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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Michael Tapia, Kimberly S. Nei, Karen Fuhrmeister and Matthew R. Lemming

Sales personnel play a key role in the success of organizations. These individuals present services/products to clients, manage accounts, build relationships, maintain…

Abstract

Sales personnel play a key role in the success of organizations. These individuals present services/products to clients, manage accounts, build relationships, maintain existing business relationships, and must be available for frequent interactions with clients. Business operations are linked to external entities through these activities, suggesting sales groups play a critical role in the success of an organization. As a representative to the external market, sales personnel are subject to unique stressors due to role-specific requirements. These stressors can impact the ability of sales professionals to effectively engage with customers and manage the volatility of financial performance, especially in commission-based compensation structures. Thus, organizations can find utility in identifying sales candidates with higher levels of stress tolerance, who can handle negative client interactions, overcome lulls in sales conversions, and avoid the impact of occupational stressors on long-term sales performance. Research suggests that organizations can use personality to predict stress tolerance as a component of sales performance. To provide organizations with insights into sales-specific coping behaviors associated with stress tolerance, the authors (1) discuss stress inducing factors (stressors) associated with sales role performance, (2) review the individual differences associated with stress tolerance, (3) present personality relationships with sales performance and stress tolerance, and (4) present job-analytic support for stress tolerance competencies relevant to sales performance and criterion-related validity evidence linking personality characteristics to those behaviors. The authors conclude with a discussion around the potential for applied uses of personality in identifying sales personnel with greater likelihoods of exhibiting stress tolerant behaviors in the workplace.

Details

Examining the Role of Well-being in the Marketing Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-946-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Scott W. Sloan, Andrew J. Abbo and Daichao Sheng

Effective explicit algorithms for integrating complex elastoplastic constitutive models, such as those belonging to the Cam clay family, are described. These automatically…

Abstract

Effective explicit algorithms for integrating complex elastoplastic constitutive models, such as those belonging to the Cam clay family, are described. These automatically divide the applied strain increment into subincrements using an estimate of the local error and attempt to control the global integration error in the stresses. For a given scheme, the number of substeps used is a function of the error tolerance specified, the magnitude of the imposed strain increment, and the non‐linearity of the constitutive relations. The algorithms build on the work of Sloan in 1987 but include a number of important enhancements. The steps required to implement the integration schemes are described in detail and results are presented for a rigid footing resting on a layer of Tresca, Mohr‐Coulomb, modified Cam clay and generalised Cam clay soil. Explicit methods with automatic substepping and error control are shown to be reliable and efficient for these models. Moreover, for a given load path, they are able to control the global integration error in the stresses to lie near a specified tolerance. The methods described can be used for exceedingly complex constitutive laws, including those with a non‐linear elastic response inside the yield surface. This is because most of the code required to program them is independent of the precise form of the stress‐strain relations. In contrast, most of the implicit methods, such as the backward Euler return scheme, are difficult to implement for all but the simplest soil models.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Abstract

Details

Examining the Role of Well-being in the Marketing Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-946-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

R. van Wijk, H. Ooms, F.A.C. Wiegant, J.E.M. Souren, J.H. Ovelgönne, J.M. van Aken and A.W.J.M. Bol

In the past many scientists have published papers on hormesis, onmolecular stress responses, and on the similia principle in homoeopathy.Very few, however, have stressed a…

Abstract

In the past many scientists have published papers on hormesis, on molecular stress responses, and on the similia principle in homoeopathy. Very few, however, have stressed a common base of interdependence of these fields. Reviews the most important of these studies to demonstrate their evolution and their mutual importance. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is chosen to demonstrate research into the beneficial effects of subharmful doses of toxicants administered in suboptimal conditions (such as in stressed or injured organisms and cells).

