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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2014

Jessica Clark

This paper sets out to analyse both the dominant constructions of childhood and the prevailing sexual scripts embedded in international reports on the sexualisation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to analyse both the dominant constructions of childhood and the prevailing sexual scripts embedded in international reports on the sexualisation of childhood debate.

Approach

Four international reports from the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States are analysed using Foucauldian Discourse Analysis whereby the sexual subjecthoods made available to children and images of childhood itself can be interrogated.

Findings

This paper finds that a broad-brush approach to sexualisation renders consumption and embodiment as ‘sexualised’ and problematic. Gender remains unproblematised and sexuality as an issue is palpable by its absence. The reports show a lack of attention to the voices of children and a denial of their moral agency. Innocence is constructed as a fundamental yet unstable feature of childhood which requires protection from the insidious external forces of 21st century sexual cultures. Childhood thus functions as a motif for the state of society as a whole.

Value

Identifying the dominant constructions of childhood, sexualisation, gender and sexuality, by analysing how these concepts are defined, understood and talked about within international responses to the issue of the sexualisation of childhood, light can be shed upon the sanctioned ways made available to ‘do’ sex, gender and sexuality and to ‘be’ a child, a boy, a girl, a ‘sexual’ or a ‘sexualised’ being. In addition, this enables evaluation of the ways in which images of the child are mobilised for policy and political agendas and how childhood functions as both a barometer for, and symbol of, the well-being of a society.

Details

Soul of Society: A Focus on the Lives of Children & Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-060-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Hong T.M. Bui, Jonathan Pinto and Abhishek Srivastava

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between sexualization of the work environment and emotional exhaustion, and develop some key antecedents of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between sexualization of the work environment and emotional exhaustion, and develop some key antecedents of sexualization of the work environment. It was conducted in an emerging society, India, which has a high rate of crime against women, particularly related to sexual harassment and sexual assault.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was performed. The hypotheses were tested with data from 1,098 white collar workers in India in three ways.

Findings

Contact with other gender and flexible work arrangements were positively associated with sexualization of the work environment; and sexualization of the work environment was positively associated with emotional exhaustion. In addition, sexualization of the work environment mediated the relationship between the two antecedent variables and emotional exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

There is a possible bias arising from the use of cross-sectional data. However, a number of methods were implemented to minimize it, including survey design and data analysis.

Practical implications

The study offers some important suggestions for workplaces with a greater proportion of young male employees, particularly in a societal context like India.

Originality/value

The paper provides evidence of the negative impact of sexualization of the work environment, and thereby contributes to current understanding of the “dark side” of behavior at work that might have significant impact on society.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Annie Cossins

One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in…

Abstract

One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in order to conceptualise men’s engagement with crime, including the dominance of men as perpetrators of crimes of violence against women.

This chapter focusses on the #MeToo movement which has revealed the stark contrast between women’s experiences of sexual assault and sexual harassment, and the extent of men’s perceived entitlement to women’s bodies. By theorising the regulatory processes by which different bodies are ‘moralised’, it is possible to see how cultures are created by reference to the values ascribed to different bodies as well as what different bodies do. The author considers the applicability of moral regulation theory to show how processes of sexualisation, including sexual assault and harassment, constitute identity formation and considers whether resistance in the form of the #MeToo movement amounts to a powerful enough challenge to introduce cultural and structural changes.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2015

Brian Simpson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the narratives that construct the practice and regulation of ‘sexting’, the sending of sexualised images via text message, when…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the narratives that construct the practice and regulation of ‘sexting’, the sending of sexualised images via text message, when engaged in by young people. The aim of this discussion is to better understand the extent to which those narratives recognise young people’s agency in relation to their sexuality and the role that new media plays in enabling youth to explore their sexual identity.

Methodology

The methodology employed is that of discourse analysis. This approach is used to deconstruct the dominant narrative of sexting contained in the literature, a narrative that constructs it as a problem to be contained and controlled, either through the application of the criminal law or through education and guidance approaches. This paper then investigates an emerging counter narrative that gives greater emphasis to the autonomy rights of youth. A case study involving a Parliamentary Inquiry in one Australian State into sexting is also employed to further this analysis.

