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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2009

M. Abraham, P. Venter, J.F.R. Lues, O. de Smidt and I. Ivanov

This paper aims to evaluate the influence of pasteurization, ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment and sodium benzoate preservation on the LPS‐related endotoxicity of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the influence of pasteurization, ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment and sodium benzoate preservation on the LPS‐related endotoxicity of food‐borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper sees that selected bacteria were subjected to laboratory simulations of commercially used heat treatments. In the case of sodium benzoate preservation, the bacteria were grown in the presence of a sub‐lethal dose of this preservative. Cells and debris were subjected to LPS extraction, GC‐MS analyses and endotoxicity measurement with the chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay.

Findings

The heat treatments and preservation method influenced the LPS‐related toxicity of each organism in a different manner. Increases in LPS‐related toxicity were noted in the LPS liberated from UHT‐treated E. coli and S. enteritidis and pasteurized E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Toxicity of the membrane associated LPS of UHT‐treated E. coli and pasteurized S. enteritidis was also elevated. Sodium benzoate resulted in E. coli cells with LPS with related toxicity levels almost double compared to that of the control cells. S. enteritidis LPS also demonstrated an increase in toxicity, while that of P. aeruginosa was rendered less toxic.

Practical implications

Toxicity could still be detected even after sterilization treatments like UHT, suggesting that viability and toxicity are not necessarily connected and that the toxicity of LPS molecules that remain in food products after treatment should be considered. Although ingestion of LPS originating from Gram‐negative bacteria is a fairly new concept, the effect that these toxins might have on members of society with compromised immune systems and individuals suffering from gastrointestinal diseases cannot be ignored.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a unique insight into food safety treatment‐induced toxicological changes related to LPS originating from food‐borne organisms, a factor that is currently unexplored in the South African food industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Md Delwar Hossain, Md Kamrul Hassan, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Yaping He, Swapan Saha and Waseem Hittini

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour (ignitibility, heat release rate and smoke toxicity) and various test method protocols. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges and provides updated knowledge and recommendation on selective-fire mechanisms such as rapid-fire spread, air cavity and fire re-entry behaviours due to dripping and melting of lightweight composite claddings.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review on fire behaviour, fire hazard and testing methods of lightweight composite claddings has been conducted in this research. In summarising all possible fire hazards, particular attention is given to the potential impact of toxicity of lightweight cladding fires. In addition, various criteria for fire performance evaluation of lightweight composite claddings are also highlighted. These evaluations are generally categorised as small-, intermediate- and large-scale test methods.

Findings

The major challenges of lightweight claddings are rapid fire spread, smoke production and toxicity and inconsistency in fire testing.

Originality/value

The review highlights the current challenges in cladding fire, smoke toxicity, testing system and regulation to provide some research recommendations to address the identified challenges.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Li Zhou, Fan Zhang, Shudong Zhou and Calum G. Turvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships of technical training and the peer effects of technical training with farmers' pesticide use behaviors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships of technical training and the peer effects of technical training with farmers' pesticide use behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses survey data from 300 peanut growers in Zoucheng County, Shandong, China, in 2016 and employs spatial econometric models to examine the relationships of technical training and the peer effects of technical training with farmers' pesticide use behaviors.

Findings

This paper reveals that important peer effects can be channeled through technical training and that these peer effects are sufficiently significant to encourage neighboring farmers to reduce the amount of pesticide use, to transform the structure of pesticide use, and to increase the usage amount of low-toxicity, low-residue pesticide use per hectare. The estimated parameters for the peer effects from technical training are significantly larger than those from technical training alone, which suggests that the technical training of neighboring farmers plays a greater role than technical training for farmers individually.

Originality/value

The research finds that technical training within smaller, localized, groups can induce previously unobservable spillover effects, and this provides a scientific, theoretical and empirical justification for agricultural technology extension that can lead to a rapid, effective transformation of applying new agricultural technologies in an environmentally sensitive and economically sustainable manner.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Bartosz Gawron, Tomasz Białecki, Anna Janicka, Maciej Zawiślak and Aleksander Górniak

The purpose of this paper is to examine the toxicological impacts of exhaust generated during the combustion process of aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the toxicological impacts of exhaust generated during the combustion process of aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests on aircraft turbine engines in full scale are complex and expensive. Therefore, a miniature turbojet engine was used in this paper as a source of exhaust gases. Toxicity was tested using innovative BAT–CELL Bio–Ambient Cell method, which consists of determination of real toxic impact of the exhaust gases on the human lung A549 and mouse L929 cells. The research was of a comparative nature. The engine was powered by a conventional jet fuel and a blend of conventional jet fuel with synthesized hydrocarbons.

