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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Samuel Sekyi, Christopher Quaidoo and Emmanuel Agyapong Wiafe

This paper aims to analyze the effects of crop specialization on agricultural productivity and commercialization for farmers who produce high-value crops in the Northern…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the effects of crop specialization on agricultural productivity and commercialization for farmers who produce high-value crops in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the USAID/Ghana Feed the Future (FTF) survey, which collected data on high-value crops (i.e. maize, rice and soya). Data for the analysis consists of 2,903 farm households. The study utilized the three-stage generalized method of moment estimation technique to deal with the potential endogeneity of crop specialization within the context of productivity and commercialization and heteroscedasticity issues in the data.

Findings

The study found that crop specialization positively relates to agricultural productivity and commercialization, suggesting that increased crop specialization in the production of high-value stimulates productivity and opens market opportunities for farm households. These findings imply that crop specialization seems more beneficial to farmers as it significantly improves productivity and commercialization.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone of Ghana and not the entire country.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have jointly modeled crop specialization, agricultural productivity and commercialization. The main advantage of using this system approach is that it uses more information, thereby providing more precise parameter estimates.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Albert Nagy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of auditor specialization, at both the partner and office levels, on audit quality within a developed market (the USA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of auditor specialization, at both the partner and office levels, on audit quality within a developed market (the USA).

Design/methodology/approach

This study exploits the environment created when several large accounting firms purchased select Andersen offices following the firm's demise in 2002. OLS regressions were estimated from a sample of companies that assumingly followed their Andersen partner to the purchased accounting firm to examine the association between abnormal discretionary accruals and auditor specialization at both the office and partner levels.

Findings

The descriptive statistics and regression results show a significant negative relation between audit partner specialization and abnormal accruals. Furthermore, the results suggest that partner level specialization has a greater effect on audit quality than that of office level specialization.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by examining the effects of auditor specialization at both the office and partner levels on audit quality within a developed market. The results of this study should be of interest to academics, investors, and regulators and help them in their assessments of auditor quality.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Léo Charles

Using an original product level database, this article analyzes the nature and dynamics of Swiss specializations during the “first globalization” (1850–1913). I study the…

Abstract

Using an original product level database, this article analyzes the nature and dynamics of Swiss specializations during the “first globalization” (1850–1913). I study the comparative advantages, as well as the evolution of the trade structure, in order to understand economic performance differences between Switzerland and France. Despite differences in terms of market size, some common trends are identified. I also argue that Switzerland's skilled labor force, along with an intelligent choice of economic policy, allowed this country to adapt its specialization structure to global demand and enjoy rapid economic growth.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Eric W. Bond and Robert A. Driskill

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy…

Abstract

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy with capital accumulation. We do a comparative steady state analysis for the effect of policy changes on factor prices and the capital stock, and examine the dynamics of the system in the neighborhood of the steady state. We also show that the system will have multiple equilibria when value and physical factor intensity rankings of the sectors do not agree.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Book part
Publication date: 14 June 2002

Alex R. Hoen

Abstract

Details

An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

Jeffrey T. Macher and David C. Mowery

We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of…

Abstract

We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of industry-wide value chains, such that different stages are controlled by different firms, rather than being vertically integrated within the boundaries of individual firms. In some cases, vertical specialization may span international boundaries and is associated with complex international production networks. After decades of vertical specialization, firms in the chemical industry are re-integrating stages of the value chain. By contrast, the semiconductor and computer industries have experienced significant vertical specialization during the past ten years. We examine how and why these contrasting trends in vertical specialization have co-evolved with industry maturation and decline, and underscore the importance and role of both industry factors and business strategies necessary for industries to become more specialized. We also consider the effects of vertical specialization on the sources of innovation and the geographic redistribution of production and other activities. We conclude that the evolution of vertical specialization in these three industries has both reflected and influenced the strategies of leading firms, while also displays industry-specific characteristics that are rooted in different technological and market characteristics.

Details

Business Strategy over the Industry Lifecycle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-135-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Lihua Li, Maria Estela Varua, Adam M. Komarek, Sriram Shankar and William D. Bellotti

The purpose of this paper is to explore the endogenous relationship between production specialisation and market commercialisation with an empirical study of farmers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the endogenous relationship between production specialisation and market commercialisation with an empirical study of farmers in Northwest China.

