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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Fawzi Dekhil

The main objective of this research was to measure the effects on sponsor recall1 at the soccer African Nations Cup (ANC) in Tunisia in 2004. This quantitative…

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to measure the effects on sponsor recall1 at the soccer African Nations Cup (ANC) in Tunisia in 2004. This quantitative investigation used a sample of 308 people who watched the event on television and/or in the stadium. The research demonstrates that there was indeed an effect by type of audience and other variables.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Frédéric Godart, Kim Claes and Stoyan V. Sgourev

Drawing on sociolinguistics, this chapter proposes an encoding–decoding perspective on evaluation, conceptualizing codes as interpretive schemas that are encoded by firms…

Abstract

Drawing on sociolinguistics, this chapter proposes an encoding–decoding perspective on evaluation, conceptualizing codes as interpretive schemas that are encoded by firms and decoded by audiences. A key element in this process is code complexity, denoting combinations of interdependent elements. We demonstrate that the evaluation of code complexity depends on the type of audience (professionals and laypersons) and the type of complexity (technological and aesthetic). We analyze the attribution of awards by professionals and the public in luxury watchmaking, featuring three mechanisms: the social embeddedness of audiences, their motivation for evaluation and supply-and-demand matching. The results attest to significant differences in the evaluation of technological and aesthetic code complexity by professionals and laypersons. There is a premium attributed to aesthetic code complexity by professionals and a premium attributed to technological complexity by laypersons. Finding the right type and level of code complexity to pursue in their offerings is a key strategic challenge for producers.

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Aesthetics and Style in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-236-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Heejin Lim and David W. Schumann

Brand online social networking (BOSN) is a novel marketing phenomenon in which companies initiate and cultivate relationships with their customers through online social…

Abstract

Purpose

Brand online social networking (BOSN) is a novel marketing phenomenon in which companies initiate and cultivate relationships with their customers through online social networking (OSN) sites. Because of its openness to the public, BOSN is distinct from a traditional brand community. This study aims to explore patterns and schemes of individuals’ BOSN based on the sociological schemas noted in Goffman’s dramaturgical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts in-depth personal interviews to uncover the full meaning of BOSN. A total of 21 Facebook brand page participants were interviewed, and the interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim, providing data for analysis. Triangulation was accomplished through examination of informants’ Facebook webpages that presented their own postings. The transcribed data were interpreted using a hermeneutic approach.

Findings

The data analysis based on the dramaturgical lens reveals four key themes: diversity in consumers’ intentionality toward BOSN social connections, their feeling of contamination of the digital self and a desire for autonomy, consumers’ roles as the actors and audiences on a brand’s BOSN stage and backstage experience and consumers’ feeling of intimacy. Findings highlight how individuals’ perceptions of audiences and the social media platform as a stage influence their performance in BOSN conjointly. These findings reveal that individuals participate in BOSN as a means of augmenting their identity.

Originality/value

Findings from this study advance the extant literature addressing online brand communities by exploring a novel form of brand assemblages within the context of social media. Employing a dramaturgical approach, this study identifies the distinct nature of the consumer–brand relationship in the virtual agora of OSN, which is hyperindividualistic in nature and is used to augment a sense of self.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Sylvia G. Roch

Managers frequently complain that performance ratings are inflated; thus, this study aims to explore what extent two motivational factors theoretically associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

Managers frequently complain that performance ratings are inflated; thus, this study aims to explore what extent two motivational factors theoretically associated with accountability, rating audience and incentive, can influence rating inflation.

Design/methodology/approach

One hundred and forty‐nine raters were assigned to one of four audience conditions (ratee, expert, both ratee and expert – dual, and no audience) and either to an incentive or no incentive condition.

Findings

Results showed that when an incentive was offered, raters expecting an expert audience to view their ratings provided significantly lower ratings, and raters expecting a dual audience provided significantly higher ratings compared to raters not offered an incentive. Furthermore, raters expecting a ratee audience inflated their ratings, regardless of incentive.

