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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1983

William Haber

Social security is one of the most significant political‐economic issues in America. It is loaded with controversy and is of deep concern to millions of Americans, both…

Abstract

Social security is one of the most significant political‐economic issues in America. It is loaded with controversy and is of deep concern to millions of Americans, both the elderly, who have been receiving benefits since they became payable in the late 1930s, and also younger people, who are deeply concerned and troubled about two problems. The first has to do with the increasing costs, that is, the amount of the so‐called “contributions” being required in order to finance social security. Their second worry grows out of their decreasing confidence in the social security system. Will benefits be available to them when they reach age 65? Is the system sound? Is it bankrupt? If not now, is it likely to go broke?

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 10 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Léone Bekemans

The present social security system has reached a point where it has outgrown its traditional structures. The system envisaged for the future is one in which the state…

Abstract

The present social security system has reached a point where it has outgrown its traditional structures. The system envisaged for the future is one in which the state decides what minimum protection everyone must receive and how much tax this entails, and in which a body representing all workers decides on how much of their income they will pay to insure themselves. Policy recommendations for restructuring social security systems in Europe should take into account the fact that social security benefits enjoy a privileged status within the context of public spending; that every country adopts a minimum level of expenditure in line with its considered minimum standard of social protection; and that greater efficiency of social security budgets should be aimed at, through rationalisation of choices, structures, means and services.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2006

Cynthia M. Jackson, James J. Maroney and Timothy J. Rupert

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to…

Abstract

Increased life expectancies and decreased birthrates have placed enormous financial pressure on the Social Security system. Because significant reforms are needed to ensure its financial solvency, our study examines the acceptability of proposals to reform the system. Given the potentially divergent views suggested by prior research, we selected participants from the following four groups (1) younger black taxpayers, (2) younger white taxpayers, (3) older black taxpayers, and (4) older white taxpayers. While there was agreement among the groups on several of the proposals, in general, the differences between the generations were more pronounced than the differences between the racial groups.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-464-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Chien‐Chiang Lee and Chun‐Ping Chang

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine the long‐run co‐movement and causal relationship between GDP and social security expenditures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine the long‐run co‐movement and causal relationship between GDP and social security expenditures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses panel data unit root tests and panel cointegration tests, as well as estimation techniques appropriate for heterogeneous panels such as fully modified OLS. Data are employed on 12 Asian countries from 1972 to 2000.

Findings

The cointegration test results show strong evidence in favor of the existence of a long‐run equilibrium cointegrating relationship between GDP, capital stock and social security expenditures after allowing for heterogeneous country effects. Regarding the panel‐based error correction model and the Granger causality test, there are long‐run, bi‐directional causal linkages between social security expenditures and economic growth. In addition to the robust test, they display similar results.

Originality/value

The paper shows that in every moment, economic growth must be based in the social welfare policy contiguously, and the economic growth process can allow the social welfare policy to proceed contiguously

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Li Huang and Rong Tan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

It quantitatively analyzes the impact of each ongoing social security policy on farmland reallocation based on a data set from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011).

Findings

The study finds that the inclination of a village farmers’ collective to reallocate farmland due to changes in the village population increased if social security policies do not effectively cover the village because farmers rely primarily on income from farmland to cover their basic living expenses. However, if social security policies provide adequate coverage, then farmers do not rely entirely on on-farm income and the likelihood of farmland reallocation decreases. Furthermore, the effectiveness of social security policies includes not only coverage but also the sufficiency of the security policies provided.

Research limitations/implications

First, the authors use only cross-sectional data in this study, which may result in biased estimation and also limit temporal examination of the impact of social security systems, farmland reallocation and related policy variables. This limitation may be especially important in China because the country is undergoing a rapid socioeconomic transition. However, the research is constrained by the available data. Furthermore, there could be endogeneity problems that are difficult to address, given the current data set. These problems could involve the impacts of village-level economic, natural and social variables, the implementation of related public policies (land development and consolidation, land expropriation, etc.) and other economic variables.

Practical implications

These findings may provide implications for related policy reform in the near future.

