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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Ignacio Tamayo-Torres, Leopoldo J. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier Llorens-Montes and Francisco J. Martínez-López

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the roles played by organizational learning (OL) and innovation in organizations immersed in the processes of adaptation and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the roles played by organizational learning (OL) and innovation in organizations immersed in the processes of adaptation and strategic fit in dynamic and turbulent environments. The authors analyze whether OL and innovation act as sources of strategic fit, and whether strategic fit positively affects performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from a survey of a representative sample of 204 respondents from European firms active in high-technology sectors (response rate: 10.42 percent) and structural equation modeling (using the EQS 6.1 program) to undertake a transversal study.

Findings

The model confirms that OL and the capacity to innovate positively influence managers’ decisions to adapt their organizations to changes in dynamic environments. The achievement of strategic fit, in turn, improves organizational performance. The authors propose considering the innovation climate as a facilitator of new product and process development, although the innovation climate is not a direct antecedent of fit.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by the fact that the analysis is cross-sectional and by the fact that all measures used are based on managers’ perceptions.

Practical implications

Managers should create and support an entrepreneurial culture that stresses continuous learning. They should also foster programs aimed at developing abilities, and promote the development of capabilities that facilitate acceptance of organizational change. Investments in building certain capabilities, such as OL and the capacity to innovate, are strategically justified, especially in turbulent environments.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to investigate the complex interactions among OL, innovation, strategic fit, and performance. The results improve our understanding of the links between strategic fit and performance.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Beat Hans Wafler and Yuosre F. Badir

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how two multinational companies (MNCs) faced the challenge of market uncertainty and political instability in a newly emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how two multinational companies (MNCs) faced the challenge of market uncertainty and political instability in a newly emerging market, and how it affected the impact of their product marketing strategy (PMS) and product (brand) performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative longitudinal paired case study of a market entry by two global MNCs. Twelve global brands (products) were studied, which were locally manufactured and launched by the two MNCs during their first ten years of operation in Vietnam.

Findings

The authors approached the investigation from a conventional point of view: standardization versus adaptation. The results showed that in addition to these two traditional processes, a third one was also operating, which the authors labeled semi-adaptation, or the midway PMS. Semi-adaptation refers to a product that has been introduced to Vietnam from a neighboring country.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on two European MNCs active in the food and consumer-household goods industry in a newly emerging market: Vietnam.

Practical implications

This primary data indicate that the product standardization, semi-adaptation and adaptation process in practice is a technique applied to fit a product to a newly emerging market more by degree of change than by product category.

Originality/value

This paper supports a recent stream of research, which views Standardization or Adaptation as the two ends of the same continuum, where the degree of the firm’s PMS can range between them.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2018

David R. King, Svante Schriber, Florian Bauer and Sina Amiri

Increasing chances of firm survival requires enduring entrepreneurship or the ability to balance competing demands for exploration and exploitation. We developed how…

Abstract

Increasing chances of firm survival requires enduring entrepreneurship or the ability to balance competing demands for exploration and exploitation. We developed how acquisitions can provide needed disruption to change a firm’s dominant orientation toward exploration or exploitation or enable a continued focus on a firm’s dominant orientation. The result is a new typology for acquisition integration associated with different pre- and post-acquisition characteristics. For example, a firm with an exploitation orientation faces different integration challenges in acquiring targets with an exploration or exploitation orientation. We also distinguished between human and task integration to enable more nuanced integration decisions that help to reconcile conflicting findings on acquisition integration decisions. Implications for management research and practice were discussed.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-136-6

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Nirbhaya, New Media and Digital Gender Activism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-529-8

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Vipin Gupta and Yi Zhang

Strategic fit is known to be an important antecedent to a firm’s performance, but there is little research explaining its influence on firm’s environmental performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic fit is known to be an important antecedent to a firm’s performance, but there is little research explaining its influence on firm’s environmental performance. This paper aims to propose that strategic fit is likely to affect two firm-level outcomes: dynamic equilibrium and dynamic disequilibrium.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior debate has underlined the role of adaptation vs selection in achieving strategic fit, but we assert that firms vary in their strategic fit. This paper models inter-firm differentials in environmental performance, using survey data from a sample of Chinese small and medium enterprises.

Findings

Transformative leadership, operational agility and knowledge-based identity facilitate compensatory fit, while productivity growth, strategic adaptability and low product-market maturity enable strategic fit.

Theoretical implications

The authors show how low strategic fit may provide selection advantages via compensatory fit. Some firms do seek to achieve greater fit to the embedded contextual contingencies (dynamic equilibrium) at the cost of their energy. However, others respond to the expectations for green performance that are presently orthogonal to the embedded context to realize compensatory fit using the energy of the context (dynamic disequilibrium). This manifests as differential capabilities for adaptation vs selection.

