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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Gina English Tillis

In 2014–2015, a group of first-time freshman students participated in the Education as the Practice of Freedom Project. The project pedagogy and curriculum were inspired…

Abstract

In 2014–2015, a group of first-time freshman students participated in the Education as the Practice of Freedom Project. The project pedagogy and curriculum were inspired by Critical Pedagogy, Critical Race Theory of Education, and Anti-Colonial Schooling; they incorporated a series of social-psychological reflective assignments and activities (stereo-type threat, growth mindset, and relevance interventions) developed to transform the way students perceive, experience, and transition to higher education. This research seeks to explore as up to what extent the aforementioned pedagogical frameworks amends social-psychological academic stressors that affect how the students of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities perceive, experience, and transition to higher education, with a particular focus on what this pedagogical framework in first year seminar looks like in practice. A transformative research design was employed for this research project that triangulates qualitative and quantitative data (auto-ethnographic case-study), with in-depth interviews of faculty, focus groups with students, and a document analysis of syllabi, lesson plans, assignments, a formative experiment, and institutional data analysis. This research is praxis driven with an intent to influence educators, administrators, stakeholders, and anyone who is about that life.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Arielle Silverman and Geoffrey Cohen

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their…

Abstract

Purpose

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their narrative. In this paper, we describe how brief interventions can maximize student motivation by changing the students’ narratives.

Approach

We review the recent field experiments testing the efficacy of social-psychological interventions in classroom settings. We focus our review on four types of interventions: ones that change students’ interpretations of setbacks, that reframe the learning environment as fair and nonthreatening, that remind students of their personal adequacy, or that clarify students’ purpose for learning.

Findings

Such interventions can have long-lasting benefits if changes in students’ narratives lead to initial achievement gains, which further propagate positive narratives, in a positive feedback loop. Yet social-psychological interventions are not magical panaceas for poor achievement. Rather, they must be targeted to specific populations, timed appropriately, and given in a context in which students have opportunities to act upon the messages they contain.

Originality/value

Social-psychological interventions can help many students realize their achievement potential if they are integrated within a supportive learning context.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Judith M. Harackiewicz, Yoi Tibbetts, Elizabeth Canning and Janet S. Hyde

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses…

Abstract

Purpose

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement?

Design/methodology/approach

We have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values – students’ perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students’ personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts.

Findings

We review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work.

Originality/value

These interventions are exciting for their broad applicability in improving students’ academic choices and performance, they are also exciting regarding their potential for contributions to basic science. The combination of laboratory experiments and field experiments is advancing our understanding of the motivational principles and almost certainly will continue to do so. At the same time, interventions may benefit from becoming increasingly targeted at specific motivational processes that are effective with particular groups or in particular contexts.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Book part
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Meifang Xiang

The primary purpose of this study is to introduce a method of using former students’ advice and learning experiences to affect subsequent students’ thoughts and beliefs…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to introduce a method of using former students’ advice and learning experiences to affect subsequent students’ thoughts and beliefs about accounting learning in a positive way thereby improving their academic performance.

Methodology/approach

At the end of Fall 2009, the instructor invited the students to give suggestions to future accounting students about their learning experiences. On the first days of the following three semesters, I showed the feedback to the subsequent students. I recommended that the students read the suggestions after class and throughout the semester when necessary. I also conduct the survey to collect the students’ perceptions on the usefulness of former students’ advice. Analyses are conducted to assess the impact of the students’ advice on class attendance, exam performance, and the dropout rate for the course.

Findings

The results show that former students’ advice and learning experiences can help subsequent students improve class attendance, course performance, and the drop rate.

Social implications

The study provides a useful and easy-to-adopt learning supplement to help students succeed in a course that many students find challenging. The study also gives educators a simple but useful and efficient way to achieve greater student involvement in their learning processes.

Originality/value

To the best of my knowledge, this study is the first to focus on the impact of former students’ advice and learning experience on the following students’ learning performance in accounting education.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-767-7

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Cameron A. Hecht, Stacy J. Priniski and Judith M. Harackiewicz

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no…

Abstract

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no common taxonomy for understanding the complex processes through which interventions can produce long-lasting effects. The lack of a common framework results in a number of challenges that limit the ability of intervention scientists to effectively work toward their goal of preparing students to effectively navigate a changing and uncertain world. A comprehensive framework is presented to aid understanding of how interventions that target motivational processes in education produce downstream effects years after implementation. This framework distinguishes between three types of processes through which interventions may produce long-term effects: recursive processes (feedback loops by which positive effects can build on themselves over time), nonrecursive chains of effects (“domino effects” in which proximal outcomes affect distinct distal outcomes), and latent intrapersonal effects (changed habits, knowledge, or perceptions that affect how students respond in different situations in the future). The framework is applied to intervention research that has reported long-term effects of motivation interventions, evidence for the processes described in this framework is evaluated, and suggestions are presented for how researchers can use the framework to improve intervention design. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the application of this framework can help intervention scientists to achieve their goal of positively influencing students’ lifelong trajectories, especially in times of change and uncertainty.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes studies of the ICAN Intervention and their implications.

Design/methodology/approach

We adapted the ICAN intervention to support the science interest and learning of at-risk, middle-school-age youth, who were participants in entry-level, out-of-school, inquiry-informed, science workshops. The intervention is a brief ungraded writing assignment that is integrated into science activities on a daily basis in order to encourage workshop participants to reflect on science: what participants understand, the skills they have acquired, and what they still want to figure out.

Findings

Findings indicate that the use of the ICAN Intervention in science inquiry supports the development of science interest and science problem solving that is sustained 5 weeks following the workshop. Moreover, participants who write more responses to the ICAN probes are more likely to evidence changes in science learning, regardless of their initial level of interest in science. Participants with less-developed and with more-developed science interest at the beginning of the workshop all progress. The findings further suggest that when the intervention is coupled with an inquiry-informed integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (iSTEM) curriculum, it provides an additional boost for the development of science interest and learning.

