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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ram Herstein and Ron Berger

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies

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8524

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies, and how businesses take advantage of such opportunities to increase their incomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A new framework is presented that is based on four different alternatives for city re‐branding strategies based on sport events. These four re‐branding strategies are derived from two main dimensions: the locus of the sports event (local vs international) and the longevity of the sports event (one‐off vs continual).

Findings

Prospective hosts of mega or international sports events must ensure that people all over the world see their city as a leisure, tourism and consumption center and not just a sports arena. Conversely, when hosting medium or minor sports events, planners must aim for these sport events to increase residents' civic pride.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper demonstrates how city planners and decision makers can leverage their city image and its business sector's potential to earn from this event directly and indirectly, based on the aforesaid four re‐branding strategies: Mega sports events, International sports events, Medium sport events, and Minor sport events.

Originality/value

This article deals with four types of sports event strategies at the same time, whereas other investigations tend to deal with only a single type.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Danny O'Brien and Laurence Chalip

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex

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2821

Abstract

Purpose

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex ante, strategic approach refers to the phenomenon of event leveraging. This paper aims to introduce readers to the concept, and poses practical exercises to challenge current thinking on sport event impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an introduction to the literature on the strategic leveraging of sport events and presents three theoretical models depicting various aspects of event leverage. The paper includes training exercises on the subject of sport event leverage along with possible answers.

Findings

Building on prior work, this paper proposes a new model for social leverage. The model and the related discussion highlight potential synergies between economic and social leverage.

Research limitations/implications

As the proposed model for social leverage is essentially exploratory, it remains empirically untested. This represents an obvious challenge for further research.

Practical implications

This paper recognizes that, particularly in the last decade, a paradigm shift has taken place in parts of the international events community, and provides a challenge and potential direction for event practitioners to continue the path towards achieving the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits for host communities.

Originality/value

The social leverage model breaks new ground in the (sport) events field, as does the push towards sustainability and a more triple bottom line approach to event outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the…

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4251

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the destination, respectively the sport event.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to measure image congruence an indirect, multi‐attributive measure was chosen – using a self‐administered questionnaire distributed to sport tourists at six different sport events in Germany – so as to be able to investigate the two images first separately and second to construct an independent fit measure using the absolute differences of corresponding items. Logistic regression analyses evaluated dependencies between image congruence, location components and socio‐demographic aspects on behavioural intentions.

Findings

The results show that the overall models are significant and that certain elements such as the affinity of atmosphere do play a central role in predicting future visits.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation could arise due to the sample because almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports concluding whether the sport performed influences behaviour, too.

Practical implications

Some practical implications with respect to the kind of appeal towards sport tourists are given.

Originality/value

This paper shows that not only separated images affect future behaviour but that the perceived fit between two actually distinct images influences behaviour as well.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Ana Brochado, Pedro Dionísio, Maria do Carmo Leal, Adrien Bouchet and Henrique Conceição

This study aims to develop a battery of items that assess the factors affecting sports events’ success from the promoters’ perspective and a measurement tool that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a battery of items that assess the factors affecting sports events’ success from the promoters’ perspective and a measurement tool that identifies these stakeholders’ main priorities based on the importance-performance analysis (IPA) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted using mixed methods. In the first qualitative step, sports event management’s main dimensions were identified based on the existing literature and a comprehensive battery of corresponding items were developed via content analysis of interviews with experts. The second quantitative step focused on Lisbon, the 2021 European City of Sport. Promoters of 21 different medium or large sports events (number = 41 respondents) were asked to fill out a survey ranking each dimension’s items by performance and room for improvement. The IPA’s results are presented both for the overall sample and by promoter type (i.e. events with or without sports facilities).

Findings

The 46 items identified fall into the following three categories: sports infrastructure, city image and hospitality and event management (i.e. pre-event, event and post-event). Pre-event includes stakeholder management, organigram and responsibilities, business plan, marketing mix, risk assessment and sponsorship management. Sponsorship management stands out among the areas considered a priority by event promotors.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by offering a comprehensive approach to assessing empirically all stages of the event management process.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Tiberio Daddi, Francesco Rizzi, Gaia Pretner, Niccolò Todaro, Eleonora Annunziata, Marco Frey and Fabio Iraldo

The relation between sport and sustainability is a topic that has recently raised a lot of interest among both academics and practitioners. However, in the academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The relation between sport and sustainability is a topic that has recently raised a lot of interest among both academics and practitioners. However, in the academic literature, very few studies have investigated which solutions are implemented in football, despite its popularity, to reduce the environmental impact of its events. This study contributes to filling this gap by exploring how stadium managers tackle environmental issues for football events.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have analyzed 94 sustainability reports of major sports events and conducted 6 case studies in 6 different major league stadiums around Europe in the framework of research supported by UEFA and three EU National Football Associations.

Findings

The heterogeneity of practices and goals at both the governance and operational level denote that stadium managers pursue environmental objectives mainly voluntarily and under local pressures. Efforts toward environmental improvement appear to depend on an economic and efficiency rationale, which translates into the adoption of technologies and operational practices characterized by short-term economic returns (i.e. energy and resources savings). As a result, operational practices outnumber governance-level practices.

Practical implications

The analysis clearly highlights that the fragmentation of operational practices derives from a lack of maturity of governance structures, especially when multiple actors have different – yet mutually influencing – responsibilities on the infrastructures or the planning and staging of football events.