Findings

This paper concludes that the dominant narrative remains the strongest influence in the shaping of law and the practice of sexting, but that young people may be better served by the counter narrative that recognises their agency in ways that may empower and grant them more control over their bodies.

Originality/Value

The paper thus provides an alternative approach to developing new law and policy with respect to the regulation of sexting by youth that should be of value to lawmakers and child and youth advocates.

Details

Technology and Youth: Growing Up in a Digital World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-265-8

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Bernice Loh

Often seen as a vulnerable group, tween girls fashioning themselves after adults have been a topic of significant concern. Public and academic discourse in the West has…

Abstract

Often seen as a vulnerable group, tween girls fashioning themselves after adults have been a topic of significant concern. Public and academic discourse in the West has expressed worry that girls’ adult-like dressing may expose them to a range of physical, psychological and sexual harm. In most discussions on girls’ dressing, Western popular culture is also identified as one of the prevalent ways through which girls learn to how to fashion themselves after adults. It is claimed that Western television programmes, books and magazines encourage young girls to fashion themselves after adults at an earlier age. Recognising the importance of girls’ voices in their experiences of girlhood, this chapter draws exclusively on 12 focus groups, with 29 Singaporean girls aged 8–12. It finds that there are changing mediascapes in tween girls’ lives that have not been acknowledged. No longer predominantly watching television or browsing teen magazines, this chapter highlights how young Singaporean girls are now more likely to spend their time on the popular media platform YouTube. As girls gain mobility through their mobile communication devices, this chapter calls for a closer examination of YouTube in relation to girls’ dressing. Nonetheless, this chapter also acknowledges that while certain popular YouTube videos (re)produce highly narrow ideas of what a female should look or be like, it is not a simple issue of girls learning how to dress from their favourite YouTube stars. YouTubers also represented a lexicon of empowerment for some of the girls in this study.

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Catarina Peixoto Carvalho and Antonio Azevedo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of glamour, scopophilia and self-sexualisation in luxury celebrity endorsement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of glamour, scopophilia and self-sexualisation in luxury celebrity endorsement.

Design/methodology/approach

In step 1, an experimental study was conducted with 100 respondents assessing the response towards manipulated print ad stimuli operationalizing the influence (in general terms) of lay out, endorser’s beauty pattern, body language (cool, smile appeal, sex appeal and disruptive), gazing and landscape. In step 2, respondents evaluated their response towards five perfume print ads retrieved from real advertising campaigns with different brand personalities (DKNY, Moschino, Chanel, Gucci and Boss).

Findings

The ideal copy strategy is: a couple of brunette Caucasian endorsers; “close-up” photo; sexy body language; indirect smiling gaze; and urban landscape. Multiple regression models were built for each ad/brand (personality) in order to predict the willingness to pay for a bottle of perfume.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests a holistic theoretical framework describing the influence of celebrity characteristics, advertising copy strategy, social-cultural trends and brand variables in the advertising processing.

Practical implications

Advertising copywriters and brand managers must control the role of glamour and the self-consciousness of women seduction power in branding advertising.

Social implications

Glamour, scopophilia or self-sexualisation are three different concepts which have a lot of sociological implications because they influence the way as the society perceive the role of women as endorsers in advertising, but also in other life dimensions.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the literature, since this paper make an innovative analysis of the influence of these recent post-modernist socio-cultural trends.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Beth Waudby and Jill Poulston

This paper aims to examine employee responses to sexual behaviour in hospitality workplaces, to determine their roles and responsibilities in harassment prevention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine employee responses to sexual behaviour in hospitality workplaces, to determine their roles and responsibilities in harassment prevention.

Design

Female workers in restaurants and bars were recruited using the snowball technique, and data collected through 18 interviews. An interpretivist approach was used to guide the data collection and analysis.

Findings

The study found that harassment coping strategies developed with age and experience rather than through training, and those who dressed and behaved provocatively attracted more unwanted sexual attention.

Practical implications

Recommendations focus on the role of managers in moderating employee behaviour and providing training in assertiveness.

Social implications

Industry norms and perceptions about managers’ expectations are considered strong influences on employee behaviour, and therefore, in attracting harassment.

