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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Richard Anthony Foss

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed investigation of the mechanisms operating during decision making by the honey bee swarm, which is now considered to be one of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed investigation of the mechanisms operating during decision making by the honey bee swarm, which is now considered to be one of the best examples of collective decision making outside the human domain.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation is based on a review of the last 60 years’ published literature about swarm behaviour. It introduces a different perspective to the work by utilising a cybernetic model of a self-organising information network to analyse the findings of this body of research.

Findings

Scout bees evaluating potential nest sites accumulated support for their site by differential net recruitment, so the total scout numbers present at each site was a good measure of the total evidence in favour of the site and hence the relative probability of choosing it as the swarm’s new home. The accumulation of evidence continued at a number of alternative nest site locations until a critical quorum threshold was sensed at one of them. The first alternative to reach the threshold was chosen as the preferred nest site. Quorum scouts then prepared the swarm for departure and steered it to its new home.

Originality/value

Swarm decision making has not been modelled as a self-organising information network before. This novel approach reveals how a combination of network modifications, self-amplification, self-attenuation, cross-inhibition, integration and quorum mechanisms together contribute towards accurate group decision making.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2023

Ceren Mutlu

The aim of this study was to produce an enriched honey powder with active compounds coming from bee pollen and investigate the effects of bee pollen addition as a carrier material…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to produce an enriched honey powder with active compounds coming from bee pollen and investigate the effects of bee pollen addition as a carrier material on honey powder.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of bee pollen addition as carrier material in corporation with gum arabic at different ratios (25, 50 and 75% of total carrier material amount) on vacuum-dried honey-bee pollen powder were investigated.

Findings

The bee pollen concentration raise in the mixture increased the particle size, total phenolic, flavonoid and sugar contents and antioxidant activity, whereas decreased the Hauser ratio and Carr index values, hygroscopicity and solubility of enriched honey powder samples. The honey powder samples had passable and poor flow properties and very hygroscopic (>20%) structure because of the high sugar content. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of honey powder samples with bee pollen changed between 1531.59 and 3796.00 mg GAE/kg and 424.05–1203.10 mg QE/kg, respectively, and these values were much higher than the control sample. On the basis of linear correlation analysis, there was a very high positive correlation between total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity, while there was a very high negative correlation between these parameters and solubility.

Originality/value

The study evaluated that enriching of honey powders with pollen, which is a product of both plant and bee origin, rather than enriching with different plant and animal sources has an innovative approach. Additionally, the usage of bee pollen as a carrier agent in food drying has not been previously reported in any study.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 125 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Raffaella Preti and Anna Maria Tarola

Urban beekeeping is spreading as an answer to promote bee conservation and to develop local economies. This study aims to highlight nutritional properties of polyfloral honeys

Abstract

Purpose

Urban beekeeping is spreading as an answer to promote bee conservation and to develop local economies. This study aims to highlight nutritional properties of polyfloral honeys produced in urban landscape and to compare them to the countryside counterparts.

Design/methodology/approach

This research has examined polyfloral urban honeys from a restricted area in Central Italy, for antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and 15 polyphenols profile. Physicochemical parameters have been also determined to assess the overall quality of the samples. Results were compared with polyfloral honeys produced in surrounding countryside and monitored in two harvest years, 2018 and 2019. Principal component analysis was applied to the data to disclose significant differences among honeys and harvest years.

Findings

Urban honeys revealed up to threefold higher total amount of polyphenols with respect to rural honeys, and in the 2019 harvest, despite water scarcity that affected the national production, demonstrated 50% higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The majority of the 15 polyphenols studied resulted in more abundant urban honeys, in particular in the 2019 harvest. The multivariate analysis evidenced how honeys could be successfully separated according to their production area and harvest year by their different polyphenols profile.