Practical implications

The findings highlight how the firms may use cultural fit pathway for transcending the phenomenological tradeoffs between economic performance-oriented strategic fit and ecological performance-oriented compensatory fit.

Originality/value

This paper shows how low strategic fit may provide selection advantages via compensatory fit. Some firms do seek to achieve greater fit to the embedded contextual contingencies (dynamic equilibrium) at the cost of their energy. However, others respond to the expectations for green performance that are presently orthogonal to the embedded context, to realize compensatory fit using the energy of the context (dynamic disequilibrium). This manifests as differential capabilities for adaptation vs selection.

Objetivo

Es conocido que el ajuste estratégico es un antecedente importante del resultado de la empresa, pero existe poca investigación sobre su impacto en el resultado medioambiental. Proponemos que el ajuste estratégico es probable que influya sobre dos resultados organizativos: equilibrio dinámico y desequilibrio dinámico.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

El debate previo ha señalado el papel de la adaptación frente a la selección a la hora de lograr el ajuste estratégico, pero sin embargo nosotros aseguramos que las empresas varían en su ajuste estratégico. Modelizamos las diferencias entre empresas en cuanto a su rendimiento medioambiental utilizando datos de una encuesta de empresas pequeñas y medianas empresas chinas.

Resultados

El liderazgo transformacional, agilidad operativa, e identidad basada en el conocimiento facilitan el ajuste compensatorio, mientras que el crecimiento de la productividad, la adaptabilidad estratégica y una baja madurez producto-mercado favorecen el ajuste estratégico.

Implicaciones teóricas

Mostramos como un bajo ajuste estratégico genera ventajas en la selección vía ajuste compensatorio. Algunas empresas buscan un mayor ajuste a las contingencias del entorno (equilibrio dinámico) a costa de su energía. Sin embargo, otras responden a las expectativas sobre rendimiento medioambiental para alcanzar un ajuste compensatorio utilizando la energía del contexto (desequilibrio dinámico). Esto se manifiesta en forma de capacidades distintas para la adaptación frente a la selección.

Implicaciones prácticas

Nuestros resultados subrayan como las empresas pueden usar el ajuste cultura para trascender los contrastes entre el ajuste estratégico orientado a los resultados económicos y el ajuste compensatorio orientado a los resultados medioambientales.

Originalidad/valor

La investigación resalta el reto de integrar las presiones para adaptarse a la lógica ecológica predominante en la industria y los imperativos basados en el valor que apoyan la selección del ecosistema social apropiado para los grupos de interés. Enfatiza que el factor decisivo que influye de manera decisiva en la capacidad de la empresa para manejar las contraprestaciones económicas y ecológicas es la orientación cultural a favor del bienestar de las personas. Mediante un modelo integrador de desarrollo económico y ecológico a nivel nacional una empresa puede reducir los costes derivados del hecho de que algunos países puedan favorecer los intereses económicos a costa de los medioambientales y generar externalidades negativas.

Palavras-chave Resultados medioambientales, Crecimiento de la productividad, Liderazgo transformacional, Agilidad operativa, Adaptabilidad estratégica, Madurez producto-mercado

Objetivo

O ajuste estratégico é conhecido por ser um importante antecedente do desempenho da empresa, mas há poucas pesquisas explicando sua influência no desempenho ambiental da empresa. Propomos que o ajuste estratégico provavelmente influenciará dois resultados no nível da empresa: equilíbrio dinâmico e desequilíbrio dinâmico.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

O debate prévio destacou o papel da adaptação versus seleção na obtenção de adequação estratégica, mas afirmamos que as empresas variam em sua adequação estratégica. Nós modelamos diferenciais entre firmas no desempenho ambiental, usando dados de pesquisa de uma amostra de pequenas e médias empresas chinesas.

Resultados

A liderança transformadora, a agilidade operacional e a identidade baseada em conhecimento facilitam o ajuste compensatório, enquanto o crescimento da produtividade, a adaptabilidade estratégica e a baixa maturidade do mercado de produtos permitem um ajuste estratégico.

Implicações Teóricas

Mostramos como o ajuste estratégico baixo pode fornecer vantagens de seleção via ajuste compensatório. Algumas firmas buscam obter maior adequação às contingências contextuais embutidas (equilíbrio dinâmico) ao custo de sua energia. No entanto, outros respondem às expectativas de desempenho verde que atualmente são ortogonais ao contexto embutido, para realizar o ajuste compensatório utilizando a energia do contexto (desequilíbrio dinâmico). Isso se manifesta como capacidades diferenciais de adaptação versus seleção.

Implicações práticas

Nossas descobertas destacam como as empresas podem usar o caminho da adaptação cultural para transcender as compensações fenomenológicas entre o ajuste estratégico orientado para o desempenho econômico e o ajuste compensatório voltado para o desempenho ecológico.