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Environmental Management and Health, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Joshua V. White and Vishal K. Gupta

Unlike other populations, entrepreneurs may be unable to fully escape from job-related stress due to their financial and/or psychological connection to their ventures. The…

Abstract

Unlike other populations, entrepreneurs may be unable to fully escape from job-related stress due to their financial and/or psychological connection to their ventures. The authors argue that stress is a universal, intangible variable that profoundly influences the entrepreneurial process. In the present review, the authors critically synthesize past literature to evaluate the substantive body of research on stress in entrepreneurship and assess the impact of stress on individuals’ well-being. The authors find that entrepreneurial stress stems from role conflict or overload, issues related to business operations, and concerns from life outside the venture. Further, stress may result in changes to personal satisfaction and psychological well-being, contingent upon an individual’s stress tolerance, coping strategies, or recovery practices. The entrepreneurial process, from creation to exit, is comprised of several transition periods, all of which are uniquely stressful. The authors explore the implications of our findings by discussing stressors that may manifest during each stage of the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the authors respond to calls for more dynamic investigation of entrepreneurial stress while also highlighting the need for more research into stressors associated with specific entrepreneurial activities.

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Entrepreneurial and Small Business Stressors, Experienced Stress, and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-397-8

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Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Ifigenia Psarra, Theo Arentze and Harry Timmermans

This chapter discusses the formulation of an agent-based model to simulate day-to-day dynamics in activity-travel patterns, based on short and long-term adaptations to…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter discusses the formulation of an agent-based model to simulate day-to-day dynamics in activity-travel patterns, based on short and long-term adaptations to exogenous and exogenous changes.

Theory

The model is based on theoretical considerations of bounded rationality. Agents are able to explore the area, adapt their aspirations and develop habitual behaviour. If they experience dissatisfaction, stress emerges and this may lead to short or long-term adaptations of an agent’s activity-travel patterns. Both cognitive and affective responses are taken into account, when agents evaluate available options. Moreover, memory-activation and forgetting processes play a significant role in the development of habitual behaviour.

Findings

Results of numerical simulations show the effect of memory-activation and emotion-related parameters on habit formation, on the decision-making process and on overall model behaviour. Effects of specific aspects of bounded rationality on the evolution of dynamics in the activity-travel patterns of an individual are illustrated. Effects seem realistic, behaviourally rich and, therefore, more sensitive to a larger spectrum of policies.

Originality and value

The model is unique in its kind. It is one of the first attempts to formulate a dynamic model of activity-travel behaviour, based on principle of bounded rationality, which includes both cognitive and affective mechanism of adaptation.

Details

Bounded Rational Choice Behaviour: Applications in Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-071-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Stefan Duschek, Angela Bair, Sarah Haux, Alba Garrido and Amelie Janka

Though working in the ambulance service implies persistent confrontation with human suffering and exposure to significant work-related stressors, previous research…

Abstract

Purpose

Though working in the ambulance service implies persistent confrontation with human suffering and exposure to significant work-related stressors, previous research revealed comparatively low self-reported stress in paramedics. This study investigated stress, personality traits, sensation seeking and resilience in paramedics. Moreover, the impact of psychological variables on individual differences in paramedics' stress burden was explored.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of 395 paramedics and 397 professionals from other disciplines completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, Big Five Inventory, Sensation Seeking Scale and Resilience Scale. Multivariate group comparison and regression analysis were performed.

Findings

Compared to other professionals, paramedics reported lower stress burden, more positive and less negative coping strategies, lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, adventure seeking and resilience. In the regression analysis conducted on paramedics, positive coping, resilience, extraversion and conscientiousness negatively predicted perceived stress; negative coping and neuroticism were positive predictors.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design of the study limits the interpretability of the data.

Practical implications

Training in stress management and resilience should be core elements in the education of paramedics.

Originality/value

The findings confirm the notion of reduced stress burden and increased resilience in paramedics. Regarding personality traits, a pattern of emotional stability, conscientiousness, extraversion, prosocial attitudes and propensity to exciting experiences might characterize this group. Moreover, the use of adaptive coping strategies, high levels of resilience, extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism are associated with lower stress burden in paramedics.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

R.G. Woodcock

Many jobs and professions have their trade diseases — the teacher's nervous breakdown, the miner's silicosis and, at least in popular mythology, the policeman's flat feet…

Abstract

Many jobs and professions have their trade diseases — the teacher's nervous breakdown, the miner's silicosis and, at least in popular mythology, the policeman's flat feet. If there is a managerial trade disease it is caused by excessive stress, maintained over an extended period.

