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The purpose of this paper is to point to the significance of temporally charged imaginaries of neglected places and their residents in the context of slum tourism…
The purpose of this paper is to point to the significance of temporally charged imaginaries of neglected places and their residents in the context of slum tourism research. It examines the way in which tour guides draw on specific temporalities to recast the poverty and stigma of the Mexico City barrio of Tepito and thus design narratives to alter long-held imaginaries of this neighbourhood.
Two tours are analysed through an anthropological lens using ethnographic methods. Authors took part in the tours, registering the guides’ discourse and interventions, as well as the places and situations observed. The insights of this paper stem from the empirical evidence and reveal how diverse imaginaries are enacted through tour guiding.
Without necessarily following a single, coherent narrative, tour guides link different moments in time to simultaneously generate and contest slum tour imaginaries. The guides in this case study not only challenge existing stereotypes, but also critically engage political neglect while showcasing Tepito’s potentiality. Even so, the analysed tours seek to recast the barrio as integral to Mexico City’s history and future.
Until now, the importance of temporalities in the generation of imaginaries in slum tourism research has gained only little attention. The case study presented here show how alternative forms of tourism are offering unconventional readings of urban neighbourhoods. These processes, the authors argue, help not only re-imagine disadvantaged districts, such as Tepito, but also to re-think the city as a whole in terms of its past, present and future.
Competition in Hong Kong’s tourism market is very intense and local travel agencies have to improve the quality of their service in order to enhance their competitive…
Competition in Hong Kong’s tourism market is very intense and local travel agencies have to improve the quality of their service in order to enhance their competitive edge. This industry‐specific research examines the relationship between marketing culture and the perceived service quality of outbound tours. The author sampled tour escorts and asked them to describe the patterns and characteristics of their firms’ marketing culture. Tour members who had just returned from outbound tours were also sampled for the measurement of their perceptions of the quality of tours. The findings indicate a positive relationship between marketing culture and service quality. High quality service can be delivered when a travel agency successfully fosters a customer‐oriented marketing culture characterized with a strong emphasis on service quality orientation and interpersonal relationships. In a high‐contact service business such as tourism service, marketers must understand that commitment to quality service and service mentality are integral elements in the firm’s culture and that a positive attitude towards interpersonal relationships must be held by service employees.
When we say that a tourist agency is an indispensable participant on a tourist market, we have just stated a fact accepted by both tourist theory and practice. Yet, there…
When we say that a tourist agency is an indispensable participant on a tourist market, we have just stated a fact accepted by both tourist theory and practice. Yet, there are, relatively speaking, few researches and analyses of tourist agencies work, still less such that would try to scientifically deal with the problems of a tourist agency's operation. With this lack of tourist technical literature in the field of the agency's role in tourism, the absence of theoreticians and those who work in practice can easily be noticed especially in area of sales on a tourist market. It is difficult to answer the question why it is so, nor can we enter into such discussions now. The aim of this contribution is to point out the importance of a process of the agency's work and give arguments for it.
Examines the practice of overbooking at hotel and tour operator levels. By accepting more reservations than their available capacity, hotels hedge against the problem of…
Examines the practice of overbooking at hotel and tour operator levels. By accepting more reservations than their available capacity, hotels hedge against the problem of cancellations. Hotels located in popular tourist resorts, allocate their capacity to multiple tour‐operators who through the vacation packages they offer, fill the hotels’ capacity. Shows that for this type of hotel, an overbooking policy applied at the hotel level and derived using the capacity of the hotel as a whole, gives better cost savings than when formulating an overbooking policy for each tour‐operator separately. The result of the analysis provides significant managerial implications since a hotel dealing with multiple tour‐operators, in devising its overbooking policy needs only to consider the occupancy of the hotel as a whole and not the performance of each tour‐operator. This simplicity is further reflected in the reduction of information required to be recorded.
This study aims to explore virtual site visit adoption patterns of US convention facilities based on the diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory. Additionally, it offers…
This study aims to explore virtual site visit adoption patterns of US convention facilities based on the diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory. Additionally, it offers predictive models of virtual site visit tool adoption by applying probability distributions.
The study used content analysis of 369 US convention facility websites. Data collected from the websites recorded the presence or absence of the following tools facilitating virtual site visits: photos, floor plans, videos, 360-photos, 360-tours and virtual reality (VR)-optimized tours. The website content analysis was followed by application of the DOI theory and predictive modeling.
