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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Hung Gia Hoang and Dung Trong Nguyen

The purpose of this study is to examine factors that affect smallholders' adoption of improved rice varieties in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine factors that affect smallholders' adoption of improved rice varieties in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a cross-sectional survey design. A random sample size of 257 was drawn from a total of 725 smallholders. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data.

Findings

This study concludes that younger smallholders who participate in credit and training programs have a high level of education, receive government support, have both owned and rented land for growing rice and those who have a larger farm size have a greater tendency to adopt improved rice varieties. In addition, if improved rice varieties have higher productivity potential, palatability and marketability compared with the traditional ones as perceived by smallholders and seed of these rice varieties are available in local markets, then they are likely to be adopted by smallholders.

Research limitations/implications

A combination of socio-technological characteristics of smallholders should be considered when promoting smallholders' adoption of improved rice varieties and when choosing agricultural extension strategies to improve small-scale farmers' uptake of improved crop varieties in developing countries.

Originality/value

This research provides important understanding of the determinants of smallholders' adoption of improved rice varieties and highlights factors that need to be considered when designing policies to enhance the uptake of improved rice varieties in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Spencer Henson, Steven Jaffee and Oliver Masakure

The chapter contributes to on-going debates about the inclusion of smallholders in export value chains for high-value agricultural products. Specifically, it investigates…

Abstract

The chapter contributes to on-going debates about the inclusion of smallholders in export value chains for high-value agricultural products. Specifically, it investigates the factors driving the procurement practices of exporter of fresh fruits and vegetables in sub-Saharan Africa, and specifically sourcing from smallholders. A survey is undertaken of exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables in sub-Saharan Africa. The resulting data are used to estimate econometrically the propensity of exporters to source from smallholders, and the intensity of sourcing among those exporters who do procure from smallholders. Explanatory variables include firm and market characteristics, supply chain costs, type of product, availability of alternative sources of supply, and judgments regarding the performance of smallholders and other sources of supply.The propensity to procure from smallholders is found to be negatively associated with being a small exporter and the performance of medium- and large-scale producers. Exporters are more likely to source from smallholders if they have their own production capacity and smallholders are judged to perform well. The requirement of customers to comply with private food safety standards is found to have no significant effect on the propensity to procure from smallholders. Conversely, compliance with private standards has a strong influence on the intensity of sourcing from smallholders. Exporters judging smallholders to perform well are more likely to source intensively from smallholders, but to source less if they judge their own production to perform well. High fixed costs tend to be associated with lower intensity of sourcing from smallholders. The results suggest that compliance with private food safety standards does not drive the exclusion of smallholders from export value chains; indeed, conversely, the requirement to comply with such standards is associated with greater intensity of sourcing from smallholders. Smallholders evidently play a key role in the defrayment of risk by exporters in that many exporters combine their own production with smallholder procurement. Costs of procurement from smallholders, however, remain an issue. Evidently, the fixed costs of smallholder supply chains increase appreciably with the intensity of sourcing. The research reported here provides a new perspective on the inclusion of smallholders in export value chains for horticultural products. The incorporation of smallholders into these value chains is seen as the outcome of the procurement decisions of exporters. Contrary to much of the discourse in this area, the results suggest that smallholders can and do compete in export value chains for horticultural products even in the context of exacting food safety standards.

Details

Nontariff Measures with Market Imperfections: Trade and Welfare Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-754-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Deborah Sick

This chapter examines changes in smallholder agriculture in terms of processes of de-agrarianization in a rapidly changing regional economy of Costa Rica long…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines changes in smallholder agriculture in terms of processes of de-agrarianization in a rapidly changing regional economy of Costa Rica long characterized by small-scale commercial coffee farming.

Methodology

The study is based on multiple periods (1990–1991, 1993, 2006, 2010–2012) of ethnographic research on household economic strategies among farming families in two districts in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica.

Findings

Though occupational multiplicity and non-farm-based livelihoods are on the rise, smallholder agriculture continues to play a substantial role in the livelihood strategies of both young and old and in the regional economy, not in spite of these trends, but because an expanding business sector and an increase in non-farm employment opportunities are creating a demand for agricultural produce and providing new opportunities for smallholders to diversify agricultural production, stabilize their incomes and maintain a significant presence in the regional economy. Specific historic conditions and state policies have been important factors in shaping rural economic change, livelihood strategies and smallholder agriculture in this region.

Research limitations

Sample sizes are relatively small and some data on children’s economic activities were obtained second hand from siblings and/or parents.

Implications

This research has implications for policy makers, planners and social activists interested in agrarian change.

Originality/value

This research provides an important longitudinal lens on the economic strategies of farming households, processes of de-agrarianization and the persistence of small-scale family farmers in today’s world.

