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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Xiaoting Xu, Mengqing Yang, Yuxiang Chris Zhao and Qinghua Zhu

Based on the examination of the roles of message framing and evidence type, this study made an analysis of the promotion methods of intention and information need towards…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the examination of the roles of message framing and evidence type, this study made an analysis of the promotion methods of intention and information need towards HPV vaccination.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted a 2 (gain-framed messages vs loss-framed messages) × 2 (statistical evidence vs narrative evidence) quasi-experimental design built upon theories of message framing and evidence type. This experiment recruited college students who were not vaccinated against HPV as participants. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the independent sample T-test were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results (N = 300) indicate that (1) Loss-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than gain-framed messages. (2) Statistical evidence will lead to a more explicit information need than narrative evidence. (3) Message framing and evidence type will interact and (a) for statistical evidence, loss-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than gain-framed messages and (b) for narrative evidence, gain-framed messages will lead to a more favorable intention towards HPV vaccination than loss-framed messages. (4) Message framing and evidence type will interact and (a) for loss-framed messages, statistical evidence will stimulate more explicit information need of HPV vaccination than narrative evidence and (b) for gain-framed messages, narrative evidence will stimulate more explicit information need of HPV vaccination than statistical evidence.

Originality/value

This paper can help to further understand the important roles of message framing and evidence type in health behavior promotion. The study contributes to the literature on how health information can be well organized to serve the public health communication and further enhance the health information service.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Abstract

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Empirical Nursing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-814-9

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Frank J. Cavico and Bahaudin Mujtaba

While the words diversity, disparate impact, and discrimination are commonly read and heard by working adults and professionals, they can at times be confusing and fearful…

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Abstract

Purpose

While the words diversity, disparate impact, and discrimination are commonly read and heard by working adults and professionals, they can at times be confusing and fearful to some managers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a specific aspect of US civil rights laws – the disparate impact theory. The authors provide an analysis based on the statute, case law interpreting, and applying the statute, administrative guidelines from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as well as legal and management commentary. The paper illustrates the requirements of a plaintiff employee’s initial case based on the disparate impact theory. The challenging causation component which requires some degree of statistical evidence is given particular attention. Limitations to the paper are stated at the beginning; and recommendations to managers are explored and provided toward the end of the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a legal paper which covers all the laws related to discrimination based on disparate impact and disparate treatment theories. Actual court cases up until this month and Americans laws related to this concept are reviewed and critically discussed.

Findings

The salient feature of disparate impact is that this legal theory allows a plaintiff job applicant or employee to sustain a case of illegal discrimination without providing any evidence of a discriminatory motive. As opposed to the disparate treatment liability is imposed based on disproportionate adverse results and not discriminatory intent.

Research limitations/implications

This paper deals with the disparate impact theory pursuant to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. However, it must be pointed out that the disparate impact theory is also applicable to claims arising under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Since the focus of this paper is Title VII federal and state constitutional issues, such as the applicability of the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection clause that may arise in disparate impact cases involving government entities will not be addressed.

Practical implications

Managers and employees can protect themselves in the workplace from illegal discriminatory practices. Initially, employers and managers must be aware of the distinction between a disparate impact case and a disparate treatment case with the latter requiring evidence of intentional discrimination. Evidence, of course, can be direct or circumstantial or inferential. Whereas in a disparate impact case there is no intentional discrimination; and as such proof of discriminatory intent is not required. Rather, the employee has to present evidence that the employer’s neutral on-its-face employment policy or practice caused an adverse disproportionate impact on the employee as a member of a protected class.

Social implications

Human resources professionals and managers must become educated in diversity laws in order to provide an inclusive workplace for all employees and candidates. Employers have legitimate areas of concern in hiring and promoting employees; and the courts are cognizant of employer responsibilities; and thus the employers must be able to show how specific knowledge, skills, education, training, backgrounds, as well as height, weight, strength, and dexterity are legitimate qualifications that directly relate to successful job performance.

Originality/value

This is an original paper by the authors.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Devid Kumar Basyal, Niraj Poudyal and Jin-Wan Seo

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the relationship between E-government and corruption using global panel data from 176 countries covering the period from 2003 to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the relationship between E-government and corruption using global panel data from 176 countries covering the period from 2003 to 2014, considering other potential determinants, such as economic prosperity (gross domestic product per capita [GDPPC]), price stability (inflation), good governance (political stability and government effectiveness) and press freedom (civil liberties and political rights) indicators. Hence, the main rationale of this study is to reexamine the conventional wisdom as to the relationship between E-government and corruption using panel data independent of any preexisting notions.

Design/methodology/approach

The probability reduction approach of empirical modeling proposed by Spanos (2009) is used to test the relationship. Secondary data were collected from the United Nations, the World Bank, Transparency International and Freedom House.

Findings

No statistical evidence was found for the idea that E-government has a positive impact on corruption reduction following a rigorous test of the proposition. However, strong evidence was found for the positive impact of a country’s government effectiveness, political stability and economic status. There also appears to be some evidence for the effect of GDPPC and civil liberties. There is no evidence to prove that inflation and political rights have any corruption reducing the effect.

Research limitations/implications

Case studies suggest that E-government is helpful for curbing corruption. This study includes and examines some of the potential and important variables associated with corruption. Further research is encouraged and it should include more variables, such as national culture, poverty, religion and geography. Regarding methodology, a more parsimonious model must be sought to take into account adequately the entire probabilistic structure of the data.