Design/methodology/approach

The three-stage least squares were used to address simultaneity and over-identification problems in comparison with two-stage least squares (2SLS). The Durbin-Wu-Hausman test was employed to identify the endogeneity of the commercialisation and specialisation variables. The validity, relevance, and strength of the instruments were tested using the Stock-Yogo weak instrument diagnostics test.

Findings

A two-way interrelationship between specialisation and commercialisation were confirmed, and suggest that farmers’ decisions on farm commercialisation and production specialisation are actually separate and interacting.

Social implications

By demonstrating that a virtuous cycle exists between agricultural commercialisation and on-farm specialisation, policies can be formulated to complement these two effects that may help increase small holders’ income. Farmers’ market participation can be indirectly improved by combining market improvement and risk management tools to encourage production specialisation.

Originality/value

The insights of this study cast further light onto the farm market participation theory by emphasising that higher asset endowments enable small farmers to specialise in production with comparative advantage.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Karim Hegazy and Mohamed Hegazy

This study aims to investigate the implications of audit industry specialization on auditor’s retention and growth within an emerging economy. Factors such as whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the implications of audit industry specialization on auditor’s retention and growth within an emerging economy. Factors such as whether the firm is a Big 4, a firm with international affiliation, a local firm and the type of industry were studied to analyse the reasons behind audit firm retention and growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on a field study related to audit firms providing services to listed companies in an emerging economy. The sample includes the top 100 publicly held companies’ in the Egyptian stock market during 2006-2011 for which their annual reports are analysed to determine the audit firms’ retention and growth. An assessment of the continuity of the auditors and the increase in the number of audit clients were also measured.

Findings

The results confirm that industry specialization has an important effect on the auditor’s retention, especially for industries where capital investment is significant such as buildings, construction, financial services, housing and real estate. Big 4 audit firms retained their clients because of their industry specialization and brand name. Evidence was found that good knowledge of accounting and auditing standards resulted in audit firms with international affiliation competing with the Big 4 for clients’ retention and growth.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature, as it is among the first to provide empirical evidence on auditor retention, growth and auditor’s dominance in an emerging economy such as Egypt.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Case study
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Ahmed M. Abdel‐Meguid

Auditor industry specialization in a MENA region country: lessons learnt from PricewaterhouseCoopers – Egypt.

Abstract

Title

Auditor industry specialization in a MENA region country: lessons learnt from PricewaterhouseCoopers – Egypt.

Subject area

Auditing, accounting, finance, control.

Study level/applicability

Upper level undergraduate, MBA, MS accounting.

Case overview

This case takes an internal approach by exploring how PricewaterhouseCoopers – Egypt develops and applies industry specialization in an emerging market such as Egypt. The case focuses on three aspects of specialization. First, the strategic drivers behind specialization. Second, the internal processes of building industry‐specific knowledge. Finally, the costs and benefits of specialization.

Expected learning outcomes

Industry specialization is a strategy: Specialization is a strategy primarily used by Big 4 auditing firms, such as PwC‐Egypt as a means of differentiating it self from the market. Industry specialization is a culture: For specialization to be fully effective a learning culture should be in place in which firm personnel are committed to continually seek new in‐depth knowledge about clients and their industries.Human resources are the most valuable asset of auditing firms:Auditing is a service that involves extensive professional judgment. Thus, knowledge and expertise of its personnel is what differentiates one auditing firm's staff from another.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Robert C. Hine

International specialisation in production via thedevelopment of international trade and factormovements is the basis of much of the developedworld′s prosperity. This…

Abstract

International specialisation in production via the development of international trade and factor movements is the basis of much of the developed world′s prosperity. This article is concerned with the forces that drive specialisation in manufacturing in the developed countries, and particularly the role played by regional economic integration in the European Community. A distinction is drawn between specialisation that takes place within (intra) and between (inter) industries with emphasis here on the latter. Specifically, the analysis seeks to explain differences in the sectoral composition of industry between pairs of countries using regression analysis. Factor endowments, per capita incomes and country size are found to influence industrial similarity. Membership of the EC and participation in the EC‐EFTA free trade areas are associated with increased inter‐industry specialisation. Movement towards a European Economic Space could accentuate this phenomenon, with important adjustment implications.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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