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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Bryan G. Cook, Timothy J. Landrum and Melody Tankersley

We present and explain several reasons that special education as a field has not been served well by the lessons of our history, but has the extraordinary opportunity, if…

Abstract

We present and explain several reasons that special education as a field has not been served well by the lessons of our history, but has the extraordinary opportunity, if not responsibility, to learn from history and use these lessons to guide practice. Our premises include (a) special educators may be less aware of their past than professionals in other disciplines, and thus less likely to build on this past; (b) given the relatively short history of the field as we know it today, we have access to many leaders who shaped policy and practice in special education; and (c) special education faces crossroads in many respects, and these have the potential to drastically re-shape or re-define special education. As such, we believe that contextualizing our present and future direction in an understanding of our past is critical now more than ever.

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Special Education Past, Present, and Future: Perspectives from the Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-835-8

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2015

D. Michael Risen, Jenny Tripses and Anne Risen

The chapter examines school administrator responsibilities to special education students and their families from case scenarios based on conflicts between parents and…

Abstract

The chapter examines school administrator responsibilities to special education students and their families from case scenarios based on conflicts between parents and districts regarding services provided by schools to special education students. From these case studies based on real case law, readers are exposed to situations intended to pose questions as to whether administrators met their responsibility to ensure the rights of the special education students. Principals, superintendents, and special education administrators committed to work together to make their school environment and optimal place for children to learn. An equally important role for school administrators is to create and maintain cultures where faculty understand their advocacy role for all children, but in particular, those children most in need of support. Effective administrators hold themselves and other professionals in their district to high standards related to knowledge of school law, particularly special education school law; communication with parents and other professionals; and collaborations based on the value of what is best for the student. This chapter concludes with a section on ethical leadership or the values underlying administrative actions affecting individualized education program students, their families, and all students who are different whether due to socioeconomic status, cultural differences, or race.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Diane Rodriguez, Kenneth J. Luterbach and Rocio Espinosa de Gaitan

Special education in Guatemala started in the 1940s with the establishment of schools for the blind. While there is a relatively large population of persons with…

Abstract

Special education in Guatemala started in the 1940s with the establishment of schools for the blind. While there is a relatively large population of persons with disabilities, the country has an insufficient number of educational and rehabilitation programs because the country is very impoverished. Guatemala has enacted a number of disability laws in the 1990s and early 2000s that enable persons with disabilities to participate in educational services to develop their capabilities and to deter discrimination. The government has three categories of disability, namely, physical, sensory, and intellectual. Most of the special education schools and rehabilitation workshops are in the capital city with few programs in rural areas. Many children with special education needs do not attend school. The government offers public service to families of children with disabilities. In the 1980s, the government formed partnerships with United States universities to help develop service plans for students with disabilities as well as train school personnel in effective instructional methods due to a shortage of licensed teachers. While special education is improving it has a long way to go.

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Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Pei-Yu Chen and Chun-Yu Chiu

The purpose of this chapter is to share the experience and discuss issues that support and hinder inclusive practices in Taiwan. In this chapter, inclusion-related culture…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to share the experience and discuss issues that support and hinder inclusive practices in Taiwan. In this chapter, inclusion-related culture and policies are described in the context of Taiwan, followed by the challenges and lessons learned from promoting inclusive education for students with disabilities from the perspectives of general and special education teachers. Some promising strategies applied by teachers are also discussed in this chapter based on the findings of the research literature in Taiwan. Implications for practice and research about inclusion are addressed at the end of this chapter.

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Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Shaila Rao, Cristina M. Cardona and Esther Chiner

The focus of special education around the globe may be to provide specialized instruction to meet unique needs of children to help them achieve their full potential…

Abstract

The focus of special education around the globe may be to provide specialized instruction to meet unique needs of children to help them achieve their full potential. However, each country around the globe may also have its own unique issues, barriers, legal frames, policies, and practices, as well as a history of its origin and evolution of policies and practices that govern special education in that country. This chapter describes how special education in Spain originated and evolved to its current state. It includes the following chapter sections: origins of special education in Spain; legislative acts; prevalence and incidence of various recognized disability areas; an overview of Spain’s education system including special needs education; current assessment and intervention practices; teacher education practices; family involvement considerations; and future challenges to special education.

