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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Josephine Jenkinson

Attempts to include students with severe disabilities in mainstream classes are comparatively recent in the history of special education. A major motive for inclusion is…

Abstract

Attempts to include students with severe disabilities in mainstream classes are comparatively recent in the history of special education. A major motive for inclusion is recognition of the right of all individuals to community membership. However, views differ on the extent to which the goals of inclusive education should emphasise the acquisition of the skills needed to function as contributing members of the community. Inclusion of students with severe disabilities involves changes in teacher roles and responsibilities and flexible approaches to class organisation. The move from an emphasis on functional curriculum to participation in core curriculum with non‐disabled students requires creative adaptations of both curriculum and instructional strategies, including strategies that foster class membership. Challenging behaviour is a potential barrier to successful inclusion, and new approaches that enable both class and specialist teachers to minimise its occurrence need to be developed. Although barriers still exist to inclusion of students with severe disabilities, there is evidence that inclusion can work successfully.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Eva Horn, Stephanie Parks and Zhe (Gigi) An

Ensuring that young children with severe and multiple disabilities are active participants in all aspects of their lives and that they make meaningful progress toward…

Abstract

Ensuring that young children with severe and multiple disabilities are active participants in all aspects of their lives and that they make meaningful progress toward valued life outcomes can be a daunting endeavor for families and early educators. In this chapter, we describe evidence-based strategies that can be harnessed to ensure that each child is provided with high-quality inclusive education. Initially, we lay the foundation for the chapter by asserting shared assumptions fundamental to early childhood/early childhood special education practices with topics including strengths-based approach, self-determination, all does mean all, and play as a right for all children. Next, components of a high-quality inclusive program for young children designed to support access, participation, and meaningful progress are described. These components include the following: (1) collaborative teaming; (2) family–professional partnerships; (3) authentic assessment linked to meaningful outcomes; (4) discipline-free, functional outcomes or goals; (5) responsive, developmentally appropriate environments; and (6) levels of instructional support (e.g. universal design for learning (UDL), differentiation, and individualization). A vignette is used to further illustrate how to apply the practices discussed.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Emily C. Bouck and Erin Bone

This chapter reviews the intervention research literature – particularly interventions deemed evidence-based – for students with intellectual disability across academic…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the intervention research literature – particularly interventions deemed evidence-based – for students with intellectual disability across academic and life-skills instruction. Although the focus of this chapter is the spectrum of students covered under the term “intellectual disability,” the majority of research on evidence-based interventions for students with intellectual disability focus on students with more moderate and severe intellectual disability, rather than students with mild intellectual disability. The majority of the interventions determined to be evidence-based within the literature for students with intellectual disability – across both academic and life skills – tend to be those that fall within the purview of systematic instruction.

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2010

Jan Blacher, Bonnie Kraemer and Erica Howell

The differential impact of young adult diagnosis on families during the period of transition from school to adult life was examined. Participants were parents of 246 young…

Abstract

The differential impact of young adult diagnosis on families during the period of transition from school to adult life was examined. Participants were parents of 246 young adults with severe learning disability aged 18‐26. Young adults were classified into four diagnostic groups: autism (N = 30), Down's syndrome (N = 68), cerebral palsy (N = 95) and an undifferentiated learning disability group (N = 53). Research questions pertained to parent expectations about their young adults' transition to living and working environments post high school. Parental satisfaction and worries were also assessed. The results indicated more community expectations of work for young adults with Down's syndrome, and more restrictive expectations for young adults with autism, including more expectations that young adults with autism would move out of the family home into a residential environment. Parents of young adults with autism also worried significantly more about various aspects of transition than other parent groups.

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Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2014

Trine Lise Bakken, Vibeke Gjersoe, Espen Matre, Tone Kristiansen, Arvid Ro, Anne Louise Tveter, Siv Helene Hoeidal and Arvid Nikolai Kildahl

The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss interventions of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss interventions of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This topic is understudied in persons with intellectual disability.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this study was to investigate interventions of stabilisation in persons with more severe intellectual disability; i.e. persons with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities. Five patients in a specialised psychiatric inpatient unit for patients with intellectual disabilities were included. Information about treatment of the patients was collected through case files, observations, and interviews. The authors of this paper followed a training programme for trauma therapists in addition to the inpatient treatment of the five patients.