Research limitations/implications

Financial incentives were used in this study and more research is needed to explore other types of incentives. Nonetheless, this research shows that incentives influence rating level.

Practical implications

The research suggests that if managers wish to reduce rating inflation, they should ensure that an audience, other than the person being rated, will view the ratings.

Originality/value

This study is the first to show that feelings of accountability and rating level are influenced by incentives, and that the audience of the ratings can determine whether incentives result in lower or higher ratings. Furthermore, it appears that the tendency to inflate ratings given a ratee audience may be quite powerful, even in the absence of specific incentives.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Omar Lizardo

The “first generation” (Lammers, 1978, p. 486) of comparative analysis of organizations in sociology (e.g., Blau, 1965; Stinchcombe, 1959) focused on the “nuts and bolts”…

Abstract

The “first generation” (Lammers, 1978, p. 486) of comparative analysis of organizations in sociology (e.g., Blau, 1965; Stinchcombe, 1959) focused on the “nuts and bolts” of organizational structure as the key criterion with which to derive organizational typologies (Perrow, 1967; Pugh, Hickson, & Hinings, 1969). This initial cohort of analysts saw the intrinsic features – or “organizational attributes” (Blau, 1965, p. 326) – constitutive of the “technical core” of the organization, such as features related to the organization of the production process (Perrow, 1967) or the structure of allocation of discretion and authority (e.g., Etzioni, 1961), as the royal road to the development of a cogent approach to comparative analysis of organizations.

Details

Studying Differences between Organizations: Comparative Approaches to Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-647-8

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Chia-Yi Cheng and Shang-Ying Chen

This study aims to investigate hazards in theater venues on the performance day by combining operational risk theory with a service blueprint method.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate hazards in theater venues on the performance day by combining operational risk theory with a service blueprint method.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews and Delphi method are applied to find the hazards, then a survey and ANOVA are followed. The study explores a profile of hazards using data from theater venues in Taiwan and examines whether employee characteristics (i.e. professional tasks, experience and working location) affect risk perception.

Findings

The study suggests a new framework represented by a 5 (types of loss events) × 6 (service systems) matrix to check operational risks. The analyses indicate two types of hazards: risk perception about performance and operations by performers and crew (RPPOPC) and audience behaviors and safety (RPABS). RPPOPC is related to the core show, but not all employees possess high RPPOPC. Seniors have relatively low RPPOPC, and frontend house employees possess insufficient RPABS. Further, front house employees, seniors and those working in municipal cities show relatively high RPPOPC in high-loss situations.

Practical implications

Managers can use the analytic framework to effectively identify operational risks in the core show operations and audience service offerings. They can promote risk perception considering employee differences and loss severity. However, the framework does not discuss the cause-and-effect relationship. Incorporating a large amount of loss experience into a risk information system would help clarify this complex relationship.

Originality/value

This study contributes to hazard mitigation in the performing arts sector, both in the peripheral services for customers and in the core show services.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Nico Mouton

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organizational orators cope with situations where they must simultaneously address several audiences with clashing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organizational orators cope with situations where they must simultaneously address several audiences with clashing interests, conflicting identities and contradictory interpretations of crucial issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on both the classical rhetorical tradition and various contemporary disciplines to delineate, conceptualize and critically discuss a repertoire of rhetorical strategies for dealing with composite audiences.

Findings

There are at least nine distinct strategies for dealing with the problem. Most of them make problematic assumptions about audiences. The most promising strategy involves shifting and blending frames.

Practical implications

Most managers will stand in situations where they have to cope with multiple and mutually antagonistic audiences. This paper provides practical suggestions for how to go about it.

