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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Raheel Yasin and Sarah I. Obsequio Namoco

There is scarcity in the literature, both empirically and theoretically, regarding the relationship between transgender discrimination and prostitution. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

There is scarcity in the literature, both empirically and theoretically, regarding the relationship between transgender discrimination and prostitution. This study aims to offer a new framework for conceptualizing workplace discrimination and prostitution by examining the mediating role of poverty in the relationship between discrimination and prostitution.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework of this study is based on the social identity theory and the theory of prostitution.

Findings

Transgender is a neglected group in society, and more often, they are the ones who are unable to find jobs and when employed, find it challenging to sustain their employment because of their gender identity. This leads them to be discriminated at their workplaces. Subsequently, they are forced to leave their workplace and settle to work as prostitutes for their economic survival.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should empirically test the design model.

Practical implications

Managers play an essential role in eliminating discrimination in the organization. Managers need to take measures in crafting gender-free and anti-discrimination policies. They take steps to design recruitment policies in which there is no need to disclose applicant identity.

Social implications

Discrimination, on the basis of gender identity, promotes a culture of hate, intolerance and economic inequality in society. Prostitution has devastating effects on society.

Originality/value

In the field of organizational behavior, discrimination as a factor of prostitution was not explored. This study provides a significant contribution to the transgender and discrimination literature along with the prostitution theory and the social identity theory by proposing a model that highlights discrimination as one of the factors that compel the transgender community to be involved in prostitution.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Marie-Claire Van Hout and Des Crowley

The incarceration of transgender people is described as a “double punishment” based on lack of gender recognition and ability to gender affirm, and with their experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The incarceration of transgender people is described as a “double punishment” based on lack of gender recognition and ability to gender affirm, and with their experiences and conditions in prison tantamount to torture. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the continued “double punishment” of incarcerated transgender people (in particular trans-women) and identify and describe breaches in human and gender rights and minimum standards of care.

Design/methodology/approach

There is limited global data on the numbers of incarcerated transgender people, an identified vulnerable prison group. There are inherent difficulties for prison authorities regarding placement, security aspects and management of transgender persons. While the concerns apply to all transgender prisoners, the current literature focusses mainly on transgender women and this commentary reflects this present bias. A socio-legal approach describes and evaluates international human rights’ conventions and human rights’ law, soft law instruments mandating non-discriminatory provisions in the prison setting and relevant European and domestic case law.

Findings

Transgender prisoners experience an amplification of trauma underpinned by lack of legal gender recognition, inability to gender-affirm, discrimination, transphobia, gender maltreatment and violence by other prisoners and prison staff. Despite obligations and recommendations in international human rights’ instruments and standard operating procedures at the prison level, very few countries are able to fully uphold the human rights of and meet the needs of transgender people in prison.

Originality/value

This study is important as it highlights the dearth of knowledge exploring human rights discourses and concerns related to the phenomenon of incarcerated transgender persons. It uniquely focusses on European and domestic law and illustrates the inherent tensions between human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity rights and security considerations regarding transgender issues in prisons. Rights assurances centre on the principles of equality, dignity, freedom of expression, dignified detention and the prohibition of inhumane treatment or punishment.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Pankaew Tantirattanakulchai and Nuchanad Hounnaklang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of depression and to determine the association between social support and depression among transgender women in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of depression and to determine the association between social support and depression among transgender women in Bangkok, Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 280 transgender women in Bangkok, Thailand between March 2019 and May 2019 using the snowball sampling method. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic questions and measures of social support (MSPSS) and depression (CES-D). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the association between social support and depression.

Findings

The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 58.2%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that depression was significantly associated with perceived low social support (OR: 9.55, 95%CI: 2.10–43.39) and moderate social support (OR: 2.03, 95%CI: 1.19–3.46) after being adjusted for religion, sufficient income and alcohol drinking.

Originality/value

Transgender women were prone to experience a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. Social support would reduce the risk of depression among transgender women. Therefore, social support service systems for transgender women should be embedded into organizations concerned.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Jeanie Austin

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames…

Abstract

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power. Powerful institutional forces in youths’ lives include schools and policing and, as is evidenced by youths’ statements, extend to mass media portrayals. Library approaches that reify the inclusion of representative texts do not adequately meet the needs of trans and GNC youth. As a profession, librarianship must reflect on ideological approaches to gendered embodiment to push against an ongoing repetition of institutional harms done to trans and GNC youth.

This chapter offers examinations of information needs, complex online worlds, and incorporation of histories made invisible by power alongside critical literacy skills as crucial aspects of providing services to all possibly or actually trans and GNC youth. It critically situates the circumstances of trans youths’ lives in relation to the effect that adult perceptions have on trans and GNC youths’ ability to access resources. It provides a framework for reflection on how young adult librarians often unconsciously limit library access by enacting gendered expectations that do not always match the possibility or actuality of youths’ experiences or self-conceptions. The chapter outlines modes of communication – through library materials, programs, community resources and partnerships – that convey deeper understandings of trans and GNC experiences to possibly or actually trans and GNC youth.

Details

LGBTQ+ Librarianship in the 21st Century: Emerging Directions of Advocacy and Community Engagement in Diverse Information Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-474-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Jo Teut

Purpose: In this chapter, I critically examine how federal regulation and guidance impact gender policing and transgender inclusion within educational institutions.…

Abstract

Purpose: In this chapter, I critically examine how federal regulation and guidance impact gender policing and transgender inclusion within educational institutions.