Originality/value

Limited data are available on nutritional properties of urban honeys and on their content in antioxidants. The present results suggest that the cultivated urban environment, with its large floral biodiversity, can provide extra nutrition for bees, resulting in the production of a honey rich in nutraceutical compounds.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Edgar Scott Lower

Factors involved in the transformation of nectar from flowering plants into honey have been the subject of study. Honey is said to have many beneficial properties and uses. The…

Abstract

Factors involved in the transformation of nectar from flowering plants into honey have been the subject of study. Honey is said to have many beneficial properties and uses. The methods of extracting and purifying it are described, with detail about its components and some of its chemical and physical properties. The effects of storage and methods of packaging are also outlined.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 89 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1945

The Hebrews of old were promised a land “flowing with milk and honey,” a description which, in the opinion of the biblical writer, expressed every desirable quality. Many…

Abstract

The Hebrews of old were promised a land “flowing with milk and honey,” a description which, in the opinion of the biblical writer, expressed every desirable quality. Many excellent persons consider that we are the Lost Ten Tribes. If that be so we have little reason in certain respects to congratulate ourselves on change of habitat; with regard to milk the opinion of the British Medical Association is worth consulting, as well as a perusal of current police court proceedings. With regard to honey there is well known classical as well as scriptural authority which is justification for the belief that honey as a naturally formed substance is a wholesome food. This belief, fortified to some extent by experience, is undoubtedly held by the ordinary purchaser and consumer of honey. Whether at breakfast or at tea in dining room or nursery—especially the latter—he expects to get a liquid with a characteristic taste and smell primarily obtained by bees from the nectaries of flowers. Like all foods it is a complex with chemical constituents and physical properties varying between certain limits. It has a dietetic value of its own. There is no substitute for it. The mel depuratum of the British Pharmacopœia is also assumed to be genuine honey, not materially changed in nature, substance, or quality by the treatment it receives as a preliminary to its introduction as a constituent of various pharmaceutical preparations. It may be reasonably assumed that this conception of what honey is or should be is held by members of the medical profession, by pharmacists, and by students of dietetics alike. It is impossible to imagine that any of these would seriously think that any artificial product could adequately replace honey. Yet so‐called honey substitutes have been on the market for years past and are still sold. With some vague implication—usually expressed in small print on a label—that it is not the genuine thing. This as a rule conveys little or nothing to the mind of the housewife who, buying it in a closed glass container, is guided by the colour and also influenced by the price of her purchase. Taste and smell being excluded under the conditions of the ordinary “over the counter purchase,” she is left to discover its other virtues when it appears on the family meal table. The Ministry of Food seems to give an implied sanction to this form of commercial enterprise by defining the term “imitation honey” (The Sugar and Preserves (Rationing) Order, 1945) as meaning “any manufactured product, whether containing honey or not, which is made up to resemble honey in appearance, consistency and flavour.” It is unfortunate that imitation honey should be officially acknowledged as a legitimate trade product, for it is surely no more a substitute for the genuine product of the hive than is a faked half‐crown for the real thing. The sale of imitation “honey,” which may contain no honey at all, is a matter in which the demands of public health and fair dealing should receive priority over trade expediency. Nor is it easy to see how the delicate and characteristic flavour of honey is to be successfully imitated. It has been said that food manufacture is more and more assuming the character of a branch of industrial chemistry. Imitation honey is surely an exemplification of that statement if for the moment it be regarded as a food. We are, however, by no means inclined to think of it as anything of the kind. It may not be positively harmful, but in our submission a genuine food consumed under ordinary circumstances by the normal person is and must be positively good. The alleged value of this stuff cannot be expressed in terms of merely negative qualities. On the contrary, it is pretty effectively damned by them. It is in fact mere gut lumber of no dietetic value. In addition to this, it would seem to have a fairly wide and perhaps an increasing sale. At the present time everyone who can do so is being very rightly urged to grow more food in personal and in national interests. There seem to be few indications that the present state of things will be bettered in the near future. Allotment holders and smallholders are being increasingly recognised as important contributors, within their limits, to the national food supply. Honey is a food. It should form a cheap and wholesome addition to the ordinary meal. Bee‐keeping is not only well within the range of the small‐holder's activities, but seems in many ways to be peculiarly adapted thereto. Many organisations, official and otherwise, exist with the avowed object of instructing allotment holders and smallholders how to keep bees, and encouraging them to do so. A ready market will be a measure of their success. We believe that such a market exists and that it would grow if people were assured that a supply of home‐made honey at a reasonable cost could be had. The interests of neither producer nor consumer are served by a market in process of being glutted by imitations masquerading as substitutes for the real thing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 47 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Jaganathan Saravana Kumar and Mahitosh Mandal

Characterization of honey gathered importance since it has been widely used in both medical and domestic needs. In this fast moving mechanical life, people are bound to buy…

Abstract

Purpose

Characterization of honey gathered importance since it has been widely used in both medical and domestic needs. In this fast moving mechanical life, people are bound to buy commercially available honey at markets. The purpose of this paper is to study the physical and thermal properties of such honey.

