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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Léone Bekemans

The present social security system has reached a point where it has outgrown its traditional structures. The system envisaged for the future is one in which the state…

Abstract

The present social security system has reached a point where it has outgrown its traditional structures. The system envisaged for the future is one in which the state decides what minimum protection everyone must receive and how much tax this entails, and in which a body representing all workers decides on how much of their income they will pay to insure themselves. Policy recommendations for restructuring social security systems in Europe should take into account the fact that social security benefits enjoy a privileged status within the context of public spending; that every country adopts a minimum level of expenditure in line with its considered minimum standard of social protection; and that greater efficiency of social security budgets should be aimed at, through rationalisation of choices, structures, means and services.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Li Huang and Rong Tan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

It quantitatively analyzes the impact of each ongoing social security policy on farmland reallocation based on a data set from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011).

Findings

The study finds that the inclination of a village farmers’ collective to reallocate farmland due to changes in the village population increased if social security policies do not effectively cover the village because farmers rely primarily on income from farmland to cover their basic living expenses. However, if social security policies provide adequate coverage, then farmers do not rely entirely on on-farm income and the likelihood of farmland reallocation decreases. Furthermore, the effectiveness of social security policies includes not only coverage but also the sufficiency of the security policies provided.

Research limitations/implications

First, the authors use only cross-sectional data in this study, which may result in biased estimation and also limit temporal examination of the impact of social security systems, farmland reallocation and related policy variables. This limitation may be especially important in China because the country is undergoing a rapid socioeconomic transition. However, the research is constrained by the available data. Furthermore, there could be endogeneity problems that are difficult to address, given the current data set. These problems could involve the impacts of village-level economic, natural and social variables, the implementation of related public policies (land development and consolidation, land expropriation, etc.) and other economic variables.

Practical implications

These findings may provide implications for related policy reform in the near future.

Originality/value

These findings may facilitate a recognition and understanding of the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Harvey Arbeláaez and Claudio D. Milman

This paper surveys the social security system in several Latin American countries. Specifically, the cases of Bolivia and Brazil are documented in order to determine if…

Abstract

This paper surveys the social security system in several Latin American countries. Specifically, the cases of Bolivia and Brazil are documented in order to determine if the Chilean model is a viable one in the Latin America and Caribbean region. An institutional approach suggests that while there has been a marked interest in tailoring pension funds a la Chile, policy makers of the region must be aware of the similarities and differences in the politico‐social‐economic environment. The macroeconomic transformation undertaken in Chile was a unique one obeying to specific conditions of time and process. It is indicated, however, that even in the case of developed nations, some features of the Chilean model may be very appealing as well.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1983

William Haber

Social security is one of the most significant political‐economic issues in America. It is loaded with controversy and is of deep concern to millions of Americans, both…

Abstract

Social security is one of the most significant political‐economic issues in America. It is loaded with controversy and is of deep concern to millions of Americans, both the elderly, who have been receiving benefits since they became payable in the late 1930s, and also younger people, who are deeply concerned and troubled about two problems. The first has to do with the increasing costs, that is, the amount of the so‐called “contributions” being required in order to finance social security. Their second worry grows out of their decreasing confidence in the social security system. Will benefits be available to them when they reach age 65? Is the system sound? Is it bankrupt? If not now, is it likely to go broke?

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 10 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2006

Cynthia M. Jackson, James J. Maroney and Timothy J. Rupert

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to…

Abstract

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to ensure its financial solvency, our study examines the acceptability of proposals to reform the system. Given the potentially divergent views suggested by prior research, we selected participants from the following four groups (1) younger black taxpayers, (2) younger white taxpayers, (3) older black taxpayers, and (4) older white taxpayers. While there was agreement among the groups on several of the proposals, in general, the differences between the generations were more pronounced than the differences between the racial groups.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-464-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Czesław Mesjasz

To present which properties of social systems can be used in studying and determining their broadly defined security. A core concept of security is to be developed into a…

Abstract

Purpose

To present which properties of social systems can be used in studying and determining their broadly defined security. A core concept of security is to be developed into a typology of attributes of security of social systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The interpretation of security has become one of the most important challenges of theory of international relations and of related areas. Unfortunately, theory only follows the processes and provides descriptions and interpretations. Explanations are rare or superficial. Predictions or normative approaches, essential for security considerations, are mainly embedded either in ideological discourse or in common sense conclusions. A broadly defined systems thinking is applied as an instrument allowing for enhancement of methodology of security research in dealing with complex social phenomena.

Findings

It may not be expected that systems thinking could provide all the answers to the questions arising in security theory and policy. At the same time, it can be shown how strongly the discourse on a broadly defined security, not only in international relations, has been influenced by systems thinking.

Research limitations/implications

It is but an introductory survey study and includes omissions and simplifications that have to be explained in detail in further studies.

Practical implications

An introduction to the further research on the links between systems thinking and discourse on broadly defined security of individuals and social systems.