Details

Anthropological Considerations of Production, Exchange, Vending and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-194-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Ismail Juma Ismail

Smallholder farmers in Tanzania were investigated in this paper to determine the dimensions and influence of psychological contracts on smallholder farmers' decisions to…

Abstract

Purpose

Smallholder farmers in Tanzania were investigated in this paper to determine the dimensions and influence of psychological contracts on smallholder farmers' decisions to participate in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through structured questionnaires, of which a cross-sectional design was conducted in central Tanzania, the Dodoma region in which 467 smallholder farmers were surveyed. First, a preliminary Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted by involving psychological contracts and market participation items derived from previous studies. This was followed by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to verify the items obtained in the EFA. The regression analysis was then performed to test the causal effects of psychological contracts on market participation among smallholder farmers.

Findings

The path analysis revealed that transactional, relational, and ideological contracts have a positive and statistically significant impact on the participation of smallholder farmers in the market. Therefore, smallholder farmers have own set of expectations for participating in the marketplace. As a result, smallholder farmers' relationships with market participation decisions can be strengthened.

Research limitations/implications

This study covered only smallholder farmers. However, future studies can include large-scale farmers, because psychological contracts and market participation difficulties also apply to them. This may increase the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

Past studies have not extensively covered the psychological contracts in smallholder farming, especially in market participation. Based on prior empirical and theoretical research from other disciplines, the findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the psychological contract framework and the significance of multiple psychological obligations between smallholder farmers and market management.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2022

Fan Li, Dangui Li, Maarten Voors, Shuyi Feng, Weifeng Zhang and Nico Heerink

Soil nutrient management and fertilizer use by farmers are important for sustainable grain production. The authors examined the effect of an experimental agricultural…

Abstract

Purpose

Soil nutrient management and fertilizer use by farmers are important for sustainable grain production. The authors examined the effect of an experimental agricultural extension program, the science and technology backyard, in promoting sustainable soil nutrient management in the North China Plain (NCP). The science and technology backyard integrates farmer field schools, field demonstrations, and case-to-case counselling to promote sustainable farming practices among rural smallholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a large-scale household survey of more than 2,000 rural smallholders. The authors used a multivariate regression analysis as the benchmark to assess the effect of the science-and-technology backyard on smallholder soil nutrient management. Furthermore, the authors used coarse exact matching (CEM) methods to control for potential bias due to self-selection and the (endogenous) switching regression approach as the main empirical analysis.

Findings

The results show that the science-and-technology backyard program increased smallholders' wheat yield by approximately 0.23 standard deviation; however, no significant increase in maize yield was observed. Regarding soil nutrient use efficiency, the authors found a significant improvement in smallholders' phosphorus and potassium use efficiencies for both wheat and maize production, and a significant improvement in nitrogen use efficiency for wheat production, but no significant improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for maize production.

Originality/value

This study evaluated a novel participatory agricultural extension model to improve soil nutrient management practices among smallholders. The integration of agronomists' scientific knowledge and smallholders' local contextual experiences could be an effective way to improve farmers' soil nutrient management. This study provides the first quantitative estimates based on rigorous impact assessment methods of this novel extension approach in rural China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Hung Gia Hoang and Duc Van Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that shape the adoption of mobile phones for vegetable marketing by Vietnamese smallholders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that shape the adoption of mobile phones for vegetable marketing by Vietnamese smallholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was given to 185 smallholders randomly chosen from 345 vegetable smallholders in the Vinh Thanh district of Vietnam. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and a binary logistic regression were applied to analyse the data.

Findings

The research results show that the smallholders’ adoption of mobile phones for vegetable marketing is significantly affected by their number of extension contacts, distance from smallholders’ homes to local markets, community-based organisation participation, gender, training/credit programme participation, age, education level, income and farm size (χ2 = 143,111, p < 0.000).

Practical implications

A combination of factors related to socio-economic, situational and institutional characteristics of smallholders should be considered when promoting smallholders’ uptake of mobile phones for vegetable marketing in developing nations.

Originality/value

This research provides useful insights into the determinants of mobile phone adoption for vegetable marketing by smallholders and highlights areas that need to be considered when designing policies to improve the uptake of information and communication technologies in developing countries.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Hung Gia Hoang

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect smallholders' adoption of organic rice production in the Hai Lang district of Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect smallholders' adoption of organic rice production in the Hai Lang district of Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a cross-sectional survey research design. A sample size of 215 was drawn from a total of 455 smallholders. Descriptive and inferential statistics, including a binary logistic regression, were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The study concludes that younger female smallholders participating in credit/training programs and community-based organisations, who have a high level of education, a large household size and more experience in rice farming, and who grow mixed crops, have a greater tendency to adopt organic rice production.