Originalidade/valor

A pesquisa destaca os desafios da cultura de trabalho de integrar as pressões para se adaptar à predominante ecologia industrial versus o imperativo dominante baseado em valores para selecionar o ecossistema social apropriado dos interessados. Isso enfatiza que o fator decisivo na capacidade formativa de uma empresa para promover compromissos econômicos e ecológicos é a orientação cultural para o bem-estar humano em uma plataforma nacional. Ao programar um modelo integrativo de desenvolvimento econômico e ecológico em nível nacional, uma empresa pode auto mitigar os custos da economia política internacional que surgem quando algumas nações trocam o bem-estar ecológico em prol de interesses econômicos e geram externalidades negativas.

Palavras-chave Palavras-chave Desempenho ambiental, Crescimento de produtividade, Liderança transformacional, Agilidade operacional, Adaptabilidade estratégica, Maturidade do Produto-Mercado

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Robert P. Garrett and Jeffrey G. Covin

In business environments characterized by intense competition, globalization, rapid technological diffusion, accelerated product life cycles, and evolving industry…

Abstract

In business environments characterized by intense competition, globalization, rapid technological diffusion, accelerated product life cycles, and evolving industry boundaries, the ability of firms to adapt effectively to their changing environments is a strategic imperative (Hitt, Keats, & DeMarie, 1998; Nadler & Tushman, 1999). The exhibition of strategic adaptability – the ability of a firm to alter its alignment with the environment through reactive and proactive behaviors (Evans, 1991) – is a function of the goodness-of-fit that exists between the capabilities of a firm and the demands imposed by its relevant industry context (Burgelman & Grove, 1996). When firm capabilities are well aligned with industry success factors, those capabilities constitute strategic assets for the firm, or resources that lead to the achievement of competitive success in that context (Amit & Schoemaker, 1993). The possession of strategic assets thus contributes to a state of adaptation, defined by Chakravarthy (1982) as a state in which an organization exhibits the capacity to survive the conditions of its changing environment. Because of the constantly shifting nature of the environment, a state of adaptation is not a permanent settling point for the organization, but rather a moving target for the organization as it attempts to remain “mapped on” to the exigencies of the environment.

Details

Entrepreneurial Strategic Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1429-4

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Evolutionary Selection Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-685-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Sunil Venaik and David F. Midgley

This paper aims to identify the archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries and to examine the relationships between MNC subsidiary…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries and to examine the relationships between MNC subsidiary strategy, environment and performance through the theoretical lenses of fit and equifinality.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a mail survey to collect data from MNC subsidiary business units located in multiple countries. They apply a novel archetypal analysis method to identify the diverse archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries. Finally, through cross-tabulation and regression analysis, they examine the relationships between MNC strategy, environment and performance.

Findings

They identify four archetypes of MNC subsidiary standardization-adaptation including a new archetype that is not recognized in the literature. This analysis finds partial support for both fit and equifinality, suggesting complementarity between the two theories.

Research limitations/implications

The study could be extended with longitudinal data to examine the dynamics in MNC marketing mix strategy and performance in response to the changing business environment.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that MNC subsidiary managers could deploy a broader set of international marketing strategy configurations than those currently prescribed to enhance performance.

Originality/value

The authors use a novel configuration-based archetypal analysis method and extend the theoretical typology of international marketing strategies pursued by MNC subsidiaries. The partial support for both fit and equifinality expands the theoretical lens through which we can examine the relationships between MNC marketing strategy, environment and performance.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Dessislava Dikova, Arjen van Witteloostuijn and Simon Parker

Extant work in international business (IB) involves a partial contingency-theoretic perspective: a holistic view of the impact of bundles of contingencies on an outcome…

Abstract

Purpose

Extant work in international business (IB) involves a partial contingency-theoretic perspective: a holistic view of the impact of bundles of contingencies on an outcome variable is missing. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a contingency approach to study multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary performance in the appropriate context of European transition economies at the beginning of the current millennium.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodologically, the authors introduce abduction as a line of inquiry into IB and management to develop new theoretical insights, and apply the novel empirical general interaction method to estimate bundle effects. In so doing, the authors contribute to the further development of a theoretical and empirical toolkit to revitalize holistic, or configurational, quantitative research in IB and management.

Findings

The authors find that capability fit is a necessary condition for high MNE subsidiary marketing performance, whilst environment fit is particularly critical for high MNE subsidiary financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

A key limitation is that this is a cross-section study.

Practical implications

This study offers insights as to subsidiary fit into Eastern Europe, indicating fitting entry and establishment modes.

Originality/value

This paper offers a novel holistic approach to IB, both in terms of theoretical and empirical methodology.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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