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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Amanda de Paula Aguiar-Barbosa, Adriana Fumi Chim-Miki and Metin Kozak

The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of tourism competitiveness over the years, ascertaining the state of the art and the degree of consensus among…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of tourism competitiveness over the years, ascertaining the state of the art and the degree of consensus among scholars on its constituent elements to propose an integrative and updated concept.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of 130 definitions on tourism competitiveness formulated between 1999–2018 was analyzed and segmented into three periods, allowing its historical evolution to be ascertained. It is a qualitative and quantitative exploratory research that uses a combination of techniques, namely, content analysis, analysis of co-words and consensus analysis.

Findings

The results indicated a low use of elements such as the quality of life and the environment in the authors' definitions during 1999–2018, although these elements were present in the first concept of tourism competitiveness by Crouch and Ritchie (1999, 2003). Another finding of this study shows a reduction in the analysis of tourism competitiveness based on the supply and demand side. Nowadays, the research tends to turn on the basis of the population directly affected. It also reveals the enrichment of the theoretical corpus with new lines of research arising and new groups of scholars of the subject, consequently a new frontier in tourism competitiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The authors recommend deepening the analysis in each category of conceptual elements of tourism competitiveness to identify the origins of the low consensus. The authors also suggest conducting further research on the largest invisible schools of thought on this subject to understand their relations and perspectives, and thus to advance in the theoretical streams of the field. Finally, it is imperative to develop research on new models and monitors of tourism competitiveness that meet its renewed concept and integrate dimensions to consider the perspective of supply, demand, tourists and residents, as well as not excluding the economic bias but including the social side.

Practical implications

Owing to the fact that monitors of tourism competitiveness have practically no variables related to the social, most of the surveys are carried out from the supply or demand perspective, leaving the resident distant from the process. In this way, the results allow authors to indicate that new models of competitiveness measurement should be formulated based on the vision of the community impacted by tourism, i.e. a new version of tourism competitiveness not based on productivity but rather on the social aspect.

Originality/value

The findings of this study contribute to the field literature by offering an integrative concept of tourism competitiveness based on the elements with a higher level of consensus among researchers. Furthermore, the results accentuate a worrying fact regarding the operationalization of this concept, as the theoretical basis is not expressed in the monitors of competitiveness. Thus, nor it is possible in the management of the tourism industry.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2015

Cristina Estevão, João Ferreira and Sara Nunes

The competitiveness of tourist destinations has been the subject of great research interest in recent decades. Nevertheless, and despite the diversity in the literature…

Abstract

The competitiveness of tourist destinations has been the subject of great research interest in recent decades. Nevertheless, and despite the diversity in the literature, studies focusing on the empirical validation of tourism destination models of competitiveness have still to be completed. Hence, this research project seeks to contribute to filling this shortcoming through the identification and evaluation of the factors underlying tourism destination competitiveness in Portugal. The study methodology adopted requires primary data that were sourced from a questionnaire deployed as a structured research instrument based upon the variables put forward by the Dwyer and Kim model (2003). Through recourse to structural equation models, the results report the existence of significant relationships between resources, supply and tourism destination management as the core and essential factors to the competitiveness of a particular tourist destination.

Details

Marketing Places and Spaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-940-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Cong Peng and Peng Yuan

China intends to enhance its environmental regulations, which will affect many industries, because of the serious environmental pollution that the country faces. This…

Abstract

Purpose

China intends to enhance its environmental regulations, which will affect many industries, because of the serious environmental pollution that the country faces. This study aims to investigate the influence of environmental regulations on China’s provincial tourism competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A vertical-and-horizontal scatter degree method is used to construct provincial-level tourism competitiveness and environmental regulation indices in China. Thereafter, a spatial econometric model is established to empirically assess the influence of environmental regulations on China’s provincial tourism competitiveness and investigate the spatial spillover effects of environmental regulations.

Findings

Environmental regulations and China’s provincial tourism competitiveness exhibit a “U”-shaped relationship, mainly because of the indirect effects of environmental regulations (spatial spillover effects). The environmental regulation indices of the majority of the provinces have crossed the turning point. Thus, improving environmental regulations has a positive effect on tourism competitiveness. This effect mainly originates from the positive spatial spillover effects.

Social implications

Tourism development plays an important role in promoting economic growth. However, increasing environmental pollution may constrain the development of tourism. Therefore, the possible influence of environmental regulations on tourism development should be understood.

Originality/value

At present, no research has explored the influence of environmental regulations on China’s tourism competitiveness. The current study considers the nonlinear effects of environmental regulations and investigates their spatial spillover effects.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Sérgio Jesus Teixeira, João J.M. Ferreira, António Almeida and Eduardo Parra-Lopez

This study aims to analyze the contribution of tourist event and satisfaction with tourism events as a product of regional tourism competitiveness, as well as evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the contribution of tourist event and satisfaction with tourism events as a product of regional tourism competitiveness, as well as evaluate factors of competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The research followed a quantitative methodology by conducting a questionnaire on the four largest tourist events in Madeira (Carnival, Flower Festival, Atlantic Festival and Wine Festival), an insular island located in Portugal.

