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Teacher effectiveness and teacher quality have become the focus of intense international attention and national concern. Dozens of nations are implementing a diverse set…
Teacher effectiveness and teacher quality have become the focus of intense international attention and national concern. Dozens of nations are implementing a diverse set of strategies that aim to improve the quality of education by improving the quality of teachers. These efforts have not been well coordinated, and as the authors in this volume show, core constructs of quality have not been well defined. In this introductory chapter, we discuss why teachers are now “under the microscope” of policymaker’s attention and elaborate how the chapters in this volume identify particularly fruitful avenues for further study. The assembled chapters address two complex questions: (1) what existing cross-national measures of teacher effectiveness and teacher quality are most promising and how can these be aligned to maximize their research potential? and (2) what core constructs of teacher quality or effectiveness are missing from the evidence-base, and how can cross-national comparative research help refine these? To investigate these questions, the chapters in this volume address different aspects of “quality.” While quality may be politically contested, there is a significant need to continue to articulate a truly global perspective on teacher quality. The authors look at a wide range of aspects of quality in order to advance thinking about teacher education, instructional quality and workforce or organizational conditions that affect quality; to analyze instruments, tools, or measures used to assess quality; and identify what measures need to be developed further. We also note how scholarly study of the spread of transnational teacher reforms has failed to keep pace with national policy changes regarding teacher quality, and advance a more general theory of the forces affecting national policymakers.
Since the spread of mass education around the world in the mid- to late-twentieth century, teacher quality has been heralded as the key factor to improve education quality…
Since the spread of mass education around the world in the mid- to late-twentieth century, teacher quality has been heralded as the key factor to improve education quality nationwide. National education systems worldwide are also engaged in ongoing and often high stakes cross-national comparisons. As a result, policy-makers and educators in most national education systems are looking at and implementing new ways to improve education overall by raising teacher quality levels, and India is no exception. In India, teacher quality is publicly blamed for both perceived low education quality and demonstrated low average student performance, especially following Indian students’ performance on the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment. Indian education policy-makers are, therefore, looking at teacher quality as a key factor to improve student performance. Little is known about the impact or implementation of Indian policy frameworks on teacher quality and associated student outcomes in India. This introductory chapter identifies and analyzes various measures of teacher quality and how teacher quality varies in India both in response to and in spite of national policies related to teacher quality. It begins by providing evidence regarding the global importance of teacher quality on student outcomes and then addresses the ambiguity of the term “teacher quality.” This chapter then briefly discussed national education policy in India and the role teacher quality has played in these national policies, especially in the early twenty-first century, including NCF 2005, NCFTE 2009, Draft NPE 2016, Draft NPE 2019, and NPE 2020.
The role and performance of a teacher is central to the teaching and learning process in any educational system, but they are often misinterpreted in the context of…
The role and performance of a teacher is central to the teaching and learning process in any educational system, but they are often misinterpreted in the context of educational monitoring and quality assurance. Although efforts to relate teacher quality to educational quality are rarely challenged, establishing linkages between teacher quality and student performance have proven to be complex and inconclusive. This holds true especially in the Indian context wherein teachers experience diverse working conditions that may make traditional measures of teacher quality seem impractical and speculative. Teacher roles and performance, apart from being subjected to contrasting realities in schooling systems, are influenced by cultural capital, systemic forces, and teacher education programs. This chapter attempts to unravel the complexities of an Indian school teacher and highlight some of the issues that teachers are likely to face and grapple within their work situations. Nevertheless, the role of a professional and humane teacher will stand paramount in building the future of India.
Education in India is valued as a transformative tool for upward mobility, increased opportunity and individual freedom. A variety of education policies over the years…
Education in India is valued as a transformative tool for upward mobility, increased opportunity and individual freedom. A variety of education policies over the years have sought to ensure greater equity with varied impact. Student learning has suffered across the country in part due to differences in regional access, linguistic ability, and family income. Furthermore, India lies at the intersection of aspiring ambitions of international influence and vast inequities ensuring many sectors of the populations lag far behind the “modern” aspirations of the middle class. In this conflicting space, Indian policy-makers established the Right to Education Act in 2010 as an effort to create broad and sweeping change in educational policy. This chapter seeks to look critically at the main components of the act, now 10 years in, to evaluate how some of the most controversial aspects of the law, have affected student learning, through the lens of teacher quality, including teacher preparation, teacher professional development, teacher dispositions, and teacher’s attitudes and perceptions of students. Vignettes from teacher experiences will be used to illustrate challenges and recommendations will be provided to support teacher educators working to ensure a more equitable and socially just education for Indian students.
Research over the last decade or so has made it clear that quality teachers matter to student achievement. What is less clear is the ways in which they matter and how we…
Research over the last decade or so has made it clear that quality teachers matter to student achievement. What is less clear is the ways in which they matter and how we can prepare such high-quality teachers. Nowhere is this lack of clarity more evident than in special education, where we have few studies on teacher quality and even fewer studies on the type of preparation opportunities that would lead to high quality. Thus, it is difficult to make evidence-based decisions about how quality special education teachers should be defined and prepared. As a field, we have to turn to research in general education to provide a sense of some of the dimensions of teacher quality and effective teacher education. In this chapter, we provide a summary of the research on characteristics of highly qualified teachers and what we know from the research on teacher education and professional development that might foster these qualities, both in general and in special education. Part of our discussion centers on the concerns surrounding this body of research and the challenges of applying the findings to the field of special education. Although these challenges pose considerable problems, we are optimistic that potential solutions exist and can be reached through an alignment of initial teacher education and induction.