Originality/value

Allows systems specialists to avoid simplifications in understanding social systems and at the same time helps security specialists to avoid abuses and trivialization of systems thinking.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Arttu Saarinen

Opinions towards social security reflect the interests and ideologies that individuals have. The earlier population‐based opinion studies of the welfare state can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Opinions towards social security reflect the interests and ideologies that individuals have. The earlier population‐based opinion studies of the welfare state can be utilised when we are creating a theoretical background for examining the physicians' opinions but also physician‐specific indicators are needed. The purpose of this paper is to analyse physicians' opinions on social security. Opinions are compared to those of citizen‐level groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The 2,000 working age physicians' random survey sample was picked from the register of the Finnish Medical Association (n = 1,092, response rate 54.6 percent). The data were analysed using frequencies and multinomial logistic regression analysis.

Findings

Compared to all other citizen‐level groups, the physicians think that the level of social security is too high. Physicians want to target cuts somewhere else than social or health services. Female physicians support higher social security. Young doctors and specialists think more often that social security is too high. Left‐wing political orientation is the clearest predictor of all opinions.

Originality/value

The results are important because physicians are a big and powerful occupational group in the welfare state. The opinions of physicians towards the social security have not been studied in countries with large social security systems or countries where physicians are mainly public sector employees.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko and Saahil Malik

In May 2009 the Office of the Chief Actuary for the U.S. Social Security Administration projected that by 2016 the Social Security Trust Fund would begin to spend more…

Abstract

In May 2009 the Office of the Chief Actuary for the U.S. Social Security Administration projected that by 2016 the Social Security Trust Fund would begin to spend more money than it took in through tax revenue. Further, by 2037 the balance in the Trust Fund would be down to zero, necessitating cuts in benefits to retirees. The U.S. Social Security system thus faced a long-term financial problem that needed to be addressed sooner rather than later. The experience of other countries in reforming their own systems of old-age insurance might provide some guidance for U.S. policymakers as they attempt to deal with the long-run fiscal challenges facing the U.S. Social Security system. This case focuses on reforms of old-age insurance systems in three countries: Australia, Mexico, and Sweden.

This case gives students the opportunity to debate the variety of approaches that could be used to reform the U.S. Social Security system. It also gives insight into how countries around the world have structured their old-age insurance systems.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Guojun Wang and Xing Su

During the early 1970s, faced with the serious demographic situation, China began to fully implement the policy of family planning in urban and rural regions. Nowadays…

Abstract

Purpose

During the early 1970s, faced with the serious demographic situation, China began to fully implement the policy of family planning in urban and rural regions. Nowadays, the problems of pension and medical care for aged parents confronted by the first generation of the one‐child family have begun to gradually appear. Meanwhile, China's population and the family planning are also faced with some problems that are difficult to solve, including unbalanced fertility rate of urban and rural population, the gender imbalance, the difficulty of the risk diversification in a one‐child family, as well as the profound contradiction between the stability of the family planning policy and the drive of administrative measures. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the integrated‐scheduled life security system of the one‐child family in urban and rural areas, in order to overcome the problems and to promote the transformation of the family planning policy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the life security system for China's one‐child families.

Design/methodology/approach

The life security system for the one‐child family proposed by this paper consists of three issues: the basic security based on the level of social security, the additional security of the policy insurance and the supplementary security of the commercial insurance. The paper begins with the history of the family planning policy in the first section and then go through some relevant articles regarding complementary measures such as maternity insurance, rural endowment insurance that only focused on one aspect of issues associated with the family planning. In section three, four typical problems are listed for the purpose of following discussion of corresponding solutions which are full of deficiency in section four. In part five, the integrated planning of the life security system for Chinese one‐child family is elaborated with risk and fund management. In the last part, we conclude that the family planning policy maintains stable, whereas measures to be taken are adjusted along with changeable new problems.

Findings

The policy insurance plays an increasingly important role in dealing with the life security of older people in one‐child families. It may be better to promote the kind of insurance.

Originality/value

The paper comprehensively discusses the life security system for Chinese families in compliance with the family planning policy.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2005

J.Tim Query and Evaristo Diz

Social pension and security systems worldwide are experiencing difficulties in maintaining the financing required to provide promised benefits. Despite their economic and…

Abstract

Social pension and security systems worldwide are experiencing difficulties in maintaining the financing required to provide promised benefits. Despite their economic and political difficulties, many Latin American countries have arguably been more proactive and innovative with the implementation of social security reform than other regions of the world. Suggestions for reform of the Social Security system in Venezuela are provided by integrating many of the same concepts found in other restructurings in Latin America. It is the conclusion of this analysis that, given the political and economic instability of the region, a major overhaul of the existing system is not politically feasible. An incremental approach with minimal disruption is more attainable given the circumstances.

Details

Latin American Financial Markets: Developments in Financial Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-315-0

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