Findings

The sample consisted of 2,262 tourists surveyed during the year 2017 and structural equation models were used as the statistical method. Results showed that satisfaction is reflected in the client's loyalty to the choice of a tourist destination and also contributes directly and indirectly to the regional tourist competitiveness.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the valorization of local and regional events, perceived by the level of satisfaction and loyalty of tourists, as products of regional competitiveness of a tourist destination.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah and Muhammad Izzat Zulkifly

This study aims to examine the relationships between tourism destination competitiveness (TDC) determinants and tourism performance. This study specifically assessed the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationships between tourism destination competitiveness (TDC) determinants and tourism performance. This study specifically assessed the soundness of the TDC attributes and evaluated their ability in explaining tourism performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The Dwyer and Kim’s (2003) destination competitiveness integrated model (IM) was used. Secondary data of 115 nations available from the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) and other international reports were also used. The hypothesised relationships were tested via partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

This study confirms that the core resources, complementary condition, globalisation and tourism price significantly explain tourism performance. Results have shown differences in the competitiveness level and actual performance among nations, highlighting specific limitations of the current TDC model and TTCI report reliability.

Research limitations/implications

Future study could segment the sample base on destinations characteristic and then analyse it based on smaller sub-samples of similar destinations. Moreover, drivers of destination performance in developed and less develop destinations are quite diverse.

Practical implications

The incorrect competitiveness ranking evaluation will affect inward investment decisions. This study framework enables policymakers to arrive at more informed decisions than merely relying on the original competitiveness rankings.

Originality/value

The widespread acknowledgment of the importance of competitiveness for a tourism destination's success suggests that there is a crucial need for sound benchmarking of countries’ competitive capabilities. The proposed competitiveness determinants aid the policymakers in identifying the best competitiveness and tourism performance predictors, as well as how to identify crucial factors affecting the rankings.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Zahra Nadalipour, Mohammad Hossein Imani Khoshkhoo and Abdolreza Roknoddin Eftekhari

This study aims at developing a framework to investigate and analyze sustainable competitiveness in tourism destinations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at developing a framework to investigate and analyze sustainable competitiveness in tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has a qualitative approach, and it has been conducted by use of a comprehensive literature review. First, the key concepts of the study such as destination competitiveness, sustainable development, stakeholders’ attitude and performance and tourist loyalty were identified. Then, an integrative review was conducted on literature regarding the mentioned keywords. More related resources were selected and critically reviewed to explore gaps. For this purpose, a search was conducted at databases such as Emerald, Elsevier and ScienceDirect.

Findings

An appropriate framework for tourism sustainable development and, in particular, for its sustainable competitiveness, requires considering economic, sociocultural and ecological dimensions on the one hand, and considering all stakeholders participating in tourism process on the other hand.

Research limitations/implications

The model suggested in this study can be applied by managers and policymakers in various destinations to investigate true competitiveness situation of their tourist destinations. It also can be theoretically a start point to raise further issues and studies on destination competitiveness by adopting a new sustainability approach.

Originality/value

From reviewing previous studies, it is clear that most models developed on destination competitiveness only consider creation of competitiveness and destination’s characteristics. In addition, a sustainability approach has rarely been considered in these studies. A model or a framework specially designed for evaluating and investigating sustainability of destination competitiveness has not been developed yet. In this sense, the proposed framework in this study is a new one. What differentiates this model with previous ones is the sustainability approach to the competitiveness and taking all stakeholders of the competition process into account.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Federico Topolansky Barbe, Magdalena Gonzalez Triay and Cornelia Häufele

The purpose of this paper is to assess the competitiveness of the Uruguayan rural tourism sector against its main competitors from Argentina and Brazil, as perceived by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the competitiveness of the Uruguayan rural tourism sector against its main competitors from Argentina and Brazil, as perceived by Uruguayan stakeholders on the supply side. The paper will also evaluate the potential of Uruguay as a rural tourism destination in attracting German tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

Two different questionnaires were administered, one to Uruguayan rural tourism stakeholders and another one to potential German tourists in Germany.

Findings

The findings indicate that the main strengths of Uruguayan rural tourism offer, compared to Argentina and Brazil, are the hospitality and friendliness of local people, the natural and cultural attractions and the country’s security and safety. Main weaknesses identified were the poor management of several destination components that are key to create a successful tourism destination and poor management of the “demand conditions” component of Dwyer and Kim’s (2003) integrated model.

