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Article

Kadir Çakar

The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters. In doing so, the present paper has been designed to provide a new conceptualization of travellers’ shifting preferences in terms of the selection of holiday destinations through the new concept of tourophobia and to classify this as a new type of tourist behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses a literature review as a qualitative deductive content analysis of 58 field studies published by major hospitality and tourism journals. By using a deductive content analysis approach, the current paper is designed to delineate tourist behaviour through a generic review of relevant literature detailing travellers’ preferences in times of crisis.

Findings

The developed concept of tourophobia and the suggested model, which proposes two possible scenarios, shows that traveller behaviour is heterogeneous in terms of the destination selection process; this finding is based on a content analysis of the articles chosen. Further, by using the developed model, the decline in travel and tourism can also be explained by an increase in what is termed in this paper “tourophobia”, which results from the various devastating effects of crises.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model is expected to help destination managers and marketers to segment and forecast the future market demand of tourist travel preferences, thereby enabling them to form effective marketing strategies and increase their responsiveness during difficult times. Only articles from hospitality and tourism journals were subjected to content analysis; this is a major limitation of the study.

Originality/value

The present research contributes to current knowledge by describing the concept of tourophobia as a tourist behaviour in times of crisis. As an emerging phenomenon, it is also introduced as being one criterion for the selection of destinations and, therefore, is regarded as a driver for tourist behaviour, thus generating the originality of the paper. This study strives to provide a new direction for future studies on tourist behaviour, rather than offering new empirical data.

目的

本文旨在研究在人为和自然灾害的危机事件中, 危机是如何影响旅游者的整体行为和旅游偏好的。在此过程中, 本论文旨在通过旅游恐惧症的概念, 对旅游者在选择度假目的地方面的偏好变化提供一个新的概念化过程, 并将其归类为一种新的旅游行为类型。

设计/方法

本研究采用文献回顾的方法, 对发表在主流酒店和旅游学术期刊上的58个实地研究进行定性演绎分析。本文运用演绎内容分析法, 通过对危机时期旅游者偏好的相关文献的综述, 勾勒出旅游者的行为特征。

发现

旅游恐惧症的发展概念和假设模型提出了两种可能的情况, 表明旅行者的行为在目的地选择过程中是异质的;这一发现是基于对所选文章的内容分析。此外, 通过使用已开发的模型, 旅游业和旅游业的衰退也可以用本文所称的“旅游恐惧症”的增加来解释, 这是由危机的各种破坏性影响造成的。

研究缺陷

该模型有望帮助旅游目的地管理者和营销者对旅游偏好的未来市场需求进行细分和预测, 从而形成有效的营销策略, 增强他们在困难时期的反应能力。本文的一个主要局限是, 仅对酒店和旅游期刊的文章进行了内容分析。

原创性

本研究通过将旅游恐惧症的概念描述为危机时期的一种旅游行为, 为当前的知识做出了贡献。旅游恐惧症作为一种新出现的现象, 也是旅游目的地选择的一个标准, 因此它被认为是旅游行为的驱动因素, 从而体现了本文的独创性。本研究旨在为未来的旅游行为研究提供一个新的方向, 而不是提供新的实证数据。

Propósito

El objetivo del presente documento es examinar cómo las crisis impactan el comportamiento turístico general y las preferencias de viaje en tiempos de crisis, relacionadas con desastres naturales, así como, provocadas por el hombre. Al hacerlo, el presente documento ha sido diseñado para proporcionar una nueva conceptualización de las preferencias cambiantes de los viajeros en términos de la selección de destinos de vacaciones a través del nuevo concepto de “tourophobia”, y para clasificar esto como un nuevo tipo de comportamiento turístico.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El presente estudio emplea una revisión de la literatura basado en un análisis de contenido deductivo cualitativo de 58 estudios de campo publicados por las principales revistas de hotelería y turismo. Al utilizar un enfoque de análisis de contenido deductivo, el documento actual está diseñado para delinear el comportamiento turístico a través de una revisión genérica de literatura relevante que detalla las preferencias de los viajeros en tiempos de crisis.