Research limitations/implications

A combination of demographic, socio-economic and institutional characteristics of rice smallholders should be considered when promoting organic rice farming practices by smallholders and when choosing organic agricultural development strategies for smallholders in developing countries.

Originality/value

This research provides significant understanding of the determinants of organic rice adoption by smallholder farmers and highlights factors that need to be considered when designing policies to enhance the uptake of organic farming in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Ezequiel Zylberberg

Integrating smallholders into high‐value global markets represents a unique opportunity to effect large‐scale poverty reduction in the countryside. The purpose of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Integrating smallholders into high‐value global markets represents a unique opportunity to effect large‐scale poverty reduction in the countryside. The purpose of the paper is to add empirical evidence to the discussion of how to best incorporate smallholders into the formal economy sustainably and responsibly.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first builds a theoretical framework around global value chain theory and literature on smallholder inclusion and Kenya's growing horticultural sector. It then moves to explore a Kenyan smallholder‐based business model that incorporates 4,000 flower producers through an efficient and transparent intermediary. The analysis focuses on the importance of governance, upgrading and strong intermediaries for including smallholders in horticultural value chains.

Findings

In conclusion, this paper finds that although smallholder inclusion is both favorable and feasible based on theory, literature and case study analysis, it remains limited. It proposes embracing innovative smallholder‐based business models as a viable path out of poverty in countries with low labor costs, suitable climatic conditions and basic infrastructural capacities.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include a reliance on largely qualitative research methods due to gaps in available data.

Practical implications

Policy implications include the necessity of promoting agricultural development through investments in extension services, the creation of research and development centers and improvements in the rule of law.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in its focus on business models and global value chains as mechanisms through which to include smallholders into the global economy.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

August Raimy Sjauw-Koen-Fa, Vincent Blok and Onno S.W.F. Omta

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of smallholder supply chains on sustainable sourcing to answer the question how food and agribusiness multinationals can…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of smallholder supply chains on sustainable sourcing to answer the question how food and agribusiness multinationals can best include smallholders in their sourcing strategies and take social responsibility for large-scale sustainable and more equitable supply. A sustainable smallholder sourcing model with a list of critical success factors (CSFs) has been applied on two best-practise cases. In this model, business and corporate social responsibility perspectives are integrated.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data of the value chain analyses of the two smallholder supply chains of a food and agribusiness multinational have been applied. Both cases were of a join research program commissioned by the multinational and a non-governmental organization using the same methods and research tools. Similarities, differences and interference between the cases have been determined and assessed in order to confirm, fine tune or adjust the CSFs.

Findings

Both cases could be conceptualized through the smallholder sourcing model. Most CSFs could be found in both cases, but differences were also found, which led to fine tuning of some CSFs: building of a partnership and effective producers organization, providing farm financing and the use of cross-functional teams in smallholder supplier development programs. It was also concluded that the smallholder sourcing model is applicable in different geographical areas.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study are based on just two cases. More best-practise cases are recommended in order to confirm or to adjust the developed sourcing model and the CSFs.

Originality/value

This paper/research fills the need in sustainable supply chain management literature to study supply chains that comply with the triple bottom line concept, rather than supply chains that are just more “green.”

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Catherine Komugisha Tindiwensi, Ernest Abaho, John C. Munene, Moses Muhwezi and Isaac N. Nkote

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how entrepreneurial bricolage empowers smallholder commercial farming, from a family business perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how entrepreneurial bricolage empowers smallholder commercial farming, from a family business perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a multiple case study design to analyse entrepreneurial bricolage in smallholder commercial farming in Uganda. It used multiple data collection methods and applied content analytical tchniques to establish cross-case correlations, patterns and relationships to aid in theory development and testing.

Findings

The study shows that entrepreneurial bricolage empowers smallholder commercialization through resource reallocation, improvization and prioritization as interconnected, self-reinforcing bricolage processes in smallholder farming. It provides evidence of how smallholder farms may not enact institutional limits, and overcome constraints imposed by their resource environments. It further reveals that smallholder commercial farms can be construed as family businesses given the interconnected relationship between farming business, family and smallholder farm(er).

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in smallholder farms hence results may be used cautiously in other sectors and economies where resource environments are not structurally defined. However, it provides lessons for family businesses in developed countries particularly the micro- and small businesses. It also renders smallholder farming as a lucrative area for family business research.

Originality/value

This study deepens our understanding of bricolage in smallholder farming and provides a springboard for scholarship in enhancing smallholder commercialization. It proposes a model for entrepreneurial bricolage in smallholder commercial farming.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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