Originality

Although this study locates the responsibility for stopping harassment with management, it takes an unusual and potentially unpalatable approach by acknowledging the role of victims in stopping unwanted sexual advances, providing new approaches to reducing harassment.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Gry Høngsmark Knudsen and Erika Kuever

Using the example of LEGO Friends, we investigate the discourses that develop when second-order consumers attribute moral weight to the production and marketing of toys…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the example of LEGO Friends, we investigate the discourses that develop when second-order consumers attribute moral weight to the production and marketing of toys perceived to sharpen and enforce gender norms.

Methodology/approach

We analyze reactions to LEGO Friends through a discourse analysis of online data collected from English-language blogs and news sites. The data is coded iteratively within the two primary categories of gender and the market.

Findings

We argue that children’s toys have reemerged as a moral battlefield where consumers stake out positions on the feminization and sexualization of young girls, forcing companies to take strong ideological stances while competing for market share. We show that in the debate over LEGO Friends, consumers’ discursive constructions of moral play were embedded in a heteronormative middle-class ideal that discourages expressions of stereotypical femininity.

Research limitations/implications

Our data is limited to a number of online forums blogs and web sites. We do not claim to have exhaustively catalogued the reactions to LEGO Friends, but merely to have explored discursive positions staked by consumers in the unfolding debate.

Practical/social implications

This research shows that companies can benefit from addressing second-order consumers’ negotiations of brand meanings in their marketing research and campaigns, and thus avoid becoming the next target of a moral panic.

Originality/value

Our paper addresses brand meaning negotiations by second-order consumers, in this case buyers of children’s toys.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-323-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Olivier Klein, Camila Arnal, Sarah Eagan, Philippe Bernard and Sarah J. Gervais

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the mode of compensation (tips vs. no tips) could play a causal role in the perceived legitimacy of sexual harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental study (N = 161), the authors manipulated the source of income of a fictional female bartender (fixed income vs. smaller fixed income + tips) as well as whether she or her boss chose her (sexualized) clothing. The authors then asked male participants in an online survey to imagine being her customer and to form an impression of her.

Findings

The bartender was viewed as more sexualized, more manipulative and sexual behaviors toward her were perceived as more legitimate when she received tips. Further, the effect of tipping on the legitimacy of sexual behaviors was mediated by perceptions that she was manipulative. The target was perceived as more manipulative when she chose her clothes than not.

Research limitations/implications

The study is an online scenario study and, as a consequence, assesses only judgments rather than actual behaviors.

Practical implications

Encouraging fixed salaries rather than tipping could reduce the occurrence of sexual harassment.

Social implications

The present work suggests that tipping may play a detrimental role in service workers' well-being by contributing to an environment in which sexual harassment is perceived as legitimate.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study showing that mode of compensation can increase the objectification of workers and legitimize sexually objectifying behaviors toward them.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Ayodele Oniku and Anthonia Farayola Joaquim

The study aims to examine female sexuality in marketing communications and how it shapes the millennial buying decisions in the fashion industry. The focus of the study is…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine female sexuality in marketing communications and how it shapes the millennial buying decisions in the fashion industry. The focus of the study is to connect fashion industry and marketing communication to understand how female sexuality influence buying behaviours and decisions of the millennial.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was underpinned by the dimensions of skin colour, brand image and market share in sexual appealing marketing communication, and the millennial in the study comprises youths between the age of 21and 40 years and demographically defined by Wells and Guber (1966) as bachelors, Full nests 1 and 2. Multistage stage sampling was used with a structured questionnaire.

Findings

Findings show that youths, 2019 buying decisions and behaviours are strategically influenced by different manifestations of female sexuality in the context of the study and equally affect market share and patronage.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows what shapes the marketing communication strategies of the rising fashion industry but is limited to the millennial buying decisions and not the larger fashion industry consumers.

Practical implications

The needs for fashion industry to understand the influence of increasing use of female sexuality in marketing communication on male and female consumers and the effects on their respective buying behaviours is strategic to the industry as shown in the study.

Social implications

Female sexuality in marketing communication is strategic to fashion industry in today's market among youths.

Originality/value

The millennial constitutes a larger percentage of the developing economy market with rising income thus the need to understand their buying behaviours in the fashion industry

Details

Rajagiri Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-9968

Keywords

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