Originality/value

These findings may facilitate a recognition and understanding of the causality between social security policies and farmland reallocation in rural China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

The Social Security Administration publishes a series of pamphlets and leaflets designed to distribute information about Social Security programs and policies. In general…

Abstract

The Social Security Administration publishes a series of pamphlets and leaflets designed to distribute information about Social Security programs and policies. In general these publications are of high quality: succinct, well‐written, informative, and highly readable. Most of these publications are frequently revised, many on an annual basis.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Ferry Koster and Maria Fleischmann

Previous research leads to contrasting hypotheses about the relationship between extra effort of employees and the level of job security. According to agency theory, job…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research leads to contrasting hypotheses about the relationship between extra effort of employees and the level of job security. According to agency theory, job security leads to lower levels of extra effort and social exchange theory argues that extra effort requires job security. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a set of hypotheses based on these theories. Besides considering them as mutually exclusive, they are integrated into a single theoretical framework that argues that both theories can apply, depending on the conditions and social context (in terms of the social security system).

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the International Social Survey Program (2005) including 22 countries from around the globe are analyzed using multilevel analysis.

Findings

The study provides evidence that social security moderates the relationship between job security and extra effort.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous research as it focuses on two sides of insecurity in the workplace and because it analyzes a large data set to include institutional factors.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Jianqiang Hao and Hongying Dai

Security breaches have been arising issues that cast a large amount of financial losses and social problems to society and people. Little is known about how social media…

Abstract

Purpose

Security breaches have been arising issues that cast a large amount of financial losses and social problems to society and people. Little is known about how social media could be used a surveillance tool to track messages related to security breaches. This paper aims to fill the gap by proposing a framework in studying the social media surveillance on security breaches along with an empirical study to shed light on public attitudes and concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors propose a framework for real-time monitoring of public perception to security breach events using social media metadata. Then, an empirical study was conducted on a sample of 1,13,340 related tweets collected in August 2015 on Twitter. By text mining a large number of unstructured, real-time information, the authors extracted topics, opinions and knowledge about security breaches from the general public. The time series analysis suggests significant trends for multiple topics and the results from sentiment analysis show a significant difference among topics.

Findings

The study confirms that social media monitoring provides a supplementary tool for the traditional surveys which are costly and time-consuming to track security breaches. Sentiment score and impact factors are good predictors of real-time public opinions and attitudes to security breaches. Unusual patterns/events of security breaches can be detected in the early stage, which could prevent further destruction by raising public awareness.

Research limitations/implications

The sample data were collected from a short period of time on Twitter. Future study could extend the research to a longer period of time or expand key words search to observe the sentiment trend, especially before and after large security breaches, and to track various topics across time.

Practical implications

The findings could be useful to inform public policy and guide companies responding to consumer security breaches in shaping public perception.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to undertake the analysis of social media (Twitter) content and sentiment on public perception to security breaches.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

William T. Harris

Most public finance analysts recognized the significant redistributive aspects of our current social security system — intragenerational and intergenerational transfers…

Abstract

Most public finance analysts recognized the significant redistributive aspects of our current social security system — intragenerational and intergenerational transfers. The intragenerational redistribution is fairly straightforward and well documented. Even though the intergenerational transfers are easily understood and generally agreed upon, the magnitudes of these transfers are not so well reported. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the size of the intergenerational redistribution that has occurred and will continue to occur as a result of our pay‐as‐you‐go system of social security. Based upon average earnings, tax rates, and benefits received under social security, it is possible to estimate the relationship between taxes paid and benefits received for representative individuals who have worked and retired under social security. The preliminary analysis suggests that the usual conclusion about intergenerational redistribution is fundamentally correct, but needs modifying. This research shows that although the earliest retirees received the highest internal rates of return, in terms of real benefits in excess of taxes paid, those individuals who retired between 1970 and 1980 received the largest inflation adjusted transfers. Further, according to the analysis, social security has paid retirees in the aggregate more than $4.5 trillion dollars in benefits above what the recipients have paid in taxes. By the year 2020, when retirees are expected to receive in benefits the amount paid in taxes, this cumulative excess is projected to be about $9.2 trillion.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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