Resultados

El concepto desarrollado de “tourophobia” y el modelo sugerido, que propone dos escenarios posibles, muestra que el comportamiento del viajero es heterogéneo en términos del proceso de selección del destino; Este hallazgo se basa en un análisis de contenido de los artículos elegidos. Además, mediante el uso del modelo desarrollado, la disminución de los viajes y el turismo también puede explicarse por un aumento en lo que se denomina en este documento “tourophobia”, que resulta de los diversos efectos devastadores de las crisis.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Se espera que el modelo propuesto ayude a los directores de planificación turística de destinos, así como a los de marketing a segmentar y pronosticar la demanda futura del mercado con respecto a las preferencias de viajes turísticos, lo que les permite formar estrategias de marketing efectivas y aumentar su capacidad de respuesta en tiempos difíciles. Solo los artículos de revistas de hotelería y turismo fueron sometidas al análisis de contenido; ésta constituye una limitación importante del estudio.

Originalidad/valor

La presente investigación contribuye al conocimiento actual al describir el concepto de “tourophobia” como un comportamiento turístico en tiempos de crisis. Como fenómeno emergente, también se presenta como un criterio para la selección de destinos y, por lo tanto, se considera un motor del comportamiento turístico, generando así la originalidad del documento. Este estudio se esfuerza por proporcionar una nueva dirección para futuros estudios sobre el comportamiento turístico, en lugar de ofrecer nuevos datos empíricos.

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Article

Luiz Moutinho

The analysis of consumer behaviour requires the consideration of various processes internal and external to the individual. To understand behaviour, it is necessary to…

Abstract

The analysis of consumer behaviour requires the consideration of various processes internal and external to the individual. To understand behaviour, it is necessary to examine the complex interaction of many influencing elements. This study deals with determinants of behaviour, culture and reference group influences, the relationships between individuals and their environments, perceived risks, and family decision processes. It concludes with an illustration of tourist behaviour modelling.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 21 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Fang Meng

The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to individualism/collectivism culture and group travel intention. The article seeks to argue that group travel intention and behavior is not only influenced by the cultural background of individualism or collectivism, but also a function of several factors including social, political, and economic influence, as well as personal background of individual travelers.

Design/methodology/approach

The article investigates the major current research and methodological issues in cross‐cultural tourist behavior studies. By reviewing and assessing important concepts related to this particular theoretical topic, the study proposes a conceptual framework based on the extensive literature review and discussion.

Findings

The study proposes that personal background, as well as social, political, and economic factors all moderate the relationship between culture and group travel behavior, making tourist behavior in collectivism or individualism cultures more similar or different from one another. The research also tests whether social conditions of marginality contribute to the differences.

Practical implications

The study helps avoid the stereotypes of individualism/collectivism culture related to group travel behavior, and provides better understanding of the function of various personal, social, political, and economic factors on tourist behavior.

Originality/value

Cross‐cultural studies in tourism are limited, especially in the tourist behavior sector. The article offers insights into the cultural differences and tourist behaviors on a more detailed market basis.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Book part

Werner Brög and Ian Ker

Increasing interest in ‘soft’ policy approaches to travel demand management, poses the question of how to measure the effectiveness of interventions. Much of the focus has…

Abstract

Increasing interest in ‘soft’ policy approaches to travel demand management, poses the question of how to measure the effectiveness of interventions. Much of the focus has been on statistical reliability of measured change where sample surveys are the primary means of estimating change. Sample surveys also pose issues of non-sampling errors, especially when the ‘measure’ is the difference between ‘before’ and ‘after’. This paper outlines the principles and pitfalls in measuring behaviour change. It draws on voluntary travel behaviour change (VTBC), using a number of approaches, including but not limited to Individualised Marketing (a method developed by the authors). A key issue in VTBC is the extent to which repeated experience can validate the effectiveness of voluntary behaviour change interventions in general, despite statistical errors of individual measurements. Measurement is fundamental to evaluation of outcomes. It can also aid the selection of locations with high potential to achieve change through identification of key success factors. In the specific case of travel behaviour change, there is now a substantial body of research that potentially allows outcomes to be related to other factors. To date, no strong relationships have been identified, but this would be a useful area for further research. Experience does demonstrate, however, that the scale of the intervention is important. Interventions with more than 5000 households are consistently more successful than small ones, even allowing for the greater statistical variability of measurement for smaller projects. Large scale also offers opportunities for intervention design to benefit from the potential for diffusion beyond those directly involved in the project.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Book part

Candice Howarth and Tim Ryley

Purpose – To provide a behavioural perspective on the relationship between transport and climate change.Methodology/approach – The factors influencing travel behaviour and…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide a behavioural perspective on the relationship between transport and climate change.

Methodology/approach – The factors influencing travel behaviour and the elements critical to behaviour formation are reviewed. The importance of behaviour change measures to reduce the impact of transport on climate change, and the application of behaviour change measures to increase the sustainability of transport, are examined.