Details

Work Study, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Liz Farler and Judith Broady‐Preston

This paper seeks to analyse the results of a case study conducted in 2008/2009 investigating workplace stress in a further education college library service.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse the results of a case study conducted in 2008/2009 investigating workplace stress in a further education college library service.

Design/methodology/approach

Results from questionnaires and a series of semi‐structured interviews held with library staff are analysed and discussed in the paper.

Findings

Librarians reported that interaction with students can be stressful or enjoyable, depending on context. The need to control noise levels, modify student behaviour and balance the needs of different user groups are cited as stressors. The results also show that the library staff exhibit a degree of humour and self‐awareness in their work and employ a range of methods to cope with stress.

Research limitations/implications

Repeating the study more widely amongst a range of differing library services would add credibility to the findings.

Practical implications

This study shows that positive stress may motivate librarians to engage actively with students and thus create job satisfaction. Negative stress may be managed by measures such as zoning and flexible governance.

Originality/value

The study contributes to knowledge and understanding of stress in the library profession by contributing a case study of stress in the college sector.

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Laura Pylväs, Petri Nokelainen and Hilkka Roisko

The purpose of this paper is to apply the Developmental Model of Vocational Excellence (DMVE) in the domain of air traffic control and to describe the characteristics and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the Developmental Model of Vocational Excellence (DMVE) in the domain of air traffic control and to describe the characteristics and predictors related to air traffic controllers’ (ATCO) vocational expertise and excellence. Based on DMVE, the study analyses the role of natural abilities (gifts), intrinsic characteristics (self-regulatory abilities) and extrinsic conditions (domain and non-domain specific factors) in ATCOs’ vocational development.

Design/methodology/approach

The target population of the multiple case study consisted of ATCOs in Finland (N = 300), of which 28 were interviewed. The interviewees represented four different airports. Initially, three key personnel interviews were conducted to validate the structured theme interview instrument that was subsequently used for the 28 interviews. The data set also included the ATCOs’ aptitude test scores and training records. Employee assessments were used to determine their on-the-job performance level (expertise vs excellence). The research questions were examined using theoretical concept analysis. The qualitative data analysis was conducted with content analysis and Bayesian classification modelling.

Findings

The findings indicate that cognitive skills, self-reflection, volition and goal-orientation are considered to be ATCOs’ most important vocational characteristics in addition to interpersonal, intrapersonal and spatial skills. The main differences between the ATCOs representing vocational expertise and those representing vocational excellence were related to self-regulation; motivation and volition in particular proved to be somewhat stronger in the latter group.

Research limitations/implications

It was acknowledged that there are limitations in the present study. First, the four airports were not selected randomly. Although they represent different types of airports (and ATCO job profiles) in Finland quite well, future studies should include comparative aspect to airports in other countries. Second, the number of participants (N = 28) in the study was quite small, limiting generalization of the results to the target population (N = 300). Future research on this domain should be extended to include also quantitative measurements, allowing more generalizable results. Third, although the analysis for the research question 3 was based on a technique that is not sensitive to missing values (BCM), missing data in ATCOs’ aptitude test scores, training records and employee assessments added uncertainty to the results.

Practical implications

ATCOs’ highly controlled and pre-defined work presents a challenge to work motivation, which is seen as one of the determining factors in safety in air traffic controlling (ATC). In the future, more emphasis should be placed on the prerequisites of professional development such as leadership (human resource management, feedback, employees’ opportunity to influence), working environment (physical and social environment), educational possibilities and career progression, as well as professional benefits (salary and working hours).

Originality/value

Although ATC is a fairly studied topic since 1970s, most studies related to ATCOs have concentrated on training, learning on the job, cognitive capacity and processing and stress tolerance. This study extends the emerging research in the field on self-regulation by adopting DMVE to investigate its role, alongside natural abilities and domain and non-domain specific factors, to vocational talent development in different skill acquisition stages.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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