Originality/value

The ICAN Intervention as adapted provides a solution to questions raised about whether inquiry-based instruction can promote learning. Our findings indicate that it can. Our findings also demonstrate that when undertaken in a concept and idea-rich environment, the structure of a motivation-based intervention is open-ended enough that all participants will progress, continuing to develop their interest and their learning of disciplinary content.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Thomas Eugene McManus

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of a pedagogy of aspiration – a focus on dreams, visions, and values in fundamental business education. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of a pedagogy of aspiration – a focus on dreams, visions, and values in fundamental business education. The paper focusses on issues of motivation and creativity in a global and multi-cultural milieu. Business education is often viewed as fundamentally about rational and analytical thinking, but creativity and innovation are also central. Due to information technology and globalization, they may be even more fundamental to business success than ever before. Both educators and managers can benefit from thinking about creativity and innovation in this context, since both are responding to the same business trends, and developing the same people.

Design/methodology/approach

Since business fundamentals should reflect business realities, global trends in information and communications technology and mass migration brought on by information and communications technology are explored, and their relevance to the imagination and creativity is developed. Educational innovations in motivation and aspirational capacity are explained, and their relevance to fundamental business education is postulated.

Findings

Tapping into the imagination is a source of motivation and creativity. What would appear to be very minimal social-psychological interventions have had significant positive effects on educational achievement. Those same techniques may be useful in teaching the fundamentals of business, and may have the added benefit instilling of a holistic and ethical perspective on the part of students.

Originality/value

The paper brings together threads of research in globalization, information and communications technology, the imagination and creativity, and motivation from a psychological and anthropological standpoint, and suggests applying that research in teaching the fundamentals of business and business ethics.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2016

Jennifer R. Smith, Heather J. Rice and Michael Chang

When an institution diversifies its student body, its effort must extend past admissions to ensuring students an inclusive learning environment. We describe the changes…

Abstract

When an institution diversifies its student body, its effort must extend past admissions to ensuring students an inclusive learning environment. We describe the changes made and proposed by the College of Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) following the university’s commitment to becoming more racially and socioeconomically diverse, as a case study for institutions engaged in similar efforts. In developing proposals for change, we consider design challenges such as how to define our target populations specifically enough to allow for meaningful engagement while avoiding stigmatizing or further marginalizing the students we want to help. New initiatives include: faculty and staff training, curricular change, and development of a more robust academic early warning system. We continue building mentoring programs and enhancing existing cohort building programs. While the success of particular programs may be tied in part to institutional specifics, certain lessons can be generalized. Communication about new initiatives, during both development and implementation prove critical, as students interact with often siloed offices within the university. Small-scale pilots with specific student populations can be effective stop-gaps while the university makes larger institutional changes and as experiments with different approaches. Assessment of initiatives, though challenging, must be attempted to understand whether new activities impact outcomes, and if so, which components provide the most value. A straightforward formula for an inclusive college environment which fosters success equally for all students appears unlikely, but the development of evidence-based best practices provides a starting point for institutions interested in change.

Details

The Crisis of Race in Higher Education: A Day of Discovery and Dialogue
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-710-6

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Allan Wigfield and Jessica R. Gladstone

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children…

Abstract

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children developing positive expectancies for success and valuing of achievement to help them cope with change and uncertainty. Although research has shown that, overall, children’s expectancies and values decline, recent studies show many different trajectories in the overall pattern. Children’s expectancies and values predict their school performance and choices of which activities to pursue in and out of school, with these relations getting stronger as children get older. When children’s expectancies and values stay more positive, they can better cope with change and uncertainty, such as the increasing difficulty of many school subjects, or broader changes such as immigrating to a new country. Parents can buffer children’s experiences of change and uncertainty by encouraging them to engage in different activities and by providing them opportunities to do so. Parents’ positive beliefs about their children’s abilities and discussing with them the importance of school can moderate the observed decline in children’s ability beliefs and values. For immigrant and minority children, parents’ emphasis on the importance of school and encouragement of the development of a positive sense of their racial/ethnic identity are critical buffers. Positive teacher–child relations also are a strong buffer, although research indicates that immigrant and minority children often have less positive relations with their teachers. We close with a discussion on recent EVT-based intervention research that shows how children’s beliefs and values for different school subjects can be fostered.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Dennis M. McInerney and Ronnel B. King

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous Australian and Native American students and (2) to investigate whether the relationships among these key variables were similar or different for the two groups.

Methodology

Students from the two Indigenous groups answered questionnaires assessing the relevant variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. Structure-oriented analysis was used to compare the two groups in terms of the strengths of the pathways, while level-oriented analysis was used to compare mean level differences.

Findings

Self-concept was found to positively predict deep learning and self-regulated learning, and these effects were mediated by achievement goals. Students who pursued mastery and social goals had more positive educational outcomes. Both structure and level-oriented differences were found.

Research implications

Drawing on two distinct research traditions – self-concept and achievement goals – this study explored the synergies between these two perspectives and showed how the key constructs drawn from each framework were associated with successful learning.

Practical implications

To improve learning outcomes, interventions may need to target students’ self-concept, mastery-oriented and socially oriented motivations.

Social implications

Supporting Indigenous students in their post-secondary education is an imperative. Psychologists have important insights to offer that can help achieve this noble aim.

Originality/value of the chapter

Research on Indigenous students has mostly adopted a deficiency model. In contrast, this study takes an explicitly positive perspective on Indigenous student success by focusing on the active psychological ingredients that facilitate successful learning.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

Keywords

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