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Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Madeleine Novich and Alyssa Zduniak

Videos of police abuse are often spread through technology, raising questions around how perceptions of police are impacted by these images, especially for 18–24-year-olds…

Abstract

Videos of police abuse are often spread through technology, raising questions around how perceptions of police are impacted by these images, especially for 18–24-year-olds who are constantly “logged on.” Limited research investigates the impact of social media on attitudes toward police accounting for age and race. The present study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of urban college students who regularly use social media in order to understand how they have been impacted by this content. The findings suggest the necessity of using an intersectional framework to understand the impact of tech-witnessed violence. While no gender differences were uncovered, racial differences did surface. White participants described being minimally influenced by videos of police misconduct, rationalizing it as a “few bad apples.” In contrast, participants of color, except those with family members in law enforcement, described being negatively impacted. Viral content contributed to negative opinions of police, emotional distress, and fears of victimization. Ultimately, videos of police brutality do not impact young populations equally. Instead, they are comparatively more harmful to young people of color who spend more time on social media, can envision themselves as the victims, and experience feelings of fear, despair, and anger after watching these videos.

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The Emerald International Handbook of Technology Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2016

Collins Udanor, Stephen Aneke and Blessing Ogechi Ogbuokiri

The purpose of this paper is to use the Twitter Search Network of the Apache NodeXL data discovery tool to extract over 5,000 data from Twitter accounts that twitted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the Twitter Search Network of the Apache NodeXL data discovery tool to extract over 5,000 data from Twitter accounts that twitted, re-twitted or commented on the hashtag, #NigeriaDecides, to gain insight into the impact of the social media on the politics and administration of developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Several algorithms like the Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm, Harel-Koren Fast Multiscale algorithm and the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithms are used to analyse the social media metrics like betweenness, closeness centralities, etc., and visualize the sociograms.

Findings

Results from a typical application of this tool, on the Nigeria general election of 2015, show the social media as the major influencer and the contribution of the social media data analytics in predicting trends that may influence developing economies.

Practical implications

With this type of work, stakeholders can make informed decisions based on predictions that can yield high degree of accuracy as this case. It is also important to stress that this work can be reproduced for any other part of the world, as it is not limited to developing countries or Nigeria in particular or it is limited to the field of politics.

Social implications

Increasingly, during the 2015 general election, citizens have taken over the blogosphere by writing, commenting and reporting about different issues from politics, society, human rights, disasters, contestants, attacks and other community-related issues. One of such instances is the #NigeriaDecides network on Twitter. The effect of these showed in the opinion polls organized by the various interest groups and media houses which were all in favour of GMB.

Originality/value

The case study the authors took on the Nigeria’s general election of 2015 further strengthens the fact that the developing countries have joined the social media race. The major contributions of this work are that policy makers, politicians, business managers, etc. can use the methods shown in this work to harness and gain insights from Big Data, like the social media data.

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Program, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Hyeyoung Lim and Jae-Seung Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine how direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experiences affect students' attitudes toward the police by race and test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experiences affect students' attitudes toward the police by race and test the mediation effect of social distance on the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data collected from two US 4-year public universities, this study employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the impacts of the key variables, direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experience, on the students' attitudes toward the police. This study also tests whether indirect negative contact with the police is a stronger factor than direct negative contacts among racial/ethnic minority people.

Findings

Results show that both direct-negative and indirect-negative contacts are stronger predictors of the dependent variable. In particular, the indirect-negative contact has significant direct and indirect effects through social distance on the dependent variable in racial minorities. The study also shows that indirect contact more strongly affects racial minorities than direct-negative contact experiences do.

