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Article

Stephanie Anne Shelton and Maureen A. Flint

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which transcription is creative work, the degrees to which current literature elides or explores these creative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which transcription is creative work, the degrees to which current literature elides or explores these creative elements, and the ethical implications of researchers’ standard disacknowledgement of transcription as an intra-active suturing together of verbal exchanges, personal understandings, and texts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ analysis is based on a review of literature, with this paper putting specific sections of qualitative inquiry into conversation with one another, along with Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s novel Frankenstein and Karen Barad’s concept of spacetimemattering.

Findings

First, in a preliminary literature review of 200+ articles, the authors found that few researchers acknowledge the creative and decision-making processes that are inherent in transcription. Second, building on that finding, the authors explore the ways that others have discussed transcription as creation/creative and the ways that Barad’s concept of spacetimemattering – which directly influences our use of Shelley’s Frankenstein – has influenced qualitative inquiry.

Research limitations/implications

Transcription is pervasive in qualitative research, with some researchers finding that upwards of 60 percent of research is based on transcribed interviews. However, there is little examination of the creative processes inherent in transcription and the ethical implications of those processes. In terms of limitations, because this is a conceptual paper, it is based on a discussion of various aspects of the literature rather than specific findings demonstrating what the authors argue.

Practical implications

There is real risk in transcription being positioned as merely a task to be completed, to get to the “good stuff” of analysis and writing. Transcription carries implications bound with the responsibilities of creation and interpretation, and researchers who aim merely to achieve and work from a “verbatim” transcript skip over all of the parts that make this common process matter, both to researchers and the researched. The authors argue that qualitative researchers find before them a range of options when they begin the seemingly mundane task of transcription. The keystrokes begin the suturing process, binding together word, action and emotion in a document. Perhaps more importantly, though, the process of creating a transcription is a continuation of the range of ethical implications that research has for participants and researchers.

Social implications

The authors suggest a similar degree of responsibility for researchers who transcribe and/or work from transcriptions, though the concerns are the inverse of Frankenstein’s creature’s. Researchers are focused on the final product – the transcript itself. That document becomes the basis of analysis, of arguments, of understandings. Researchers need to be as aware of the sutures, cuts and stitches that form their transcription as they are of the final product. There are ethical implications of not exploring the degrees to which the transcripts themselves are creatures – born of decisions, of available resources, of researchers’ own assumptions and understandings.

Originality/value

While Barad’s concepts of spacetimemattering and Frankenstein have informed qualitative inquiry, there is no scholarship linking this theoretical discussion to the process of transcription, which is an important element of a substantial amount of qualitative data.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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Article

Xuanhui Zhang, Si Chen, Yuxiang Chris Zhao, Shijie Song and Qinghua Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to explore how social value orientation and domain knowledge affect cooperation levels and transcription quality in crowdsourced manuscript…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how social value orientation and domain knowledge affect cooperation levels and transcription quality in crowdsourced manuscript transcription, and contribute to the recruitment of participants in such projects in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a quasi-experiment using Transcribe-Sheng, which is a well-known crowdsourced manuscript transcription project in China, to investigate the influences of social value orientation and domain knowledge. The experiment lasted one month and involved 60 participants. ANOVA was used to test the research hypotheses. Moreover, inverviews and thematic analyses were conducted to analyze the qualitative data in order to provide additional insights.

Findings

The analysis confirmed that in crowdsourced manuscript transcription, social value orientation has a significant effect on participants’ cooperation level and transcription quality; domain knowledge has a significant effect on participants’ transcription quality, but not on their cooperation level. The results also reveal the interactive effect of social value orientation and domain knowledge on cooperation levels and quality of transcription. The analysis of the qualitative data illustrated the influences of social value orientation and domain knowledge on crowdsourced manuscript transcription in detail.

Originality/value

Researchers have paid little attention to the impacts of the psychological and cognitive factors on crowdsourced manuscript transcription. This study investigated the effect of social value orientation and the combined effect of social value orientation and domain knowledge in this context. The findings shed light on crowdsourcing transcription initiatives in the cultural heritage domain and can be used to facilitate participant selection in such projects.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Content available
Article

Leandro da Silva Nascimento and Fernanda Kalil Steinbruch

In qualitative research, it is recurrent to conduct data collection through interviews, which must be first transcribed for the data to be analyzed. Although there is a…

Abstract

Purpose

In qualitative research, it is recurrent to conduct data collection through interviews, which must be first transcribed for the data to be analyzed. Although there is a relationship between the stages of the interview and the data analysis, the link between them (i.e. the transcription) seems to be a neglected methodological procedure. This occurs because, in papers, it is generally reported that “the interviews were transcribed”, without any details about the transcriptions conduction. From this methodological gap, this paper aims to discuss the relevance of detailing the methodological procedures adopted in the transcription in research reports in the management field.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes the form of a methodological essay.