Findings – There have been a range of travel behaviour measures implemented, such as individualised marketing programmes and travel plans, which have demonstrated some behavioural change impacts, in turn affecting climate change emissions, although they tend to be localised and small-scale.

Social implications – There is a real challenge to encourage individuals within society to exhibit more sustainable travel behaviour.

Originality/value – A range of behavioural issues still need to be resolved in terms of the relationship between transport and climate change, including a need to influence attitudes, to bridge the gaps between attitudes and both behaviour and intention, to make an impact at points of transition for individuals, to use cognitive dissonance as a way of harnessing social norms, and to understand more fully social pressure and group influence.

Details

Transport and Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-440-5

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Article

Ali Soltani, Andrew Allan, Ha Anh Nguyen and Stephen Berry

This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and their travel behaviours in both countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper extensively reviewed most of existing literature work on commuting patterns of higher education students with referring to different studies around the world and then used it to build a theoretical framework and conceptual model to relate the travel patterns of students to built environment, personal demographics and environmental knowledge/consideration. An online survey was used with 230 students at Mawson Lakes campus of University of South Australia and Beiyangyuan campus of Tianjin University (China). Statistical tests (i.e. mean test, one-way analysis of variance, factor analysis) were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The study reveals that a high dependence on private vehicles amongst students at the Mawson Lakes campus, whilst a more environmentally sustainable modal choice dominated at the Beiyangyuan campus. Those who studied at Mawson Lakes campus tended to have stronger involvement in environmental activities than their counterparts at Beiyangyuan campus, which presented a clear association between environmental awareness and the travel behaviours of the sampled students.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on two respective campuses of both universities in Australia and China. Future work could be expanded with students at all campuses of two universities.

Practical implications

The study affirmed the value of nurturing environmental awareness for students in both universities to encourage more environmentally sustainable travel behaviours amongst students. The paper provides policy recommendations such as establishing infrastructure, and facilities for new stream of mobility included sharing bike schemes, which would be very practical due to flexibility and cost effectiveness within University campuses. The paper attempted to transfer lessons from Chinese bike friendly society to Adelaide’s car dominated campus.

Originality/value

This study brings remarkable contributions as comparing university students’ travel behaviours in two different nations. It is the first one in Australia, which links the environmental concerns among university students with their travel behaviours. The paper was successful in getting the gap between theory and practice filled to some extent. The paper has a capability to be used as an evidence-base work in the area of sustainability education.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part

Kenneth F. Hyde

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation…

Abstract

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Article

Kuo-Chien Chang

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of travel agency’s reputation on customer recommendation behavior by examining the mediating effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of travel agency’s reputation on customer recommendation behavior by examining the mediating effects of customer-perceived functional and emotional value as well as the moderating effects of tour leader performance and customer flow experience in the travel agency sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical analysis of the collected questionnaires was computed based on the 463 usable responses from Taiwan tourists who joining the group package tours traveling to China. Structural equation modeling is the essential analysis methodology used to examine the hypothesized relationships among the variables.

Findings

The analysis results confirm that reputation has positive effects on customers recommendation behaviors in which perceived functional and emotional value work as necessary mediating roles. Nevertheless, the effect of reputation through emotional value on customer recommendation behavior provides a much better explanation than through functional value in the model. In addition, regarding the variables of tour leader performance and customer flow experience in the model, only the tour leader performance is confirmed that moderates the relationships among reputation, perceived value, and customer recommendation behavior. According to the findings, managerial implications are discussed as well.

Originality/value

This study develops a conceptual stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model that, reflecting the mediating role of perceived value and the moderating role of tour leader performance, indicates the effect of reputation on customer recommendation behavior.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Yaping Liu, Huike Shi, Yinchang Li and Asad Amin

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents' perception of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) influenced their outbound travel intentions are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model and used structural equations to analyze data received from 432 questionnaires. Responses were obtained through a combination of online surveys and a traditional paper-based distribution of questionnaires.

Findings

Results showed that attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and past outbound travel behavior have significant positive effects on post-pandemic outbound travel intentions. Although the perception of COVID-19 directly and negatively influences outbound travel intentions, it also has an indirect influence on outbound travel intentions through the mediating effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The authors also found that risk tolerance has a negative moderating effect on the direct impact of residents' perception of COVID-19 on their travel intentions.

Practical implications

The findings can serve as a reference for formulating appropriate tourism development policies by government agencies, tourism management departments and tourism enterprises in destination countries.

