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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Luke R. Potwarka, Ryan Snelgrove, Laura Wood, Georgia Teare and Daniel Wigfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify cognitive and affective mechanisms associated with post-event intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of youth spectators (n = 362) who experienced the 2016 Milton International Track Cycling Challenge completed pre- and post-event questionnaires to assess intention to participate and cognitive and affective components of their spectator experience.

Findings

Respondents' intentions to participate post-event were significantly higher than pre-event. Results also indicated that state inspiration mediated relationships between three cognitive dimensions of sport spectator experiences (i.e. fantasy, flow, evaluation) and intention to participate.

Practical implications

Sport managers should design youth day events to engage with youth prior to the event to increase their knowledge of the sport. This prior engagement may help youth to evaluate performances effectively. Moreover, event experience should be designed to incorporate vicarious and immersive experiences tailored to youth spectators.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to assess intentions to participate among youth spectators at multiple time points (i.e. before and after an event) and identifies specific mechanism within the spectator experience that may lead to a demonstration effect.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Kyu-soo Chung, Dong Soo Ryu, B. Christine Green and Hyun Min Kang

This study measures the effect of each of the five senses on arousal, satisfaction and intention to revisit a live racing event. Spectators' arousal was significantly…

Abstract

This study measures the effect of each of the five senses on arousal, satisfaction and intention to revisit a live racing event. Spectators' arousal was significantly influenced by sights, sounds and smells. Spectators' sense of smell, taste, and touch directly impacted satisfaction. Interestingly, olfactory stimuli had an effect on both arousal and satisfaction. Spectators' arousal had a significant indirect effect on their revisit intention. The study proposes that motorsports marketers make use of olfactory stimuli to provide racing spectators with memorable experiences.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2016

C. Keith Harrison, Scott Bukstein, Ginny McPherson Botts and Suzanne Malia Lawrence

The purpose of this paper is to investigate female National Football League (NFL) spectators’ preferences and feedback in regard to various customer service components of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate female National Football League (NFL) spectators’ preferences and feedback in regard to various customer service components of the NFL game day experience. The primary components with respect to female spectators’ choices, preferences, and feedback are as follows: apparel and other merchandise; food and beverage; restrooms and facility cleanliness; tailgating and parking; participants’ decision to attend an NFL game; and participants’ perceptions of the NFL. A core objective was to learn more about the female decision-making process and overall experience at NFL games.

Design/methodology/approach

All data were collected during the 2012-2013 NFL regular season. Four different data collections were conducted at two NFL stadiums to investigate the game day experiences of women at NFL games. Previous research was used as a basis for creating survey questions about the female game day experience. In this study, an open-ended questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions, both forms of data were collected and analyzed, and researchers made both quantitative and qualitative interpretations based on the data.

Findings

Findings and results indicated women are diverse customers. Sport organizations need to focus on the minor details that reflect how individuals experience a brand and product, as these sport organizations have the opportunity to enhance the female customer experience and retain existing female customers if the organizations systemically listen to and communicate with the female customer at NFL games. The NFL and individual NFL teams should include female spectators in the brand strategy process. Female customers of the NFL can be powerful brand loyalists and outstanding brand ambassadors.

Originality/value

This research study provides an investigation of the preferences and perceptions of women spectators at NFL games. One contribution of the current study is that researchers have accepted the challenge by some researchers calling for more complexity with researching gender and attempting to shift some of the ways in which women are viewed as fans and spectators. However, what is key with the approach in the current study is that researchers allowed the women to be heard with respect to their game day experiences, perceptions, and thoughts about their identity as a spectator.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Saara Moisio

This article examines how spectators describe their expectations of contemporary dance by referring to action. Through discussing a qualitative audience study, the article…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines how spectators describe their expectations of contemporary dance by referring to action. Through discussing a qualitative audience study, the article argues that spectators always have an expectation of being affected by performances they attend. This expectation can guide their interest in attending performances of certain genres instead of other possible ones on offer. Additionally, the article points out how spectators can actively manage their expectations in order to be affected.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on 21 in-depth interviews with spectators at a dance venue, a company and a festival in Finland. The analysis of the interviews combines thematic analysis with metaphor analysis. Employing the paradigm of enaction and the concept of affordances, this article approaches expectations as embodied and dynamic, created in interactions between artists, producers and spectators.

Findings

The analysis shows that when speaking about their expectations of performances, spectators use bodily and spatial metaphors. Focusing on metaphors reveals how, for the spectators, performances afford a possibility for action that affects them. The interviewed spectators describe that contemporary dance is “not set in its ways”, and therefore it keeps them “awake” and their thoughts do “not fossilize”. This way, they understand contemporary dance as a genre that affords a possibility to be affected by allowing a freedom of own interpretation and surprising experiences if they desire such.