Originality/value

The paper isolates and investigates a problem that was largely overlooked by classical rhetoricians, and contemporary scholars still underestimate its ubiquity, its complexity and its urgency. Apart from improving our grasp of the problem, the paper provides a comprehensive overview of potential solutions, and shows their shortcomings.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Barbara B. Stern

Defines the construct of “comedy” in electronic advertisements, using drama theory to derive a taxonomy of comedic types. Summarizes the controversies that form the…

Abstract

Defines the construct of “comedy” in electronic advertisements, using drama theory to derive a taxonomy of comedic types. Summarizes the controversies that form the background of humour research and proposes a revision in terminology that distinguishes the stimulus (called “comedy”) from the response (called “laughter”). Goes on to discuss the fundamental attributes of comedy from a drama perspective and uses Bergson’s theory of laughter as the cornerstone of two continua mapping four comic types: verbal/physical and romantic/satiric. Uses examples from television and radio commercials to illustrate the way that the classification scheme works in the media context. Discusses each comedic type in terms of associated audience responses relevant to consumer audiences. Concludes with comments on the social function of advertising comedy.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Daphna Shwartz-Asher, Soon Ae Chun and Nabil R. Adam

A social media user behavior model is presented as a function of different user types, i.e. light and heavy users. The users’ behaviors are analyzed in terms of knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

A social media user behavior model is presented as a function of different user types, i.e. light and heavy users. The users’ behaviors are analyzed in terms of knowledge creation, framing and targeting.

Design/methodological approach

Data consisting of 160,000 tweets by nearly 40,000 twitter users in the city of Newark (NJ, USA) were collected during the year 2014. An analysis was conducted to examine the hypothesis that different user types exhibit distinct behaviors driven from different motivations.

Findings

There are three important findings of this study. First, light users reuse existing content more often, while heavy and automated users create original content more often. Light users also use more sentiments than the heavy and automated users. Second, automated users frame more than heavy users, who frame more than light users. Third, light users tend to target a specific audience, while heavy and automated users broadcast to a general audience.

Research implications

Decision-makers can use this study to improve communication with their customers (the public) and allocate resources more effectively for better public services. For example, they can better identify subsets of users and then share and track specialized content to these subsets more effectively.

Originality/value

Despite the broad interest, there is insufficient research on many aspects of social media use, and very limited empirical research examining the relevance and impact of social media within the public sector. The social media user behavior model was established as a framework that can provide explanations for different social media knowledge behaviors exhibited by various subsets of users, in an e-government context.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2016

Xiaoli Tian and Daniel A. Menchik

To understand the phenomena of people revealing regrettable information on the Internet, we examine who people think they’re addressing, and what they say, in the process…

Abstract

Purpose

To understand the phenomena of people revealing regrettable information on the Internet, we examine who people think they’re addressing, and what they say, in the process of interacting with those not physically or temporally co-present.

Methodology/approach

We conduct qualitative analyses of interviews with student bloggers and observations of five years’ worth of their blog posts, drawing on linguists’ concepts of indexical ground and deictics. Based on analyses of how bloggers reference their shared indexical ground and how they use deictics, we expose bloggers’ evolving awareness of their audiences, and the relationship between this awareness and their disclosures.

Findings

Over time, writers and their regular audience, or “chorus,” reciprocally reveal personal information. However, since not all audience members reveal themselves in this venue, writers’ disclosures are available to those observers they are not aware of. Thus, their overdisclosure is tied to what we call the “n-adic” organization of online interaction. Specifically, and as can be seen in their linguistic cues, n-adic utterances are directed toward a non-unified audience whose invisibility makes the discloser unable to find out the exact number of participants or the time they enter or exit the interaction.

Research implications

Attention to linguistic cues, such as deictics, is a compelling way to identify the shifting reference groups of ethnographic subjects interacting with physically or temporally distant others.

Originality/value

We describe the social organization of interaction with undetectable others. n-adic interactions likely also happen in other on- and offline venues in which participants are obscured but can contribute anonymously.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-785-1

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