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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Stephen G. Saunders, Dani J. Barrington and Srinivas Sridharan

– This paper aims to present a definition of social marketing that considers the purpose and role of social marketing beyond behaviour change.

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15934

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a definition of social marketing that considers the purpose and role of social marketing beyond behaviour change.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews present social marketing definitions and then bolsters its underlying theoretical structure with insights distilled from three schools of thought: macromarketing, transformative consumer research and the capability approach.

Findings

Guided by the three theoretical streams, we introduce our definition, namely: social marketing is the application of marketing principles to enable individual and collective ideas and actions in the pursuit of effective, efficient, equitable, fair and sustained social transformation.

Practical implications

We present a list of practical implications derived from our definition of social marketing. We stress that our social marketing definition better reflects the need to balance the effects (efficiency and effectiveness) and the process (equity, fairness and sustainability) of social marketing practices. By our definition of social marketing, the marketer becomes a facilitator and participant rather than a behaviour change agent.

Originality/value

The paper introduces into social marketing three streams of thought that represent the most contemporary aspects of economic, market and consumer philosophy. We believe our definition can better guide social marketing in its quest to transform societies to be capable, free, equitable, fair and sustainable.

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1838

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Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

Nikhilesh Dholakia and Ruby R. Dholakia

Compares the marketing functions of social enterprises with that of private enterprise, and discusses the management problems involved in the selection and implementation…

Abstract

Compares the marketing functions of social enterprises with that of private enterprise, and discusses the management problems involved in the selection and implementation of a social enterprise strategy. Purports that the marketing function in a social enterprise, as in other types of enterprise, is concerned with decisions relating to the level, composition, and distribution of the output. Recognises that marketing mix decisions – e.g. product, price, place, and promotional decision – provide one specific way of determining the output enterprise. Concludes that the marketing planning problem, in a social enterprise, is a complex one, and success depends on the twin elements of operating flexibility and consumer participation.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Frederick E. Webster

After briefly reviewing the recent development of interest in social marketing, some areas where it differs from business marketing are explored. “Social” and “societal”…

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1075

Abstract

After briefly reviewing the recent development of interest in social marketing, some areas where it differs from business marketing are explored. “Social” and “societal” marketing are said to be distinct developments but both have substantial implications for the marketing concept. Four distinct types of social marketing are identified depending largely upon the marketeer's sources of financial support.

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Management Decision, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Jeff French

The purpose of this paper is to review the possible contribution of “nudging” as a tactic and “form” of exchange and suggest two new frameworks to aid in the description…

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5361

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the possible contribution of “nudging” as a tactic and “form” of exchange and suggest two new frameworks to aid in the description of four “forms” of exchange and “types” of intervention that can be used in social marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Discursive review of the contemporary impact of liberal paternalistic thinking on policy and operational delivery of social change programmes. The paper also considers the tensions within social marketing regarding voluntary and involuntary change including the use of incentives and disincentives in social change programmes and presents a model that seeks to describe the range of options available.

Findings

It is concluded that in addition to restricted, generalised and complex exchanges, as defined by Bagozzi there are basically four basic “forms” of exchange that can be used by governments and public institutions who apply a marketing approach to brining about positive social change. These “forms” of exchange includes “nudging” but also other legitimate “forms” of exchange that can be called “shoving”, “ hugging” and “smacking”. It is further suggested that together with these four “forms” of exchange there are five basic “types” of intervention that can be used to bring about change, these two elements can all be brought together in a proposed intervention matrix. The paper makes the case that a key advantage of adopting a marketing mind‐set (i.e. one that is driven by consumer‐centric thinking and based on the creation of value) in the selection of “forms” of exchange and “types” of intervention is that the selected mix will be much more likely to bring about the socially desired change because it is informed by the preferences and consent of the majority of citizens.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not explicitly address the nature of social marketing. A position is taken that social marketing is what Gallie has defined as an “essentially contested concept ” and what Peters would term a “field of study”. This means that social marketing will by its nature just like many other fields of endeavour be subject to continuous debate and development. Consequently, in adopting this position, the paper tacitly accepts a broad and inclusive definition of social marketing. The proposed exchange matrix and intervention matrix, together with the deCIDES framework outlined in the paper need to be tested to discover if these models have utility in being able to accommodate existing social marketing practice and inform the selection of future social marketing programmes.

Social implications

If the models set out in this paper prove to have descriptive utility, they may prove to be a useful additional conceptual and practical planning tool for those involved in applying marketing interventions directed at social issues at the policy, strategy, tactical and operational levels of practice.

Originality/value

This paper sets out three conceptual models, two of which have not been published before. The models and the accompanying commentary will add to the debate about the scope of what legitimately constitutes the “operational territory” of social marketing both in terms of up‐ and down‐stream activity and interventions that span both voluntary and involuntary change.

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Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Dominic Boyle and Tony Proctor

The purpose of this paper is to supplement the growing literature on social marketing by reflecting on the kinds of social marketing activities undertaken in one area of a…

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2550

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to supplement the growing literature on social marketing by reflecting on the kinds of social marketing activities undertaken in one area of a public service administered by a large City Council in the UK. The study sought to consider the extent to which traditional theoretical ideas on marketing can be coupled with current contributions in operational terms in practical situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on anecdotal data and the critical reflections of the principal researcher concerning current and recent activities in the area of interest within the council. For this purpose, traffic services and management within a City Council was chosen, an area in which the first author of the paper has considerable experience and expertise.