Practical implications

The findings of the study demonstrate that E-government is less significant for reducing corruption compared to other factors. Hence, policymakers should further focus on other potential areas such as socio-economic factors, good governance, culture and transparency to combat corruption in addition to improving digital government.

Originality/value

This research applies a new methodological approach to the study of the relationship between E-government and corruption.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Loay Salhieh, Mohammad Shehadeh, Ismail Abushaikha and Neil Towers

The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of integrating IT tracking and routing systems into last-mile distribution operations. The paper also demonstrates the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of integrating IT tracking and routing systems into last-mile distribution operations. The paper also demonstrates the role of field experiments as a valid approach for improving the rigour of logistics research.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a field experiment approach. Data were collected before and after the experimental treatment from 16 participating vehicles, which were used as inputs and outputs to calculate vehicles' efficiencies using data envelopment analysis.

Findings

Through employing manipulation and random assignment to investigate causality in naturally occurring contexts, the study results show statistical evidence for the role of vehicle tracking and routing systems in enhancing fleet efficiency. Furthermore, results show that field experiment is an appropriate method for capital budgeting of deploying IT systems in the distribution function.

Practical implications

Distribution managers can use a field experiment setup to assess the potential impact of installing IT solutions prior to large-scale implementation or prior to purchasing.

Originality/value

The study fills a gap in the literature through the application of a field experiment approach to establish causality relationships in distribution and logistics research. This study should encourage new research on the role of field experimentation in evaluating the benefits gained from, and the capital budgeting of, the modern disruptive technologies in supply chains.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Conor O'Leary

The purpose of this paper is to consider how ethics is currently taught to trainee auditors and to evaluate whether some ethical instruction techniques can be assessed as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider how ethics is currently taught to trainee auditors and to evaluate whether some ethical instruction techniques can be assessed as more effective than others.

Design/methodology/approach

Two separate cohorts of auditing students (262) provided responses to audit/accounting ethical scenarios. Each cohort was then subject to three separate ethics teaching techniques (either active or passive), from the two different teaching methodologies (active v. passive) over a semester. Their ethical attitudes to the scenarios were then re‐assessed and the teaching techniques evaluated.

Findings

Both methodologies were found to impact positively, as both cohorts selected more ethical responses to the scenarios post instruction. Some evidence of active techniques having more effect than passive techniques, on ethical decision making was revealed.

Research limitations/implications

More research is needed into the impact of active and passive teaching methodologies on trainee auditors, in the ethics area.

Practical implications

Teaching ethics to the audit practitioners of tomorrow is critical. If the optimum mix of ethical teaching methodologies can be assessed, it will result in more effective ethical instruction. This study's results imply careful consideration must be taken in designing ethical training programs for trainee auditors.

Social implications

Improvement in the ethical behaviour of auditors will provide more confidence for users of accounting information in the business environment.

Originality/value

This paper is original in that it evaluates the impact of a series of ethical instruction methods, as opposed to a single teaching method (the focus of many previous papers) on ethical training. The tentative finding of active methods proving more effective than passive methods is significant, and paves the way for future research.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Antonio Padilla‐Meléndez and Aurora Garrido‐Moreno

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main factors affecting researcher engagement in knowledge transfer exchanges (KTE) in an Open Innovation (OI) context…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main factors affecting researcher engagement in knowledge transfer exchanges (KTE) in an Open Innovation (OI) context, devoting special attention to specific factors such as personal and professional profile, institutional variables, social networks and recognition.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review was conducted, focusing on current studies concerning the OI concept and research lines, OI and universities, KTE, and the factors affecting researcher engagement in university KTE. Based on this review a conceptual framework was proposed, including four main factors that affect KTE researcher engagement (personal and professional, institutional, social networks and recognition). The assumptions of this framework were explored in an empirical study involving 382 senior researchers, acting as leaders of different research groups, at Spanish universities. This was followed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis.

Findings

Results show that, apart from recognition, most of the proposed factors affect researcher engagement in KTE processes. The social network factors appear to be the most important, as all items were significant in affecting the engagement of researchers in these processes.

Research limitations/implications

Both the study and the statistical analysis are exploratory, therefore results should be treated with caution. Moreover, the data were collected from only one country, hence, in order to improve validity, additional data would be needed.

Practical implications

Social networks (between researchers, businesses, university administrators, University Technology Transfer Office directors, etc.) should be promoted in order to improve researcher involvement in university KTE in an OI context.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research literature discussing factors affecting researcher engagement in KTE processes. Moreover, researcher involvement is a key factor in contributing to the success of KTE. This paper provides a thorough discussion of these factors and proposes a conceptual framework with which they may be studied in the context of OI.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Abstract

Details

Race Discrimination and Management of Ethnic Diversity and Migration at Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-594-8

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Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2006

Thomas W. Lin, Daniel E. O’Leary and Hai Lu

Using belief functions, this paper develops a model of the situation of a management team trying to decide if a cost process is in control, or out of control and, thus, in…

Abstract

Using belief functions, this paper develops a model of the situation of a management team trying to decide if a cost process is in control, or out of control and, thus, in need of investigation. Belief functions allow accounting for uncertainty and information about the cost processes, extending traditional probability theory approaches. The purpose of this paper is to build and investigate the ramifications of that model. In addition, an example is used to illustrate the process.

Details

Applications of Management Science: In Productivity, Finance, and Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-999-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Robert Burgin

The fine art of budget presentation is based on a two‐step process: the request for funds and the defense of that request. Although both steps use statistics, it is the…

Abstract

The fine art of budget presentation is based on a two‐step process: the request for funds and the defense of that request. Although both steps use statistics, it is the budget defense that demands the creative use of statistics.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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