Findings

The results show that the BAT–CELL method allows determination of the real exhaust toxicity during the combustion process in a turbine engine. The addition of a synthetic component to conventional jet fuel affected the reduction of toxicity of exhaust gases. It was confirmed for both tested cell lines.

Originality/value

In the literature related to the area of aviation, numerous publications in the field of testing the emission of exhaust gaseous components, particulates or volatile organic compounds can be found. However, there is a lack of research related to the evaluation of the real exhaust toxicity. In addition, it appears that the data given in aviation sector, mainly related to the emission levels of gaseous exhaust components (CO, Nox and HC) and particulate matters, might be insufficient. To fully describe the engine exhaust emissions, they should be supplemented with additional tests, i.e. in terms of toxicity.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Alan Goldman

This chapter presents a case which illustrates how the external management consultant may function as an organizational anthropologist and provide insights and alternative…

Abstract

This chapter presents a case which illustrates how the external management consultant may function as an organizational anthropologist and provide insights and alternative strategies for human resource professionals and leadership faced with high toxicity levels. The long-term failure to timely detect toxins and intervene in a destructive conflict results in the spread of dysfunctional behavior in the case company, pointing to leadership negligence and malpractice. The deeply entrenched “no emotions allowed” culture evokes massive turnover and plunging motivation and productivity. The case concludes with specific recommendations for avoiding or repairing a toxic workplace culture.

Details

Emotions, Ethics and Decision-Making
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-941-8

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Eunice Ngozi Ezembu, Chioke Amaefuna Okolo, James Obiegbuna and Florence Chika Ikeogu

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the acute toxicity and antidiabetic activity of Asystacia gangetica leaf ethanol extract.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed as completely randomized in vivo experimental model. Where acute toxicity study was carried out using 30 albino mice, randomly assigned into six groups of five mice each. Toxicity signs and mortality were observed in the rats within a period of 24 h. The acute and sub-acute antidiabetic study was carried out using 50 rats, randomly assigned into five groups of 10 rats each. The rats’ blood glucose levels were determined and used to assess the acute and sub-acute antidiabetic activity of the extract.

Findings

Results obtained from the acute toxicity study indicated no death in any of the study groups, even at 5,000 mg/kg body weight and showed no signs of toxicity. The acute antidiabetic study showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg of the extract significantly (p = 0.01) lowered glucose level in the diabetic rats from 430.6 to 177.4 mg/dl while 800 mg/kg brought down glucose level from 370 to 144.2 mg/dl by the end of 6 h following administration when compared with the diabetic control group. It was observed that the effect of the extract mostly at 800 mg/kg also compared favorably with that of the standard drug (glibenclamide), which lowered glucose level in diabetic rats from 374.2 to 176.4 mg/dl. Furthermore, the significant reduction was evident from 4, 2 and 2 h for 400 mg/kg extract, 800 mg/kg extract and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. At sub-acute level the blood glucose was lowered from 155.6 to 127.2 mg/dl, 137 to 124.4 mg/dl and 151.8 to 121.8 mg/dl for diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively, when compared to the diabetic untreated rats, which ranged from 417.6 to 358.6 mg/dl. The biochemical profile, lipid profile and hematological examination were all positively restored near to normal with the herbal treatment at the different doses. At histopathology level, the liver of the rats treated with 400 mg/kg had moderate portal inflammation without interface or lobular hepatitis while that of 800 mg/kg showed severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis with extensive confluents necrosis. The pancreatic cells of the treated rat showed no significant difference in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans with hyperplasia of the acinar cell when compared to the diabetic untreated.

