of educational attainment on migration decision in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant is higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than that of rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013.

Social implications

Based on the mixed effect of education on migration decision as evident from the study, policies to enhance the educational system in Ghana should be complemented with job creations in the entire country. Moreover, special attention should be given to the rural sector in such a way that the jobs to be created in the sector do not require skilled workers. With quality education and job creation, the welfare of individuals living in urban and rural areas will be enhanced.

Originality/value

In spite of the importance of education in migration decisions, there is scanty literature on the rural-urban dimension. To the best of the author’s knowledge there is no literature in the Ghanaian context which examines the rural and urban perspective of the impact of education on migration with a much recent data. Further, the author consider how the determinants of migration decision have changed over time focusing on rural and urban perspectives.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Shenggen Fan, Emily EunYoung Cho and Christopher Rue

The paper is a synthesis of the 2017 Global Food Policy Report, and the purpose of this paper is to put into perspective the major food policy issues, developments, and…

Downloads
1556

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is a synthesis of the 2017 Global Food Policy Report, and the purpose of this paper is to put into perspective the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016 and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an overview of recent changes in the global context for food security and nutrition, and synthesizes research findings on major issues that arise in an urbanizing world. Based on its findings, the authors present policy recommendations and areas for future research for food security and nutrition.

Findings

Urbanization is linked with dietary changes to more energy-dense diets, and, the triple burden of malnutrition is increasing, particularly in rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Rural-urban linkages are key to improving food security and nutrition in both rural and urban areas, and traditional agricultural value chains linking farms to cities are undergoing a “quiet revolution.” Governance to enhance food security in the context of rapid urbanization faces various challenges in the institutional, administrative, and political realms, especially for the informal economy in developing countries. To address the unique challenges of urbanization, policies will need to create enabling environments, promote efficient and inclusive value chains, improve governance, and promote tailored programs. Research gaps that need to be filled include better, updated, and disaggregated data on food security and nutrition, as well as an enhanced understanding of enabling environments.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the increasingly relevant issue of rapid urbanization, especially in developing countries, for food security and nutrition, and synthesizes recent research in this area.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

Nitin Srivastava, Sunil Prashar, Akhilesh Surjan and Rajib Shaw

The chapter tries to trace the development of concept of urban ecosystem as a problem-solving approach for urban problems, including the unwarranted problems caused by…

Abstract

The chapter tries to trace the development of concept of urban ecosystem as a problem-solving approach for urban problems, including the unwarranted problems caused by climate change. Urban management has increasingly shifted from infrastructure-based to a more regional-based approach. There has been a shift in the domain of urban ecosystem as well, from the established urbanized area to the aggregation of urban and surrounding rural area. Also, urban-rural linkages are given more attention in resource management in urban areas, thereby reducing the overall risk due to climate change. The chapter provides examples and challenges of urban ecosystem management from across the world.

Details

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-691-1

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Dina Modestus Nziku and John Struthers

Rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) play significant roles in job creation as well as food security for the majority…

Abstract

Rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) play significant roles in job creation as well as food security for the majority of rural dwelling citizens (UNCTAD, 2018). This chapter examines the policies and strategies for supporting both farm and non-farm entrepreneurial activities within rural communities in SSA. In order to achieve this, the authors have completed a systematic literature review of both conceptual and empirical work on the role of policies and strategies for rural entrepreneurship in selected SSA, namely Ethiopia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and the United Republic of Tanzania (URT). This was completed alongside an assessment of the constraints and potential opportunities in order to stimulate linkages between rural entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation including the potential roles of both farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities. Key linkages between rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities are emphasised The chapter also highlights mechanisms through which governments and private sectors can work together for the maximisation of available opportunities and best practices that rural entrepreneurship can offer for job creation among rural communities in SSA.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Expert briefing
Publication date: 31 January 2017

Planned infrastructure expansion comes amid shifts in Ugandan demographics with economic implications. The urban population is expected to grow to over 20 million people…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB217644

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2011

Rajib Shaw and Anshu Sharma

Over years, the concept of dealing with urban risk has changed. While in 1970s urbanization was equal to industrialization and physical infrastructure development, 1980s…

Abstract

Over years, the concept of dealing with urban risk has changed. While in 1970s urbanization was equal to industrialization and physical infrastructure development, 1980s focused on sustainable development and urban growth. In 1990s, new concept of eco-city and resilient cities came into practice, and in 2000, urban ecosystem concept became more popular. There are possibly two or three key issues that can be incurred from this evolution process: first, urban issues are becoming complex and urban boundaries extending beyond the traditional city or administrative boundaries. For resources (natural, food, human, energy, water), cities need to depend more on rural areas. Urbanrural linkage issues are getting increasing importance. Second, while dealing with the urban problems, traditional physical and economic approaches have limitations in solving this issue; rather, more ecosystem-based approach or the environment disaster interface needs to be focused. Third, due to climatic changes, urban areas are increasingly becoming more fragile, and the deep impacts are on the poor and vulnerable communities living in the informal settlements.

Details

Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-319-5

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2016

Stefan Sjöblom and Kjell Andersson

Departing from an ideal interpretation of the collaborative governance approach, the authors analyse the integrative and collaborative capacities of project-based regional…

Abstract

Departing from an ideal interpretation of the collaborative governance approach, the authors analyse the integrative and collaborative capacities of project-based regional development actions in spatially diverse city regions in Finland. Scrutinizing the relevance of collaborative ideals and their institutional prerequisites becomes all the more salient given the strong emphasis on collaborative approaches to regional diversities throughout Europe. The results show that the integrative potentials are related to specific types of areas. They also call the facilitating capacities of politico-administrative institutions into question. The results are interpreted in terms of an institutional duality that strongly corresponds to the public-private divide.

1 – 10 of over 4000