Originality/value

This study is the first sophisticatedly to examine students' negative contact experiences into two variables: direct-negative and indirect-negative contacts with the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Chloe Downes, Roya Rahimi and Peter Robinson

This chapter investigates the role of social media in enhancing the interactions between customers and event management. It is based on a field study conducted on three UK…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the role of social media in enhancing the interactions between customers and event management. It is based on a field study conducted on three UK horse racing events using a set of interviews and questionnaires to probe the views of the audience and the managers. Findings underscore the growing importance of social media, which are progressively embraced by consumers as part of their daily communication mix. Horse racing customers are likely to use social media to leave event feedback. While there is demand for a reply, interviewed managers admit a weakness regarding the use of social media to gain post-event feedback − which can act as an important means to engage and co-create value with customers.

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Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-384-1

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Ebony M. Duncan-Shippy, Sarah Caroline Murphy and Michelle A. Purdy

This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva…

Abstract

This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva database reveals variation in depth, breadth, and intensity of BLM coverage in the following newspapers between 2012 and 2016: The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Al Jazeera English. We review contemporary literature on racial inequality and employ Media Framing and Critical Race Theory to discuss the implications of our findings on public perceptions, future policy formation, and contemporary social protest worldwide.

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The Power of Resistance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-462-6

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Deana A. Rohlinger, Rebecca A. Redmond, Haley Gentile, Tara Stamm and Alexandra Olsen

This study uses the concept of standing, or legitimacy, to bridge the disciplinary divide between social movement and communication scholarship on activism. Here, the…

Abstract

This study uses the concept of standing, or legitimacy, to bridge the disciplinary divide between social movement and communication scholarship on activism. Here, the authors examine whether activist standing in 269 broadcast news stories sampled between 1970 and 2012 across five social movements – Women’s Rights, Gay Rights, Immigrant Rights, Occupy Wall Street, and Tea Party – is undermined by (1) the mix of visuals included in media coverage and (2) activists’ social statuses at the intersection of gender, race, and age. The authors find that broadcast media undercut the standing of activists in some social movements more than others. Occupy activists faced the most challenges to their standing because they were more likely to be shown as angry, young protestors wearing anti-government costumes and engaged in nonnormative protest behavior than activists associated with other movements. In contrast, Tea Party movement activists, who also made anti-government claims during the same relative time frame, were not cast in a similarly negative light. The authors also find that activist standing is diminished and enhanced at the intersection of gender, race, and age. For example, the social movements with the most racial diversity – the immigrant rights and Occupy movements – were also shown as the most deviant and deserving violent repression in coverage. The authors conclude the study with a discussion of the importance of interdisciplinary research and a call for additional research on the movement–media relationship.

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Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1983

John A. Meenaghan

Argues that the general area of commercial sponsorship activity, while attracting increasing interest from marketing practitioners as an important strategic option in…

Abstract

Argues that the general area of commercial sponsorship activity, while attracting increasing interest from marketing practitioners as an important strategic option in marketing communications, has not been the subject of sufficiently rigorous and comprehensive investigation by theoreticians. States the purpose is to establish and consolidate the available body of knowledge combining an overview of the standard conceptual approaches to marketing communication with an examination of the recent academic research in sponsorship, while maintaining a focus on current marketplace practice. Argues for a coherent and structured approach to the management of sponsorship expenditure through the application of a ‘management by objectives’ approach. Parameters are established in terms of a working definition of sponsorship, a review of its commercial development and an overview of current activity. Develops a commercially ration framework within which sponsorship activity may be undertaken. Views objective‐setting as the cornerstone of sponsorship management and outlines a classification of sponsorship objectives that subsumes current practice clarifies the range of potential benefits. Examines the criteria that govern rational sponsorship selection and proposes an evaluation strategy based on stated criteria. Methods of evaluating effects of marketing communications (sponsorship particularly) are examined and new evaluation techniques are advanced to facilitate the implementation of this rigorous scientific approach.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2017

Shane Leonard

This chapter sets out to examine the topic of a spatial analysis of urban crime through an analysis of David Simon’s seminal television series The Wire. By developing an…

Abstract

This chapter sets out to examine the topic of a spatial analysis of urban crime through an analysis of David Simon’s seminal television series The Wire. By developing an analysis of the issues that are presented in the series, issues such as race, ethnicity and representation will be addressed in order to add to the understanding of these topics in relation to race and media representations. Each section will address a set of themes which are evident in The Wire. The chapter highlights the idea of race in the series and how characters are presented on screen. The research is also concerned with economic issues depicted in the series and the effect of the economy on the characters in Baltimore, the U.S. city in which The Wire was set.