Research limitations/implications

The record of no death and signs of toxicity implies that the extract is safe for consumption even at a high dosage of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. The significant (p = 0.01) reduction in the plasma glucose level of the treated rats as compared to the control is an indication of blood glucose-lowering potential of the extract at two different doses. The significant reduction evident of the extract at different hours and days for the two doses implies that the extract rate of lowering potentials is dose-dependent. The evidence of moderate-severe portal inflammation with the interface and lobular hepatitis at 800 mg/kg treatment is an indication that the intake of this herb at high dosage for long period is not safe for the liver tissue.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study suggested that the Asystacia gangetica should also be used as a vegetable in-home food preparation and food processing to use its antidiabetic effect. The herbal extract could also be incorporated into a food product and processed into herbal tea bag for convenient. The subjection of this herbal plant to heat treatment during processing could be a possible avenue to make it safe.

Social implications

The economic burden and complications of diabetes mellitus management will be reduced if the practical implication of this research finding is implemented in foods as vegetable and in functional food production.

Originality/value

This study revealed that Asystacia gangetica leaf extract may be safe and effective for use at a low dose for acute management of diabetes mellitus. This research may be of value to those living with diabetes mellitus.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Gabriela Kalčíková, Milada Vávrová, Jana Zagorc-Končan and Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn

The aim of this work is to compare quality of leachates from regional municipal landfill in different seasons (dry, snowy/rainy) during a three-year monitoring period due…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work is to compare quality of leachates from regional municipal landfill in different seasons (dry, snowy/rainy) during a three-year monitoring period due to the fact that quality of landfill leachate can rapidly change under different conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw leachates were sampled prior to biological treatment at different periods of the year (November 2007, March 2008, May 2008, March 2009, and January 2010) to detect the changes in their composition due to different physico-chemical conditions at the site (temperature, moisture, etc.). Leachates were physico-chemically characterized and the toxicity of chosen leachates was assessed by a battery of biotests.

Findings

Most of the investigated raw leachates exceed Slovenian effluent limits. Samples from March 2008 and March 2009 generally showed higher concentration of measured parameters and also higher toxicity. It has been confirmed that the physico-chemical parameters of leachates usually decrease during rainy/snowy seasons, in addition to the change in toxicity.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the need to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters and toxicity of landfill leachate during different seasons of the year to achieve an appropriate assessment of its environmental impact.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Nadia Ziani, Khadidja Amirat and Djelloul Messadi

– The purpose of this paper is to predict the aquatic toxicity (LC50) of 92 substituted benzenes derivatives in Pimephales promelas.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict the aquatic toxicity (LC50) of 92 substituted benzenes derivatives in Pimephales promelas.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was performed on a series of 92 substituted benzenes derivatives using multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM) methods, which correlate aquatic toxicity (LC50) values of these chemicals to their structural descriptors. At first, the entire data set was split according to Kennard and Stone algorithm into a training set (74 chemicals) and a test set (18 chemical) for statistical external validation.

Findings

Models with six descriptors were developed using as independent variables theoretical descriptors derived from Dragon software when applying genetic algorithm – variable subset selection procedure.

Originality/value

The values of Q2 and RMSE in internal validation for MLR, SVM, and ANN model were: (0.8829; 0.225), (0.8882; 0.222); (0.8980; 0.214), respectively and also for external validation were: (0.9538; 0.141); (0.947; 0.146); (0.9564; 0.146). The statistical parameters obtained for the three approaches are very similar, which confirm that our six parameters model is stable, robust and significant.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Li Sun

This study aims to examine the impact of managerial ability on the total amount of chemical releases reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) at the US Environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of managerial ability on the total amount of chemical releases reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) at the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis is used to examine the association between managerial ability and chemical releases.

Findings

A negative relationship was found between managerial ability and TRI’s chemical releases, suggesting that more-able managers better reduce TRI’s chemical releases, relative to less-able managers.

Practical implications

By providing useful insights into what determines TRI’s chemical releases, this study should interest policy makers and practitioners.

Originality/value

This study contributes to and links two research schools: managerial ability in management literature and corporate social responsibility (i.e. pollution prevention) in the broad business literature. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first empirical study that performs a direct test of the association between managerial ability and TRI’s toxic chemical releases.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Joachim Benz, Kristina Voigt and Wolfgang Mücke

To aid data retrieval when searching chemical databanks and databases, a strategy lor pre‐defined searches and optimal search paths has been developed, using graph theory…

Abstract

To aid data retrieval when searching chemical databanks and databases, a strategy lor pre‐defined searches and optimal search paths has been developed, using graph theory. The area of research chosen is daphnia toxicity, with searches carried out in seven databases.

Details

Online Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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