Originality/value

Concentration on the metaphors of language offers a deeper understanding of the active nature of spectators' expectations. Understanding how spectators describe their expectations by referring to action that enables the shaping of their emotions and thoughts can help the development of arts marketing and audience engagement.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Kyu-soo Chung, Dong Soo Ryu and Seunghwan Lee

The purpose of this paper is to provide meaningful information to sport organizations that have just recently started hosting sporting events in a new market and want to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide meaningful information to sport organizations that have just recently started hosting sporting events in a new market and want to build long-term relationships with that market’s consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using self-administered questionnaires, the study surveys 463 spectators who attended the 2012 Formula One Korean Grand Prix.

Findings

Prior affect and existing sensory cues are crucial for spectators’ consumption behavior. Spectators’ prior event attendance plays a significant role on perceiving sensory stimuli as well as on consequent outcomes. This study also finds arousal significantly affected by seeing and hearing and prior affect. Arousal mediates the effects of these sensory stimuli and prior affect on satisfaction and revisit intention.

Originality/value

This study expands the knowledge on spectatorsexperience at live sporting events. In addition, more dimensions of the mechanisms that are at work between cognitive elements and sensory stimuli are added to the existing knowledge of sport spectators’ behavior.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Weisheng Chiu, Doyeon Won and Ho Keat Leng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport involvement, perceived event prestige and attendance intention of annual sporting events. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport involvement, perceived event prestige and attendance intention of annual sporting events. In addition, it examines the moderating effects of gender and past experience on the proposed model.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected, using an on-site survey, from spectators (n=349) who attended the men’s or women’s basketball tournaments of the 2016 William Jones Cup held in Taiwan.

Findings

The results showed that perceived event prestige partially mediated the relationship between sport involvement and attendance intention of sporting events. Moreover, the moderating effects of gender and experience were found in the proposed model. Specifically, male spectators’ involvement had a significantly stronger influence on perceived event prestige, and, in turn, their perception of event prestige played a more significant role in influencing attendance intention. Also, sport involvement was more important in predicting attendance intention for experienced spectators whereas the prestige of the event was more important for first-time spectators.

Originality/value

This study suggests that sport event organizers need to employ different strategies in developing the subsequent editions of the event and retaining fans’ interest in the sport. Specifically, event organizers need to enhance the prestige of the sporting event through effective marketing communication to attract first-time spectators to the event.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Hüseyin Çevik and Kerem Yıldırım Şimşek

The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical relationship between experience quality (EXQ), satisfaction and the behavioral intentions (BI) of Motocross World…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical relationship between experience quality (EXQ), satisfaction and the behavioral intentions (BI) of Motocross World Championship spectators.

Design/methodology/approach

The research data were collected from spectators who participated in the World Motocross Championship race held in Afyon, Turkey in 2018. The structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relationship among the research variables.

Findings

The results showed EXQ had significant and direct effects on satisfaction and BI. In addition to this, satisfaction had a partial mediating effect between EXQ and BI.

Originality/value

To date there has been no empirical study examining the consumer behaviors of motocross event spectators. Consequently, this research provides important contributions to the literature and informs event organizers about the role of EXQ in terms of understanding the behavior of motocross event spectators.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2015

Christopher Hautbois and Patrick Bouchet

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes…

Abstract

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes, with numerous works addressing this topic But these surveys are more about fans of professional sports clubs (soccer, basketball, baseball, hockey, etc) who attend regular season games in their favourite teams' home stadium or arena. To our knowledge, very few studies have been conducted into spectators of national teams. It is these spectators who are of the focus of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Charles W. Jones and Kevin K. Byon

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as both a contributor to and a beneficiary of value is acknowledged and the importance of stakeholder interactions is emphasized. This study analyzes the extent to which two theoretically and managerially important factors—attendance frequency (i.e. first-time attendee vs repeat attendee) and resident type (i.e. local resident vs domestic traveler)—impact value creation in the recurring live sporting event setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from spectators who attended a National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) sanctioned racing event. Multigroup structural equation modeling was performed to examine the proposed pathways, and multigroup t-tests were used to compare the model across both groups for each moderating variable. Corresponding path coefficients were then compared using Chin's (2004) recommended equations and procedures.

Findings

The study found organization-related value propositions to be the more common antecedents of value, while customer appearance had a strong negative association with hedonic value, and attendance frequency and resident type influenced certain value perceptions. Sport organizations should consider the expectations and motivations of various customer groups and provide offerings designed to meet the specific needs of different fan segments based on the spectator's experience with the sport product and the distance traveled to attend the sport event.

Originality/value

This paper advances the authors’ understanding of value creation in sport by showing how customer perceptions of value associated with the sport organization and other customers can be moderated by certain behavioral and geographic factors.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Ryan T Wang and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a home team victory are found to exhibit stronger purchase intentions towards sponsors regardless of the sponsor's ability to improve spectator emotions. Those who experience negative emotions following home team defeat show heightened purchase intentions towards sponsors perceived capable of improving their negative feelings. Purchase intention decreases when sponsors cannot assist in upwardly managing the negative feelings of spectators. Theoretical and managerial implications for sponsors of spectator sports are provided.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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