The conclusion of the chapter addresses poverty class and inequality as topics and sets out to document these themes in relation to race. The third chapter also discusses the racism and discrimination that is apparent in The Wire. By contextualising the series, the book is attempting to theorise relevant issues surrounding race, gender and power through an examination of relevant literature and the development of a theoretical framework from which key issues will be addressed.

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Environmental Criminology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-377-9

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Francesca Sobande

Purpose: This research explores parental management and use of media, as part of strategies to affirm children’s racial identities, as well as to assist such parenting…

Abstract

Purpose: This research explores parental management and use of media, as part of strategies to affirm children’s racial identities, as well as to assist such parenting efforts. It analyzes how parents construct Black children’s engagement with media, as being a counter-cultural coping mechanism, to temper the potential racial and diasporic discordance of their children’s identities.

Methodology/approach: There is analysis of in-depth interviews about the media marketplace experiences of Black women in Britain. The analytic approach is informed by studies of identity and visual consumption, as well as race in the marketplace, which emphasize how identity intersects with consumer culture.

Findings: Findings reveal that intra-racial, inter-racial, and inter-cultural relations influence how and why parents manage media that their Black children engage with, including when trying to reinforce their Black identities. Findings also indicate how online user-generated content enables parents to seek a sense of support as part of their inter-cultural and race-related parenting efforts.

Social implications: Findings at the root of this research point to the need for media producers and marketers to be sensitized to parental concerns about the development of their children’s Black identities.

Originality/value: This work foregrounds under-explored issues concerning parental race-work and processes of consumer biracialization in relation to media representation and spectatorship.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-907-8

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Keon L. Gilbert, Rashawn Ray, W. Carson Byrd, Joseph Richardson and Odis Johnson

There is a peculiar problem in the US that is proving to challenge core values that undergird our laws, interpersonal interactions, and challenge the civil rights of many…

Abstract

There is a peculiar problem in the US that is proving to challenge core values that undergird our laws, interpersonal interactions, and challenge the civil rights of many. American society believes in harsh sentences for committing crimes without a system for rehabilitation from crime and absent from resources from a community level to prevent crimes. As crime has declined since the 1990s, policing behavior has grown to a level that reflects a disregard for humanity resulting in police-involved shootings, also known as “justifiable homicides” or deaths by legal intervention. This peculiar problem reifies old notions of racial inferiority and racial profiling that stem from a long history of lynchings in America, and highlights a broken legal system that shows bias toward poor communities and communities not of the racial and ethnic majority. When laws support one racial or ethnic group and those with resources, other communities become invisible and subjected to state-sanctioned violence that allows some police agencies and police officers to engage in behaviors that do not reflect their training foster an overwhelming sense of fear in these communities. We have observed that when communities fear the police and the larger society disbelieves the negative interactions with police, residents have begun to capture police encounters with community members on social media. Despite the video footage that has been collected documenting abuse of power, some police have been granted impunity for their actions, which further fuels fear in these communities. What we propose are ways to frame and solve negative police encounters with communities through an understanding of: (1) racial biases; (2) racial and gender consciousness; (3) ways to provide more equitable policing practices; (4) the enforcement of legal remedies for those who abuse power; and (5) the prevention of acts of discrimination by holding individuals culpable who informally police Black males. We believe these strategies aid in addressing the historical legacy of these behaviors and moves multiple systems and disciplines toward integrated solutions to eliminate “justifiable homicides.”

Details

Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-051-0

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