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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on employee positivity in reacting to change. Secondly, it aims to investigate whether the extent of change moderates the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy and reactions to change. This study also explores the possibility that when the extent of change is higher, the effectiveness of transformational leadership may be lower.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of employees where the organization was going through significant change. Employee ratings on specific scales were used to measure transformational leadership, self-efficacy, affective commitment to organizational change, and intention to support change. A cumulative change index was used to assess the number of changes employees had experienced during the change process.

Findings

The results confirmed hypothesis 1 that transformational leadership was related to affective commitment and intention to support change and this was to a high level of statistical significance. Testing hypothesis 2 that self-efficacy mediated the effect of transformational leadership on commitment and intention to support change indicated that self-efficacy did mediate in this relationship confirming both hypothesis 2a and 2 b. The results did not support hypothesis 3a, with no significant interaction effect showing that the interaction between transformational leadership and self-efficacy did not differ between low versus high extent of change. However, the results did support hypothesis 3 b with the strength of the positive relationship between self-efficacy and reactions to change differing across high versus low extent of change. For both affective commitment and intention to support change, the interaction of self-efficacy and change index was significant.

Research limitations/implications

Current weaknesses in the transformational leadership research include: a bias towards heroic leadership and away from collective and shared process of leadership, the underlying processes have not been clearly identified, lack of precision about situational variables that may impact on these processes. This paper does not address the first weakness.

Practical implications

Self-efficacy gains importance when the extent of change is high. The results suggest that change managers should adopt a transformational style of leadership to enhance recipients’ self-efficacy to generate positive attitudes and behaviours during change. They also suggest the selection and training of managers in transformational leadership attributes and also the inclusion of this in the monitoring of managers’ behaviours in post. The research outlined in this paper makes a significant contribution to an organization’s capacity to achieve change, particularly when the extent of change is high.

Social implications

This research provides ways in which organizations can better achieve change through positive processes.

Originality/value

Transformational leadership can create a vision of the future and inspire followers to work to achieve it and to build hope and confidence for the future. This can prevent or overcome resistance to or reluctance about change. Lack of alignment of values between employees and the organization can result in change failure. This paper provides original insight into how change can be achieved by transformational leadership building self-efficacy.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Tuan Mastiniwati Tuan Mansor, Akmalia Mohamad Ariff, Hafiza Aishah Hashim and Abdul Hafaz Ngah

This study aims to examine the roles of perceived organisational support (POS), attitude and self-efficacy in understanding the external whistleblowing intentions among…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the roles of perceived organisational support (POS), attitude and self-efficacy in understanding the external whistleblowing intentions among senior auditors through the lens of stimulus–organism–response theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from 119 senior auditors in audit firms in Malaysia. POS is predicted to be a stimulus factor from the external environment that affects the attitude and self-efficacy (organism) of the auditors and reassures them to act to whistleblow (response).

Findings

POS has a significant impact on self-efficacy and on attitude. Self-efficacy is shown as a significant mediator between POS and external whistleblowing intentions, but there is no statistical support for self-efficacy having a mediating effect on the relationship between the attitude of senior auditors and external whistleblowing intentions.

Practical implications

The findings can assist accounting professional bodies in understanding the psychological behaviours of auditors that contribute to their intention to shine a light on wrongdoing in audit firms and in providing a better insight into the critical factors that could influence auditors to whistleblow.

Originality/value

This study is among the earliest to investigate the application of stimulus–organism–response theory in whistleblowing, and hence it illustrates how the theory can be applied in studies on the ethical behaviours of actors in professional careers. The findings shed light on the role of self-efficacy as a significant mediator between POS and external whistleblowing intentions.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Mingjun Yang, Tuan Trong Luu and David Qian

Service innovative behavior from employees helps hospitality organizations gain a competitive advantage and sustain business flourishment. Although group diversity has…

Abstract

Purpose

Service innovative behavior from employees helps hospitality organizations gain a competitive advantage and sustain business flourishment. Although group diversity has been demonstrated as a predictor of employee outcomes, whether group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness enhances employee service innovative behavior remains a gap. This study aims to fill this gap by developing a multilevel model of the direct relationship between group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness and employee service innovative behavior and also the mediations and moderations behind the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collectd data from 44 Chinese hospitality teams. The research model was validated by multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results showed that both group extraversion diversity and group openness diversity fostered employee service innovative behavior via creative self-efficacy. Developmental culture strengthened the effectiveness of group openness diversity on creative self-efficacy and the effectiveness of creative self-efficacy on employee service innovative behavior. Nevertheless, developmental culture did not strengthen the effectiveness of group extraversion diversity on creative self-efficacy.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that managers and team leaders from hospitality organizations can elicit employee service innovative behavior through increasing group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness. Hospitality practitioners also should understand that employees’ confidence for creativity is able to channel group diversity into employee service innovative endeavors. Moreover, building developmental culture is essential for hospitality teams to strengthen the effect of group diversity on innovating services.