Findings

The discussion focuses on the concepts of naturalized and denaturalized transcription, the relevance of adopting transcription norms and the need for reflexivity in conducting transcriptions – elements that must be explained in research reports to improve the methodological quality.

Practical implications

This paper explores methodological details that management students and researchers can adopt when performing transcriptions. Consequently, journal editors and reviewers will have more subsidies on the methodological quality employed in researches, which contributes to a better evaluation process.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the relevance of a neglected methodological technique – transcription, which needs to be detailed in research reports, to contribute to the increase of methodological accuracy and to provide essential information to readers, allowing them to evaluate the rigor of the research. Thus, it is proposed that transcription should be considered a quality criterion in qualitative research.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

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Article

Stephanie Anne Shelton and Maureen A. Flint

Transcription is an integral component to qualitative research, and as such, the ways that researchers discuss transcription in the literature matter. Scholarly…

Abstract

Purpose

Transcription is an integral component to qualitative research, and as such, the ways that researchers discuss transcription in the literature matter. Scholarly discussions on the “how” and “why” of transcription not only shape discourse within interview data-based fields; they inform the ways that researchers understand the roles and ramifications of transcribing. This study aims to provide a comprehensive literature review of articles on transcription published in qualitative methods journals over the past 25 years, offering implications for research practice and pedagogy.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review asked: How do qualitative researchers discuss transcription/transcribing? The authors first reviewed how transcription was discussed in the literature in qualitative studies in the social sciences broadly. Based on the findings, the authors then conducted a comprehensive literature review in 14 qualitative methods journals.

Findings

The authors found that overall, authors discussed transcription either as a technical tool or as a complex, researcher-constructed process. Specifically, utilitarian discussions of transcription emphasized transcription accuracy and efficiency, while theoretical discussions of transcription emphasized a continuously analytic and researcher-constructed process.

Originality/value

This study offers a comprehensive overview of the past 25 years of articles published on transcription. The authors conclude with a discussion of articles that bridge the theoretical and utilitarian discussions, as well as considerations for using transcription as a pedagogical tool for teaching qualitative research methods.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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Article

Jihong Liang, Hao Wang and Xiaojing Li

The purpose of this paper is to explore the task design and assignment of full-text generation on mass Chinese historical archives (CHAs) by crowdsourcing, with special…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the task design and assignment of full-text generation on mass Chinese historical archives (CHAs) by crowdsourcing, with special attention paid to how to best divide full-text generation tasks into smaller ones assigned to crowdsourced volunteers and to improve the digitization of mass CHAs and the data-oriented processing of the digital humanities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper starts from the complexities of character recognition of mass CHAs, takes Sheng Xuanhuai archives crowdsourcing project of Shanghai Library as a case study, and makes use of the theories of archival science, including diplomatics of Chinese archival documents, and the historical approach of Chinese archival traditions as the theoretical basis and analysis methods. The results are generated through the comprehensive research.

Findings

This paper points out that volunteer tasks of full-text generation include transcription, punctuation, proofreading, metadata description, segmentation, and attribute annotation in digital humanities and provides a metadata element set for volunteers to use in creating or revising metadata descriptions and also provides an attribute tag set. The two sets can be used across the humanities to construct overall observations about texts and the archives of which they are a part. Along these lines, this paper presents significant insights for application in outlining the principles, methods, activities, and procedures of crowdsourced full-text generation for mass CHAs.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore and identify the effective design and allocation of tasks for crowdsourced volunteers completing full-text generation on CHAs in digital humanities.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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Article

Mohammed Ourabah Soualah, Yassine Ait Ali Yahia, Abdelkader Keita and Abderrezak Guessoum

The purpose of this paper is to obtain online access to the digitised Arabic manuscripts images, which need to use a catalogue. The bibliographic cataloguing is unsuitable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain online access to the digitised Arabic manuscripts images, which need to use a catalogue. The bibliographic cataloguing is unsuitable for old Arabic manuscripts, and it is imperative to establish a new cataloguing model. In the research, the authors propose a new cataloguing model based on manuscript annotations and transcriptions. This model can be an effective solution to dynamic catalogue old Arabic manuscripts. In this field, the authors used the automatic extraction of the metadata that is based on the structural similarity of the documents.

Design/methodology/approach

This work is based on experimental methodology. The whole proposed concepts and formulas were tested for validation. This, allows the authors to make concise conclusions.