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on…
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is mandated by the international community to collect, analyse and disseminate internationally comparable statistics on education, including those on and related to teachers. Based within a framework that emphasises quantity and quality issues for teachers, this chapter describes the current UIS international collection of teacher data, the policy options they intend to inform, as well as key limitations and challenges of the present data. In reaction to this, the chapter also presents UIS’s on-going developmental work related to the global data collection and statistics on primary and secondary teachers ranging from the measurement of current shortages, particularly in developing countries aiming to achieve universal primary education (UPE), to the expansion of an international framework that sheds additional light on teacher and teaching quality.
This chapter reframes the notion of teacher quality to encompass teacher qualities and teaching quality in the context of current demands on teacher and student learning…
This chapter reframes the notion of teacher quality to encompass teacher qualities and teaching quality in the context of current demands on teacher and student learning. The chapter includes an exemplary case study of a program that depicts the kinds of qualities and practices that would be needed for effective teaching and learning in an era characterized by the need for higher-level skills and knowledge. The final section presents the implications for pre-service and in-service professional development to address the challenges the reconceptualization of teacher quality presents.
Indian education system is obligated to assure “accessibility” to the “quality” preschool education for all children. National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has emphasised this endeavor loudly and provided clear directions to bring quality in the preschool education through effective implementation strategies. En route to this, trained and motivated preschool teachers are considered as the key factor for quality assurance. Diversity of the Indian society (language, culture, socio-economic status), variety of preschool service providers, different models of preschool education system, uneven salary structure, work load, shortage of support system, huge teacher children ratio, and unregulated sector of teacher preparation are the upfront challenge for the quality of preschool teachers and teacher education. Recruitment of trained preschool teachers, assured career growth, performance-based promotions and salary structure, regulated teacher preparation programs, adherence to the other quality standards for preschool education, digital/distance mode of obtaining required qualifications, and development of strong mechanism for monitoring; supervision as well as on-site mentoring of preschool teachers are some of the major milestones set by the government in the policy. With all this, the most important aspect is to provide encouraging and respectful environment for preschool teachers to keep them happy, contented, and motivated. The teachers, who are prepared in this way contribute in the lives of young children by creating warm and welcoming environment when they enter preschool. The NEP 2020 has brought hope, possibilities, and directions in this regard.
Research has already uncovered a great deal of evidence about the individual and organizational qualities that enhance effective teaching and the kinds of qualifications…
Research has already uncovered a great deal of evidence about the individual and organizational qualities that enhance effective teaching and the kinds of qualifications (attributes) that are associated with effective teaching and learning. From a research perspective, increased precision and specificity in the definition and refinement of specific concepts (e.g., pedagogical content knowledge) will increase academic knowledge about the relationship between teacher characteristics, working conditions, and the quality of instruction that takes place. This knowledge may have little effect on policy formation. From a policy perspective, a holistic or organic conception of teacher quality will be critical for effective policy formation and implementation. At some point, academic knowledge about different aspects of effective or “quality” teaching need to be connected to a general concept of a quality teacher in order to be effectively inserted into policy debates and the general media. Systematic use of academic knowledge is often hindered by either the narrow focus of the research, or by its limited application to actual teacher practice. In spite of these limitations in academic research, there are areas where academics, policymakers, and practitioners have achieved consensus or are converging on shared constructs of promise. In other areas, both academic and political debates seem locked into conflict over constructs related to teacher quality. Identifying these three broad categories of consensus, convergence, and conflict provides a broad framework to assess the kinds of research and the kinds of reform that need to be carried out in order to promote and sustain teachers’ development and implementation of their professional skills in the classroom.
This study aims to model the creative pedagogy of children's book development and then engages teacher education students in this work, as a way to explore and express…
This study aims to model the creative pedagogy of children's book development and then engages teacher education students in this work, as a way to explore and express conceptions of teacher quality, across cultural perspectives.
This self-study engages a/r/tography and currere to explore teacher quality in a teacher education classroom in a Chinese university. A/r/tography (Irwin et al., 2006) considers teacher quality through the conventional lens based on standards and through a more aesthetic lens shaped by cultural nuances and personal experiences. This self-study engages currere (Pinar, 2004) as a methodology marked by contiguous living inquiry explored with an abstract lens aimed to see openings for insight leading to transformation (Pourchier, 2010).
Discussing similarities and distinctions across the presentation and conceptualization of teacher quality in the created children's books promoted dialogue considering intercultural, international pictures of a caring student–teacher relationship. A/r/tographic, currere approaches to exploring this enhanced reflective insight and supported acceptance of diverse notions of teacher quality.
As 21st-century global societies evolve, the meaning of progress also evolves from vertical linear trajectories to horizontal, webbed transformations, driven by differences leading to rhizomatic global connections. A/r/tography and currere are meaningful methodologies to explore the concept of teacher quality from aesthetic angles and on a more personal level so that our understandings may be shaped meaningfully by more diverse perspectives and voices.