Originality/value

This study developed an extended TPB model by adding more constructs into the TPB model. Compared with the original TPB model, the extended TPB model has better explanatory power of post-pandemic travel intentions. The study also provides evidence for the applicability of the TPB model in studying travel intentions within the context of major public health emergencies and has expanded the application scope of the TPB model.

新冠肺炎疫情后中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素研究······································——基于疫情感知的扩展TPB模型

摘要

研究目的

本研究致力于探索新冠肺炎疫情后(以下简称“疫情”)中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素, 以及疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的作用机制。

设计/方法/手段

本文以TPB理论为基础, 通过构建扩展TPB模型, 并利用结构方程对432份问卷进行数据分析。问卷通过网络发放与传统纸质问卷调研相结合的方式获得。

研究发现

态度、主观规范、感知行为控制及过去出境旅游行为对中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿具有显著正向影响; 疫情感知在直接负向影响出境旅游意愿的同时, 还通过非药物干预行为的中介作用间接影响出境旅游意愿; 在疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的直接影响中, 风险容忍度起着负向调节作用。

实际意义

研究结果对旅游目的地政府、旅游管理部门及旅游企业制定相应旅游发展政策具有一定前瞻性参考价值。

原创性/价值

本文通过在原始TPB模型的基础上加入更多变量, 进而构建了扩展TPB模型。与原始模型相比, 扩展TPB模型对疫情蔓延背景下中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿有着更好的解释力和预测力。本文证实了在突发重大公共卫生事件背景下TPB模型对于研究旅游意愿的适用性, 扩展了TPB模型的应用范围。

Investigación sobre los factores que influyen en la voluntad de viajar al extranjero de los residentes chinos después de la nueva epidemia de neumonía coronaria: un modelo extendido de TPB basado en la percepción de la epidemia

Resumen

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en las intenciones posteriores a la pandemia de los residentes chinos de participar en viajes al extranjero. Se estudia el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) influyó en sus intenciones de viajar al extranjero.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en la intención de viaje de salida de los residentes chinos después de la pandemia, en particular el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes de COVID-19 influyó en sus intenciones de viaje de salida.

Hallazgos

Los resultados mostraron que la actitud, las normas subjetivas, el control conductual percibido y el comportamiento de viajes de ida y vuelta en el pasado tienen efectos positivos significativos sobre la intención de viajar de ida después de la pandemia. Si bien la percepción de COVID-19 influye directamente de forma negativa en la intención de viaje de ida, también influye indirectamente en la intención de viaje de ida a través del efecto mediador de las intervenciones no farmacéuticas. También encontramos que la tolerancia al riesgo tiene un efecto moderador negativo sobre el impacto directo de la percepción de los residentes sobre el COVID-19 en la intención de viaje.

Implicaciones prácticas

Nuestros hallazgos se pueden utilizar como referencia para las agencias gubernamentales, los departamentos de gestión del turismo y las empresas turísticas en los países de destino en la formulación de políticas de desarrollo turístico adecuadas.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio desarrolló un modelo TPB extendido agregando más constructos en el modelo TPB. En comparación con el modelo TPB original, el modelo TPB extendido tiene un mejor poder explicativo de las intenciones de viaje posteriores a una pandemia en el contexto de una pandemia. Este estudio también proporcionó evidencia de la aplicabilidad del modelo TPB para estudiar las intenciones de viaje en el contexto de las principales emergencias de salud pública y amplió el ámbito de aplicación del modelo TPB.

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Book part

Erel Avineri and Eran Ben-Elia

This chapter explores Prospect Theory — a descriptive model of modelling individual choice making under risk and uncertainty, and its applications to a range of travel

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores Prospect Theory — a descriptive model of modelling individual choice making under risk and uncertainty, and its applications to a range of travel behaviour contexts.

Theory

The chapter provides background on Prospect Theory, its basic assumptions and formulations, and summarises some of its theoretical developments, applications and evidence in the field of transport research.

Findings

A body of empirical evidence has accumulated showing that the principle of maximisation of expected utility provides limited explanation of travel choices under risk and uncertainty. Prospect Theory can be seen as an alternative and promising framework for travel choice modelling (although not without theoretical and practical controversy). These findings are supported by empirical observations reported in the literature reviewed in this chapter.

Originality and value

The chapter provides a detailed account of the design and results of accumulated research in travel behaviour research that is based on Prospect Theory’s observations, insights and formulations. The potential of Prospect Theory for particular decision-making in travel behaviour research is articulated, main findings are presented and discussed, and limitations are identified, leading to further research needs.

Details

Bounded Rational Choice Behaviour: Applications in Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-071-1

Keywords

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