Findings

Cataloguing old Arabic manuscripts faces problem of unavailability of information. However, this information may be found in another place in a copy of the original manuscript. Thus, cataloguing Arabic manuscript cannot be done in one time, it is a continual process which require information updating. The idea is to make a pre-cataloguing of a manuscript, then try to complete and improve it through a specific platform. Consequently, in the research work, the authors propose a new cataloguing model, which the authors call “Dynamic cataloguing”.

Research limitations/implications

The success of the proposed model is confronted with the involvement of all actors of the model. It is based on the conviction and the motivation of actors of the collaborative platform.

Practical implications

The model can be used in several cataloguing fields, where the encoding model is based on XML. The model is innovative and implements a smart cataloguing model. The model is useful by using a web platform. It allows an automatic update of a catalogue.

Social implications

The model prompts the user to participate and enrich the catalogue. The user could improve his social status from a passive to an active.

Originality/value

The dynamic cataloguing model is a new concept. It has never been proposed in the literature until now. The proposed cataloguing model is based on automatic extraction of metadata from user annotations/transcription. It is a smart system which automatically updates or fills the catalogue with the extracted metadata.

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Article

Marco Cencini

Presents some basic features for encoding spoken texts with the TEI (text encoding initiative) scheme. Highlights the reasons for encoding spoken texts and gives a brief…

Abstract

Presents some basic features for encoding spoken texts with the TEI (text encoding initiative) scheme. Highlights the reasons for encoding spoken texts and gives a brief history of text encoding development. An example is used to demonstrate how to encode a simple transcription using the TEI scheme. Pros and cons of text encoding are also discussed. Creating TEI‐conformant transcriptions with XML provides the possibility for researchers to retrieve original recordings via hyper‐textual pages to look for specific (or partial) features that were not included in the transcription.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

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Article

Armineh Soorenian

Stemming from the doctoral research, the purpose of this paper is to comment on disabled international students’ experiences of using assistive technology and transcription

Abstract

Purpose

Stemming from the doctoral research, the purpose of this paper is to comment on disabled international students’ experiences of using assistive technology and transcription services in facilitating an equal educational experience to that of non-disabled students.

Design/methodology/approach

By using such qualitative research methods as interviews and a focus group, the aim has been to discuss the benefits gained as well as difficulties encountered whilst utilising these facilities.

Findings

Thus, a range of barriers to disabled international students in the area of technological support and adaptations based on their identities as “disabled”, “international” and “disabled international” students is identified. This has lead to a further discussion of the extent to which the barriers to the disability services concerned are created, reinforced and exacerbated by the interplay of students’ different identities.

Originality/value

The absence of any academic research into such unique experiences of disabled international students, particularly in the British context, highlights the original and timely nature of this work.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

C.G. ALLEN

The Communist revolution in China has led to the appearance in this country of increasing numbers of Chinese books in Russian translation. The Chinese names in Cyrillic…

Abstract

The Communist revolution in China has led to the appearance in this country of increasing numbers of Chinese books in Russian translation. The Chinese names in Cyrillic transcription have presented many librarians and students with a new problem, that of identifying the Cyrillic form of a name with the customary Wade‐Giles transcription. The average cataloguer, the first to meet the problem, has two obvious lines of action, and neither is satisfactory. He can save up the names until he has a chance to consult an expert in Chinese. Apart altogether from the delay, the expert, confronted with a few isolated names, might simply reply that he could do nothing without the Chinese characters, and it is only rarely that Soviet books supply them. Alternatively, he can transliterate the Cyrillic letters according to the system in use in his library and leave the matter there for fear of making bad worse. As long as the writers are not well known, he may feel only faintly uneasy; but the appearance of Chzhou Ėn‐lai (or Čžou En‐laj) upsets his equanimity. Obviously this must be entered under Chou; and we must have Mao Tse‐tung and not Mao Tsze‐dun, Ch'en Po‐ta and not Chėn' Bo‐da. But what happens when we have another . . . We can hardly write Ch'en unless we know how to represent the remaining elements in the name; yet we are loth to write Ch'en in one name and Chėn' in another.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Emilie A. Saci and Yves Cherruault

A neural network approach is proposed for modeling the process of transcriptional initiation control in eukaryotic cells. Although all of the steps involved in expressing…

Abstract

A neural network approach is proposed for modeling the process of transcriptional initiation control in eukaryotic cells. Although all of the steps involved in expressing a eukaryotic gene can in principle be regulated, for most genes the initiation of RNA transcription (transcriptional control) predominates. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks are taken as modeling methods. A single‐hidden layer feedforward neural network model learns to identify the transcriptional system input‐output relationship.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 28 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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