Findings

Six main areas of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour were identified: validation, anxiety relief, treatment of depressed mood, increased mastering of daily activities, protection against anxiety triggers, and facilitated staff communication. Protection from anxiety triggers seems to be a core element of milieu therapy interventions. Interventions for neurotypical PTSD patients, such as exposure therapy may be contraindicated for patients with more severe intellectual disabilities.

Originality/value

Research on interventions of stabilisation towards adults with more severe intellectual disabilities is still in its infancy. The case reports may help milieu therapists to facilitate interventions towards patients with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Abstract

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Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-808-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2010

Alan Leyin

This article explores the nature of the classifications of learning disabilities as promulgated in the diagnostic manuals. By leaving aside all doubts and controversies…

Abstract

This article explores the nature of the classifications of learning disabilities as promulgated in the diagnostic manuals. By leaving aside all doubts and controversies that surround the concept and measurement of intellectual functioning, weaknesses are exposed from within those manuals' own frames of reference. The difficulties arising from using the international sub‐classifications of learning disabilities when the national classifications should apply are discussed.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Nerina Vecchio, Patti Cybinski and Stella Stevens

The perception among carers and health professionals is that the health care system remains limited in its effectiveness and accessibility to non‐institutionalized people…

Abstract

Purpose

The perception among carers and health professionals is that the health care system remains limited in its effectiveness and accessibility to non‐institutionalized people with a mental illness. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of the care recipient's main disabling condition (either physical or mental) on the carer's perceived need for assistance in their role as carer.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data collected from the Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, the investigation involves the non‐institutionalized recipients of care with profound and severe disabilities, aged 15 years and over, residing in private dwellings and their primary informal carers.

Findings

Regression analysis reveals that carers of those with a mental disability are 2.7 times more likely to report care needs unmet compared to carers of those with a physical disability. Further analysis using interactions shows that carers who are the adult children of mentally disabled parents report a comparatively very large amount of perceived unmet need.

Originality/value

If equity is measured in terms of perceived need rather than finite resources a case is made that primary carers of people with a mental disability experience greater burdens in care.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Carla Vlaskamp and Petra Poppes

The Netherlands is a country where much is regulated, and several departments have made rules, regulations, memoranda and even laws related to people with intellectual…

Abstract

The Netherlands is a country where much is regulated, and several departments have made rules, regulations, memoranda and even laws related to people with intellectual disabilities. Large organisations that offer different forms of support dominate the system of care and support. The policy on care for people with intellectual disabilities has, generally speaking, developed away from segregation and towards integration and inclusion. Changes have led to improvement for people with mild and moderate disabilities, although the process is slow. At the same time, the situation for people with profound and multiple disabilities has deteriorated. For a real change in the support system, client‐held budgets are believed to be of primary importance. However, this is still a slow development. This article describes the current organisation of care and support.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2011

Fergus Douds and Ashwin Bantwal

In Scotland, following the closure of long stay learning disability hospitals in 2005, focus has shifted on to developing robust community services/resources to cater for…

Abstract

Purpose

In Scotland, following the closure of long stay learning disability hospitals in 2005, focus has shifted on to developing robust community services/resources to cater for the healthcare needs of people with learning disabilities. In the absence of robust in‐patient services, a small number of individuals with learning disabilities and associated severe challenging behaviours, despite not being regarded as “forensic” cases, do inappropriately get referred and sometimes admitted to forensic learning disability services. This study aims to explore this area of clinical practice in the context of referrals to the high secure forensic setting of The State Hospital, Carstairs, Scotland and in light of key UK and Scottish Government policies.

Design/methodology/approach

All referrals made to the State Hospital's forensic learning disability service between August 2005 and July 2010, which met the criteria, were reviewed (n=5) and common determinants leading to these referrals identified and thematically analysed.

Findings

The identified determinants leading to the making of these referrals were broadly classifiable into psychiatric, environmental and staffing themes.

Practical implications

In Scotland, there does appear to be a requirement for a specialist in‐patient service to meet the needs of this complex and challenging group of patients. There is a need for effective supra‐regional planning to meet the needs of similar “high cost, low volume” patient groups.

Originality/value

This study highlights the wider issue of “gaps” within services in Scotland for individuals with severe challenging behaviours and autism and the requirement for a national specialist service.

Details

Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0927

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