Originality/value

There is very limited research done on the competitiveness of Uruguay as a rural tourist destination in attracting foreign tourists (Mackinnon et al., 2009). The objective of this study is to partially fill this gap by assessing how competitive Uruguayan rural tourism is and evaluating whether Uruguay represents an attractive market for German tourists looking for agro tourism and farm holiday destinations. The German market was chosen because it is one of the top tourist-generating countries and one of the biggest spenders in international tourism (The World Tourism organization, 2010). Moreover, most tourists – from outside South America – selecting Uruguay as a tourist destination come from Germany, USA and Australia (Peralta, 2012).

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Ante Mandić, Smiljana Pivčević and Lidija Petrić

Building on a TripAdvisor data for five Mediterranean destinations, namely, Greece, Croatia, Italy, France and Spain, this study analyses the constituents of restaurants'…

Abstract

Building on a TripAdvisor data for five Mediterranean destinations, namely, Greece, Croatia, Italy, France and Spain, this study analyses the constituents of restaurants' online reputation and their interrelation with destination competitiveness, in particular two Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) pillars, namely, Prioritisation of Travel and Tourism and Price Competitiveness.

The analysis has revealed that restaurants' online reputation is positively influenced by two factors, namely, Core elements, i.e. cooking, service and price-quality ratio, and Price. Furthermore, the restaurants' online reputation does not influence destination competitiveness (TTCI) directly, but indirectly throughout its main constituents, i.e. service and price. Price is the only variable with significant influence on overall TTCI. Within the sample of these destinations, Balkan countries, i.e. Greece and Croatia, perform very well in terms of their restaurants' online reputation. On the other hand, considering the overall TTCI rating, their competitive positions are substantially lower than those of Italy, France and Spain.

The study provides new insights into the relationship between gastronomic offer and destination competitiveness, and valuable practical implications for destination and hospitality management. Moreover, this study addresses various gaps in existing research on this topic. Specifically, it validates the reputation elements presented online using TripAdvisor data and analyses the impact of electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) not only as the outcome variable of other constructs, as is the case in the literature, but also as a central construct of the analysis. In doing so, it extends current research on this topic and fills the gap regarding the inclusion of the supply-side stakeholder perspective, which has long been recognised as necessary in any attempts to measure competitiveness.

Details

Gastronomy for Tourism Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-755-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Romana Gargano

Tourism is one of the most important and rapidly growing sectors for economic, cultural and global development of a country. Competition between tourist destinations is…

Abstract

Tourism is one of the most important and rapidly growing sectors for economic, cultural and global development of a country. Competition between tourist destinations is increasingly intense and is played internationally in a globalized scenario, where each destination competes with new and different competing destinations. In view of this, the tourism sector has had to equip itself with appropriate decision-making tools for studying and analyzing the competitiveness of the destinations. This chapter focuses on its analysis on the countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea, one of the areas with the greatest worldwide attractiveness to tourists, characterized by different levels and models of tourism development. There are areas traditionally dedicated to hospitality, considered world leaders (such as France, Spain and Italy) and countries that have grown rapidly in their wake (Croatia and Greece), and on the other, more recently emerged destinations (Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) that compete very well, focussing on an ‘exotic’ seaside offer accessible to all. The aim of this chapter is to carry out a research on the tourism competitiveness of Mediterranean countries. The analysis is based on the 14 pillars described in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019. In order to see how the 14 pillars of the competitiveness index are grouping on the countries, we applied the principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Adya Hermawati

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human resource (HR) performance of tourism sector-engaged micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in East Java; to examine the moderating role of QWL, job involvement and OCB in the effect of transglobal leadership on HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java; to examine the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on responsible tourism marketing and sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java; and to examine the mediating role of responsible tourism marketing in the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this research was all HR executives of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java and domestic and foreign tourists in East Java. The sampling of the tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java (in 16 tourism potential cities) was performed using a purposive sampling technique. Determination of the sample size was made using the minimum criterion from structural model, ranging from 100 to 200. Thus, it was determined that the number of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs studied in this research was 200 enterprises from 16 tourism potential cities in East Java. From each tourism sector MSME, four employees and three tourists were selected. In total, this research involved 800 employees and 600 tourists (both domestic and foreign).

Findings

This research found that transglobal leadership (X) , QBL (M1), job involvement (M2) and OCB (M3) had an effect on HR performance (Y). The results of this research highlighted that QWL variable (M1) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). It was found that job involvement variable (M2) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research also detected that OCB variable (M3) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research found that HR performance (Y) had an effect on responsible marketing (Z1). It was obtained in this research that HR performance (Y) also had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2). Finally, this research found that responsible marketing (Z1) had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2).

Originality/value

Regarding the originality of this research, the holistic compilation was integrated from the theoretical concept of the HR and marketing strategies through the implementation of the tourism marketing concept and application that are responsible for tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java. Of course, tourists need to get a good understanding of the marketing strategy to participate in controlling the sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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