Design/methodology/approach

Four well‐known commercial honey samples in the Indian market were analyzed for their color, rheology and thermal properties.

Findings

Color of the samples varied from white to light amber according to United States Department of Agriculture method. Rheologies of the samples were studied between 10 and 30°C. Viscosities of samples varied from 1.31  to 96.7 Pa s according to the kind of honey and temperature of measurement. Controlled shear rate viscometry indicated the Newtonian behavior with a drop in viscosity as the temperature increases. Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis indicated the inflection transition temperature (Tg) of the present investigation ranged between –51.40  and –30.64°C. Correlation between the Tg and the viscosity of the samples were significant.

Originality/value

There has been no report available on the Newtonian behavior of the commercial Indian honey samples. This paper will help the consumers to comprehend the standard of the honey sold in the Indian market. Distributors/manufacturers will also be aware of quality of honey, which will help further in the process development, transportation and storage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Rasha Al‐Qassemi and R.K. Robinson

Apart from highlighting the overall nutritional value of honey, this review draws attention to the potential importance of the oligosaccharide content of honey. The possible role…

2229

Abstract

Apart from highlighting the overall nutritional value of honey, this review draws attention to the potential importance of the oligosaccharide content of honey. The possible role of these compounds as prebiotics is emphasised, for a number of them have been found to stimulate species of Bifidobacterium that inhabit the human colon. It is suggested that the therapeutic properties of the anti‐oxidants in honey could be equally relevant, and the desirability of the growing practice of adding royal jelly to retail products is discussed briefly.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Adela Moise, Alexandru Mărghitaş Liviu, Daniel Dezmirean and Otilia Bobis

The main purpose of this study is to create a complete physico‐chemical characterisation of Romanian heather honey.

285

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to create a complete physico‐chemical characterisation of Romanian heather honey.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 30 samples of heather honey were harvested from three different geographical areas (Fântânele, Călăţele, Mărişel) from Transylvania region (Romania). This study contains a complete characterization of heather honey regarding its physico‐chemical composition, total phenols content, flavonoids content, antioxidant activity (expressed as radical scavenging activity – RSA) and micro‐ and macroelements content.

Findings

The results obtained for the total phenols content and total flavonoids demonstrate that honey samples have good bioactive properties and the antioxidant activities are similar to those of dark honeys. Heather honeys normally have a high content of minerals, having their origin in soil. All quantified minerals in heather honey presented values higher that those reported for other types of honey.

Practical implications

Heather honey is a very important type of honey for consumers, which due to its features has a high price on the local market. This study provides the main analytical methods for honey quality determination, which is very important for the students.

Originality/value

For the first time in Romania a complete study of heather honey was done.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

S. Sarkar and S. Chandra

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental nutrients. Yoghurt being most popular fermented milk product due to its healthy image can be an excellent carrier for probiotics. Functional properties of yoghurt can be enhanced with the inclusion of functional ingredients such as probiotics and its conjugate application with prebiotics may be advantageous as it favors probiotic growth. Nutritional and medicinal value of honey coupled with presence of oligosaccharides has projected honey as a functional additive in yoghurt.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, honey, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with the inclusion of probiotic cultures and honey. Honey can be safely used in association with different probiotic cultures during yoghurt manufacture for augmenting functional properties of yoghurt to extend health benefits. Honey may not be equally a suitable matrix for all yoghurt cultures or probiotic cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that limited research on animal or human feeding trials with honey containing yoghurt has been done. Clinical trials with honey containing yoghurt are emerging prior to its marketing as functional food.

Originality/value

Application of honey as a functional additive during the manufacture of probiotic yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

There have always been traditional differences between the various regions of the British Isles. For example, meat consumption is greater in the North than the South; most…

Abstract

There have always been traditional differences between the various regions of the British Isles. For example, meat consumption is greater in the North than the South; most families take some meat at every meal and this extends to the children. The North is the home of the savoury meat products, eg., faggots, rissoles and similar preparations and a high meat content for such foods as sausages is expected; between 80 and 90% with the cereal only present for binding purposes. Present minimum meat contents would be considered a swindle, also the nature of the lean meat and the lean meat/fat ratio. The high water content similarly would have been unacceptable.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 87 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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