According to the DOI theory, the use of VR-optimized tours (4.34%) is still in the early adoption stage, followed by 360-degree tours (12.74%) and standard videos (17.89%) that have transitioned into the early majority stage of adoption and photos (72.09%) and floor plans (84.82%) that represent a late majority stage. Three predictive models with shifted Gompertz, Gumbel and Bass distributions forecasted that convention centers would achieve a 50% adoption rate of 360-degree tools (photos and tours) in 4.67, 4.2 and three years, respectively. The same models predicted a 50% adoption rate of 360-degree tours in 6.62, 5.81 and 4.42 years.
The research indicates that most US convention facilities have not taken full advantage of their websites as a sales and marketing tool.
This study is the first comprehensive attempt to evaluate the adoption rate of VR and other technologies enabling virtual site visits by using content analysis of US convention facility websites. Additionally, it is the first attempt to apply probability distributions to predict technology adoption in the convention industry context.
Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such…
Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such forces are powerful in shaping the emerging Asian tourism market. This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the laws and regulations that have shaped Chinese outbound tourism. It first reviews the evolution of China’s policies and government attitude toward outbound tourism. The three tourism administration regulations promulgated by the State Council are then reviewed and their implications for outbound tourism are discussed. The Tourism Law enacted in 2013 is reviewed and discussed separately due to its significance and supreme power in China’s legal system. Finally, the chapter discusses the impact of intergovernmental visa facilitation arrangements on Chinese outbound tourism.
This study re-evaluates the criteria in the choice of exchange partners from the buyer’s and seller’s perspective within the context of inclusive tour production and…
This study re-evaluates the criteria in the choice of exchange partners from the buyer’s and seller’s perspective within the context of inclusive tour production and reveals priorities to such criteria among the business actors, providing theoretical frameworks for a wider understanding of the criteria within a tourism context. The study is based on a study of cooperative relationships between European tour operators and Norwegian sub-suppliers. It deploys a qualitative research approach (personal interviews) inspired by grounded theory. The resultant data present critical three consideration embracing (1) market capacity (its ability to acquire customers), (2) purchase price and the attaching conditions and (3) confidence/reliability as criteria of selecting the exchange partners. Lastly nine future agendas are suggested in a bid to theory development.
This paper introduces two methodological innovations for qualitative research. We apply these innovations to holistically understand youth peer cultures and improve…
This paper introduces two methodological innovations for qualitative research. We apply these innovations to holistically understand youth peer cultures and improve participant-driven qualitative methodology.
It moves the methodological frontier forward by blending technology with the “go-along” approach used by ethnographers to prioritize participants’ perspectives and experiences within their socio-cultural contexts.
We introduce the youth-centered and participant-driven virtual tours, including a neighborhood tour using Google Maps designed to explore how youth navigate their socio-spatial environments (n = 64; 10–17 year-olds; 2013) and a social media tour designed to explore how youth navigate their networked publics (n = 50; 10–17 year-olds; 2013), both in relation to their local peer cultures.
Applicable to a wide range of research populations, the Google Maps tour and the social media tour give the qualitative researcher additional tools to conduct participant-driven research into youths’ socio-cultural worlds. These two innovations help to address challenges in youth research as well as qualitative research more broadly. We find, for example, that the “go-along” aspect of the virtual tour minimizes the perceived threat of the researcher’s adult status and brings youth participants’ perspectives and experiences to the center of inquiry in the study of local peer cultures.
This paper deals with an issue that has been identified in many markets where there are large numbers of package tourists. In Australia, there have been a number of…
This paper deals with an issue that has been identified in many markets where there are large numbers of package tourists. In Australia, there have been a number of studies undertaken into the use of a range of dubious business practices employed by Inbound Tour Operators (ITOs), particularly in the Korean market. The cause for this problem is identified as the minimization of the retail price of package tour by transferring part of the cost of the tour to ITOs in the destination country. Under this system, ITOs are paid a daily tour rate below their real costs and are forced to recover losses by employing a range of dubious business practices including forced shopping and kickbacks from shops. The paper models the normal operation of the package tour cycle where no business practices are used and compares this to the Korean package inbound market in Australia where the use of business practices of this nature is widespread.