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Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2015

Scot Danforth and Phyllis Jones

This chapter traces the shift of many progressive educators from a general faith in special education to the more recent push for democratic and ethical inclusive education

Abstract

This chapter traces the shift of many progressive educators from a general faith in special education to the more recent push for democratic and ethical inclusive education. This chapter examines the critical scholarship that propelled many educators away from systems of special education and into the inclusive education movement. Two phases in the development of inclusive education are described, an initial failed attempt often described by researchers as “integration,” and the current social movement building toward a more genuine social transformation of classrooms and schools.

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Foundations of Inclusive Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-416-4

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Girma Berhanu

This chapter provides a comprehensive presentation and discussion of special education in Sweden. The presentation and discussion are tied deeply to the country’s general…

Abstract

This chapter provides a comprehensive presentation and discussion of special education in Sweden. The presentation and discussion are tied deeply to the country’s general education system which incorporates social and political aspects as well as beliefs in equity for all.

The municipalities in Sweden have a large degree of independence as such special education can be organized in different ways. Yet, within each municipality’s educational structure is the common theme that students are different therefore teaching cannot be the same for everyone. The following chapter sections provide the reader with a better understanding of Sweden’s general special education system today: legislative acts that ensure equal access to education; the special education context; the history of special education and service in Sweden; the expansion of special education starting in the 1960s and early 1970s; current prevalence data; a clarification of differentiation, inclusion and categorization; teacher preparation advances; problems in schools and student’s difficulties; a description of inclusive education; and current challenges to inclusive education.

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Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2017

Michael Shevlin and Richard Rose

While national policies generally support the development of inclusive learning environments, schools can struggle to implement these policies in practice. This…

Abstract

While national policies generally support the development of inclusive learning environments, schools can struggle to implement these policies in practice. This longitudinal study offers a unique opportunity to examine at ground level the strengths and limitations of school attempts to implement inclusive practices in relation to children and young people who have special educational needs. This chapter will address the following: government and school policies addressing provision for children and young people with special educational needs; school leaders and implementing policies in practice; types of support provision developed to support those who have literacy difficulties.

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Inclusive Principles and Practices in Literacy Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-590-0

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Mary T. Brownell, Alexandra Lauterbach, Amber Benedict, Jenna Kimerling, Elizabeth Bettini and Kristin Murphy

Successful implementation of Response to Intervention frameworks in schools requires general and special education teachers to have well-integrated knowledge bases for…

Abstract

Successful implementation of Response to Intervention frameworks in schools requires general and special education teachers to have well-integrated knowledge bases for providing instruction and intervention in reading and behavior. Implementation-focused approaches to changing teacher behavior, favored traditionally in special education, however, are unlikely to help teachers acquire such knowledge. In this chapter, we discuss the knowledge and practice that defines expert teachers in reading and behavior and how such expertise might be achieved through practice-focused approaches to initial teacher education and professional development.

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Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Sokunrith Pov

Cambodia has been listed among the countries with the highest rates of people with disabilities. From the end of the civil war in 1979, various nongovernment organizations…

Abstract

Cambodia has been listed among the countries with the highest rates of people with disabilities. From the end of the civil war in 1979, various nongovernment organizations and government agencies have actively worked to provide not only rehabilitation services to the victims of landmines and combats, but also special education services to children with disabilities. This chapter aims to disclose the trends, collaborations, and challenges in the implementation of special education and inclusive education in Cambodia. Secondary data such as scholarly journals, reports, and legal documents were collected through a search of the databases of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Science Direct, Google Scholar, and the websites of related organizations. The analysis of the literature was carried out by focusing on various themes, including the support services for people with disabilities, special education and inclusive education in Cambodia, collaborations, and professionals in the domain of special education and inclusive education, as well as the laws and policies for people with disabilities. To date, Cambodia continues to have limited capacity to implement various legal provisions and collaborations among professionals. The inclusive education notion that prevails in the Cambodian context remains rudimentary. Furthermore, various emerging barriers hinder the implementation of the inclusive education system.

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Instructional Collaboration in International Inclusive Education Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-999-4

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