Approach: I utilize feminist critical discourse analysis to examine the “Dear Colleague Letter on Transgender Students” and its underlying assumptions related to transgender inclusion and gender policing in institutions of education.

Findings: While the federal regulations and guidance currently in place protect some transgender individuals, they also re-stigmatize some transgender individuals by policing the acceptable ways of being transgender and reinforcing the gender binary.

Social Implications: I suggest other areas within the educational institution to address in order to achieve transgender inclusion.

Value of Paper: This chapter critically examines the logistics and effects of federal regulation on gender and transgender inclusion.

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Tre Wentling, Carrie Elliott, Andrew S. London, Natalee Simpson and Rebecca Wang

Purpose: We respond to a call for studies of “embodied experiences of stigma in context” by investigating how transgender embodiment shapes perceived needs for access to…

Abstract

Purpose: We respond to a call for studies of “embodied experiences of stigma in context” by investigating how transgender embodiment shapes perceived needs for access to and experiences of “sex-specific” cancer screenings (SSCS) (e.g., breast and prostate exams, Pap smears) in the North American healthcare system.

Design/Methodology/Approach: We analyze data from semistructured interviews with a diverse sample of 35 transgender-identified adults. Based on thematic narrative analysis, we explore four themes in relation to embodiment: discrimination; discomfort and hyperawareness of genitalia; strategic reframing and active management; and SSCS health care encounters as positive and gender affirming.

Findings: In relation to SSCS, transgender individuals experience discrimination, do emotion work, and actively manage situations to obtain needed health care, and sometimes forego care because barriers are insurmountable. Health care providers' responses to transgender embodiment can disrupt health care encounters, but they can also facilitate access and create opportunities for affirmation, agency, advocacy, and new forms of interaction. Embodiment- and gender-affirming interactions with health care providers, which varied by gender, emerged as key influences on participants' experiences of SSCS.

Research Limitations/Implications: Our sample primarily includes binary gender-identified individuals, and while our interview guide covered many topics, the SSCS question did not explicitly reference testicular exams.

Practical Implications: Cancer prevention and detection Cancer prevention and detection require health care professionals who are prepared for differently embodied persons. Preventive cancer screenings are not “sex-specific”; they are relevant to individuals with medically necessary needs regardless of gender identity or embodiment.

Social Implications

Originality/Value: Few medical sociologists have focused on transgender embodiment. Findings enhance our understanding of how transgender embodiment and minority stress processes influence access to needed SSCS.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2017

Dara E. Purvis

In recent years, school districts have faced numerous questions surrounding accommodations of transgender students. Strong objections to accommodations have been voiced in…

Abstract

In recent years, school districts have faced numerous questions surrounding accommodations of transgender students. Strong objections to accommodations have been voiced in public argument and litigation, primarily in the areas of athletics, bathrooms, and dress codes. As younger transgender students express their gender identity at school, however, the existing objections are weakened by considering the context of elementary rather than high school students. Greater numbers of young transgender students will likely encourage accommodation of trans students of all ages, as well as challenge the gender binary unconsciously taught in school.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-344-9

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Ben Colliver

Transgender people have received substantial attention in recent years, with gender identity being a focal point of online debate. Transgender identities are central to…

Abstract

Transgender people have received substantial attention in recent years, with gender identity being a focal point of online debate. Transgender identities are central to discussions relating to sex-segregated spaces and activities, such as public toilets, prisons, and sports participation. The introduction of “gender-neutral” spaces has received criticism because some argue that there is an increased risk of sexual violence against women and children. However, little is known about the implications that these constructions have for whom is able to claim a “victim status.” In this chapter, I provide a critical analysis of the techniques used by individuals to align themselves with a “victim status.” These claims are presented and contextualized within varying notions of victimization, from being victims of political correctness to victims of a more aggressive minority community. This feeds into an inherently transphobic discourse that is difficult to challenge without facing accusations of perpetuating an individual's “victimhood.” Transphobic rhetoric is most commonly expressed through constructing transgender people as “unnatural,” “sinful,” or as experiencing a “mental health issue.” This chapter argues that the denial of transphobia and simultaneous claims of victimization made by the dominant, cisgender majority are intrinsically linked.

Details

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Austin H. Johnson

In this chapter, I assess the treatment of transgender within the sociology of gender and propose a new standard of transfeminist methodology that would work against…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, I assess the treatment of transgender within the sociology of gender and propose a new standard of transfeminist methodology that would work against transgender marginalization in social scientific research.

Methodology/approach

I assess the treatment of transgender within the sociology of gender by conducting a content analysis of all articles and chapters focusing on transgender people, experiences, bodies, and phenomena published between 1987 and 2014 in the journal Gender & Society (n = 12) and between 1996 and 2014 in the book series Advances in Gender Research (n = 5).

Findings

I first outline key tenets of feminist methodology and suggest additional transfeminist methodological considerations. I proceed to a content analysis of existing transgender research in two key publications to support my proposal of the development of transfeminist methodology.

Originality/value

This chapter highlights the need to expand feminist methodology for the study of transgender people and phenomena. Specifically, I propose the development of transfeminist methodology, an approach that centers on transgender experience and perspectives.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

Comparison.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative, Analytical.

Findings

The paper will suggest where the Pakistani legislation will have to be amended without affecting the core subject of the transgender rights in Pakistan.

Originality/value

Novel idea of comparing Pakistani law with an identical Indian law on transgender has been proposed.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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