Findings

People engaged in the type of work examined here, in fact, undertake social marketing, although they do not readily recognize the activity in these terms. Concerning road safety, the majority of resources and effort is directed at children on a specific issue (that is, pedestrian safety). Little is done to reinforce the importance of the notion of road safety or branding as individuals move through life. Illustrations and cases are used to highlight the key findings.

Originality/value

There are relatively few studies highlighting the working of social marketing and very few in the particular context of this paper. As such, the paper provides a useful and novel contribution to the literature.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Thomas Boysen Anker, Ross Gordon and Nadia Zainuddin

The emerging consumer-dominant logic of marketing captures consumers’ active and primary role in a range of mainstream marketing processes such as branding, product…

Abstract

Purpose

The emerging consumer-dominant logic of marketing captures consumers’ active and primary role in a range of mainstream marketing processes such as branding, product development and sales. However, consumers’ active role in driving pro-social behaviour change has not yet received close attention. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore consumer dominance in social marketing. The authors propose a definition of consumer-dominant social marketing (CDSM) and explicate five key elements which underpin the phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual study offers an analysis informed by exemplars with significant representations of consumer-dominant pro-social behaviours and projects. The methodological approach is characterised as “envisioning conceptualisation”, which is explained in terms of MacInnis’ (2011) framework for conceptual approaches in marketing.

Findings

As a phenomenon, CDSM operationalises the following elements: power, agency, resources, value and responsibility. The authors demonstrate how these elements are interconnected and define their meaning, significance and implications in the context of social marketing and pro-social behaviour change. The authors also identify this new form of social marketing as existing on a continuum depending on the level of involvement or dominance of the consumer and of social marketers; at one end of this continuum, exclusive CDSM is entirely consumer-driven and does not engage with businesses or organisations, while on the other end, inclusive CDSM encompasses partnership with external stakeholders to achieve pro-social behaviour change.

Research limitations/implications

The existence of inclusive and exclusive CDSM points towards an intricate power balance between consumers, mainstream social marketers and businesses. While this study identifies and explains this substantial distinction, it is an important task for future research to systematise the relationship and explore the optimal balance between consumer activism and involvement of formalised organisations such as charities and businesses in pro-social behaviour change projects.

Practical implications

The study provides social marketing professionals with an understanding of the benefits of harnessing consumer empowerment to enhance the impact of social marketing interventions.

Originality/value

The study makes a theoretical contribution by introducing, defining and explicating consumer dominance as a substantive area of social marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Stefan Olof Lagrosen and Kerstin Grundén

The advent of social media is dramatically changing the way marketing communication is conducted. This paper reports a study regarding the use of social media in the…

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13251

Abstract

Purpose

The advent of social media is dramatically changing the way marketing communication is conducted. This paper reports a study regarding the use of social media in the wellness industry. This industry is competitive and utterly dependent on creating mutually beneficial relationships with customers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of social media marketing in the wellness industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methods have been used. In-depth interviews have been carried out with marketing communication professionals in seven leading Swedish spa-hotels. The data from the interviews were analysed utilising the constant comparative method from the grounded theory approach.

Findings

Dimensions describing the activities, challenges and results of social media in the hotels have been defined. The findings are related to service quality theory, in particular the service dominant logic of marketing (SDL), and a comprehensive framework is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The findings should be useful for the scientific understanding of the effects of social media in marketing. The study is based entirely on qualitative data.

Practical implications

The results of the study should be useful for managers trying to market their offers effectively through social media.

Originality/value

The connections between social media and the SDL has not previously been studied in the wellness industry and such studies in other industries are rare.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Perengki Susanto, Mohammad Enamul Hoque, Najeeb Ullah Shah, Andel Hopi Candra, Nik Mohd Hazrul Nik Hashim and Nor Liza Abdullah

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important contributor to emerging countries’ economic growth. However, SMEs have been struggling to sustain their…

Abstract

Purpose

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important contributor to emerging countries’ economic growth. However, SMEs have been struggling to sustain their performance in a highly competitive environment. Thus, this study aims to re-examine the effect of SMEs’ entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firms’ performance during the COVID-19. This study has also studied the moderating role of social media usage and the mediating role of marketing capabilities and social media usage.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a structured questionnaire for data collection, where the unit of analysis was the manager or owner of SMEs. The data were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings show that an EO has a significant and positive effect on an SME’s performance, but the outcomes are conditional on the role of social media and marketing capabilities. The empirical results reveal that marketing capabilities significantly mediate the relationship between EO and SME performance. In addition, social media usage moderates the relationship between EO and SME performance and it also partially mediates the EO-performance nexus of SMEs. Finally, this study discovers that the EO-Performance nexus of SMEs is serially mediated by social media usage and marketing capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

This study has important implications for SMEs that are seeking to gain a competitive advantage. For example, an SME should deploy market activities through social media channels. In situations such as a pandemic and uncertainty, this could be the most effective tool.

Originality/value

This study builds a theory-based mediation-moderation model to explain the link between EO and SME performance. In explaining mediation-moderation effects, the current study provides insight into EO-performance relationships. Moreover, the current model facilitates exploring whether serial mediation passes through social media usage and market capabilities. Therefore, with new findings, the study extends the literature on serial mediation in the EO-performance of SMEs. Additionally, this study extends the literature on the moderating role of social media on SMEs in Indonesia, which has not been investigated. Besides, the current study adds new insight into the EO-performance of SME in COVID-19 condition.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Linda Brennan and Lukas Parker

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6330

Abstract

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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