Originality/value

Building on the notion of the holistic approach to environmental sustainability in sport management the research differentiated environmental practices according to the operational and governance dimensions. While operational practices tackle environmental aspects directly associated with football events (e.g. waste, energy consumption, water usage, etc.), governance-level practices relate to the systemic allocation of environmental roles and responsibilities within the management structure underlying football events.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Rei Yamashita and Masaya Muneda

It is crucial to create an inclusive society through sport. Many researchers have focused on the social benefits of hosting events and identified the necessity of…

Abstract

Purpose

It is crucial to create an inclusive society through sport. Many researchers have focused on the social benefits of hosting events and identified the necessity of revealing the impact of parasport. There is inadequate knowledge of what local residents perceive from spectating non-mega-parasporting events. Therefore, this research aimed to reveal the influence of spectators' perceived social benefits, subjective well-being, and support for parasport events.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted with questionnaires distributed to spectators of two wheelchair basketball tournaments. Of the 2,100 questionnaires distributed, 1,996 were returned; of these, 1,544 were rejected because of not having local resident status. The final response rate of useable questionnaires was 22.6% (n = 452).

Findings

Both community benefits and cultural/educational benefits positively affected subjective well-being, which also significantly affected support for the event. Further, there was no significant moderating effect of having family members or close friends with disability.

Practical implications

The results indicate that sporting event managers can collaborate with local educational boards and use sporting events as educational material for children to raise next-generation, highly diversity-minded leaders from the local area.

Originality/value

This study revealed that parasporting events have educational value. Additionally, athletes with disabilities inspire spectators, which changes the perception of their educational impacts.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Yunduk Jeong and Sukkyu Kim

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride…

Abstract

Purpose

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride enhancement, social overhead capital investment and tourism business development. However, a paucity of studies in the literature have developed integrative models or have explored domestic tourist behavior in a general, or the sports tourism, context. To address this gap, the present study investigates the relationships between event quality, personal involvement, destination image and destination loyalty in the context of event sports tourism in order to provide sporting destination managers with valuable information for sustainable sports tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected information from 365 domestic tourists who attended the 100th National Sports Festival held in Seoul, South Korea, in 2019. Construct validity of the measurement scale was verified by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), factor loadings, average variance (AVE) extracted and construct reliability (CR). Reliability of the measurement scale was verified by Cronbach's alpha analysis. The authors utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation to analyze the predicted relationships.

Findings

The findings display the positive impacts of (1) event quality on destination image, (2) personal involvement on destination image, (3) personal involvement on destination loyalty and (4) destination image on destination loyalty. The findings indicate the key roles for event quality and personal involvement in improving destination image and the important roles of personal involvement and destination image in building destination loyalty.

Originality/value

The present study (1) contributes to the recent debate in the sports tourism literature over the relationship between the destination image and destination loyalty and (2) shows that there is no mediating role of the destination image on the relationship between the event quality and destination loyalty, and personal involvement and destination loyalty.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Michael Atkinson and Amanda De Lisio

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of…

Abstract

Purpose

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of “legacy” effects are poorly understood. This chapter presents a sociological examination of the sport mega-event legacy measurement process.

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, we reflect on our own involvement in legacy evaluation in the context of the 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games in Toronto to examine existing legacy measurement strategies, review their findings, and present a theoretical detour via the past for consideration in future sociological contributions to the legacy measurement process.

Findings

Data discussed in this chapter suggest a need for the creation of a more sociologically informed, methodologically robust and piecemeal rather than Utopian-oriented “report card” measurement device for legacy evaluation.

Practical implications

Based on the review of evidence, we contend that if sociologists of sport remain committed to keeping their roles, as public intellectuals, applied researchers or participatory activists in the sport for development/legacy nexus, those involved might do so with a greater attention to focusing on what Karl Popper (1961) refers to as piecemeal social engineering strategies and measurements, and attending to those legacies both on and off the event organizing committee radar screen.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Joon-ho Kang

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Chris A. Vassiliadis and Anestis Fotiadis

This chapter aims to present and analyze how the methodology/approach of service blueprinting may contribute to managing and offering high quality experiences to sport tourists.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to present and analyze how the methodology/approach of service blueprinting may contribute to managing and offering high quality experiences to sport tourists.

Methodology/approach

In this study we use a combination of theoretical tools to develop a finalized services blueprint map for sport events. The method consists of a literature review and a presentation of empirical findings. First, using a case study, we present the process through which a small-scale sport event blueprint map was constructed. Secondly, based on a meeting with the management staff and the use of diaries, we analyze the comments of tourists in the sport event area. Thirdly, we compare and describe the main contact points between the front-line staff and sport event tourists in a service blueprint. Finally we apply the six dimensional construct domain analysis of service experiences and combine this information in a table format for the Failure, Effect, and Action analysis.

Findings

This study shows that observation, diaries, service blueprints, comment management, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) are a range of corporate research approaches and management tools that can offer new insights into the theory and praxis of service management applications and can improve the experiences of sports tourists.

Research limitations/implications

This study is related to sport rural events. Researchers have to check with the same method to study the results also in other sport events.

Practical implications

The analysis of Small-Scale Sport Event Services Blueprinting can be combined with other useful managerial tools, like the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to better manage the contact points, the “moments of truth” of tourist experiences in the sport event service system. In addition, the SMF case study shows that it is useful to point out the problematic areas in the service system using combined methods and managerial tools with the aim of enhancing and contributing to better manage sport tourism event experiences.

Originality/value

It presents the new idea of combining theoretical constructs and measurement tools in order to blueprint, analyze, and create service customer experiences.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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