Originality/value

This study expands the diversity-innovation research through unfolding both the mediations and the moderations behind the link between group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness and employee service innovative behavior.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Songmee Kim, Seyoon Jang, Woojin Choi, Chorong Youn and Yuri Lee

“Contactless service” refers to the use of technology in providing products or services without a salesperson. This study explores the mechanism underlying Millennial and…

Abstract

Purpose

“Contactless service” refers to the use of technology in providing products or services without a salesperson. This study explores the mechanism underlying Millennial and Generation Z (M/Z generations) consumers' preference for contactless service over salespersons in retail stores. In addition, this study tests differences between the M/Z generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers predict characteristics to be antecedents of young consumer's preference for contactless service over salespersons and that the effects are mediated by technology self-efficacy. Next, a moderating variable (perceived consumer conformity) is added in the path between technology self-efficacy and the preference for contactless service. The hypotheses are tested among 142 Gen Z and 137 Millennial respondents.

Findings

The results show that M/Z generations’ characteristics significantly influence the preference for contactless service, except for security seeking. Also, interests in new technology and safety seeking are perceived higher by M/Z generations. The influence of technology self-efficacy on the preference for contactless service is moderated by social conformity.

Originality/value

As retail technology rapidly develops, the service industry is expected to change from the past, where salespersons played an important role, to contactless services. This study has academic and practical values, for the authors clarify the underlying psychological mechanisms of why young consumers prefer retail technology rather than communication with salespersons.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Kihwan Kim and Eun-Jeong Ko

Using the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model, this paper aims to use longitudinal data to test team level self-efficacy and trust as mediators in the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model, this paper aims to use longitudinal data to test team level self-efficacy and trust as mediators in the relationship between team emotional intelligence (EI) and team cohesion (TC) and examine the relationship between TC and team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental design, 347 senior business students (84 teams) played a simulation game for 12 weeks. The authors collected data at three different time points to avoid reverse causal effects in the mediation relationship.

Findings

As hypothesized, trust and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between EI and TC. Moreover, TC is a strong and significant predictor of team performance.

Research limitations/implications

The authors measured most variables using a self-reported survey, which can cause common method bias, and the authors used a business simulation game for the team task with student participants, which may limit the generalizability of the findings to other team contexts or populations.

Practical implications

When forming work teams, managers should consider levels of EI and self-efficacy because they facilitate the development of trust and TC, which, in turn, lead to improved performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on EI and TC by revealing the mediating effects of trust and self-efficacy and contributes to the team literature by leveraging the IMOI model to explicate the mediation effects. This study’s longitudinal study design clarifies the causal relationship among EI, trust and self-efficacy and TC, thereby eliminating reverse causation concerns.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Lori Baker-Eveleth, Robert Stone and Daniel Eveleth

This study aims to identify the roles that privacy experiences and social media use play in influencing privacy-protection behaviors. As social media use expands in terms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the roles that privacy experiences and social media use play in influencing privacy-protection behaviors. As social media use expands in terms of the number of users and functionality; it is important to understand social media user privacy-protection behaviors and the users’ psychological underpinnings driving those behaviors. Among these, perceptions are the users’ evaluation of their privacy concerns and data sharing benefits inherent in social media use which influence the users’ behaviors to protect their privacy.

Design/methodology/approach

To research these issues, a theoretical model and hypotheses were developed, based on self-efficacy theory. The theoretical model was empirically tested using 193 questionnaire responses collected from students enrolled in business courses at a medium-sized university in the western USA. All the respondents reported that they routinely use social media. The empirical analysis was performed using structural equations modeling in PC SAS version 9.4, procedure Calis.

Findings

The estimation of the paths in the structural model indicates that privacy concerns positively influence social media users’ protection behaviors while the perceived benefits of data sharing negatively influence protection behaviors. Privacy experience positively influences privacy concerns. Alternatively, social media use positively influences social media self-efficacy and perceived usefulness, which, in turn, have meaningful influences on data sharing benefits.

Originality/value

Previous findings about the effect of self-efficacy on protection behaviors has been inconclusive. This study adds some clarity. Specifically, the findings suggest that the effect depends upon the foci of self-efficacy. While higher self-efficacy with respect to using privacy-related features of a specific technology tends to lead to greater privacy concerns, higher self-efficacy with respect to the more general technology (e.g. social media, computer) seems to affect protection behaviors through perceived benefits. Further, the results of this study offer conclusions about the roles that privacy experiences, social media use and perceived social media benefits play in affecting protection behaviors.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Dena Hale, Ramendra Thakur, John Riggs and Suzanne Altobello

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase, specifically the purchase of medical insurance. One question to ask is how service providers can help consumers purchase the services that best meet their needs? Before interventions can occur, it is necessary to benchmark consumers’ perceptions of their own decision-making control and abilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale that measures consumers’ service decision-making self-efficacy was developed using the principles established for scale development validation. A four-study approach was used to reach the research objective.

Findings

The research consisted of four studies designed to: generate items to measure consumer service decision-making self-efficacy (CSDMSE); purify the scale and assess its dimensionality (second-order structure); establish the reliability and validity of the scale; and establish norms to provide details on its usefulness for aiding consumers with service purchases. The scale was found to be a higher-order construct, comprising three lower-order constructs.

Originality/value

Research suggests that consumer self-efficacy may affect their decision-making. The greater the consumer’s self-efficacy for decision-making tasks, the more efficient the decision-making process strategies are expected to be. This is the purpose for which the CSDMSE scale measure was created: to understand how, where and when service professionals can assist consumers with making appropriate service-related decisions and purchases.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Fabio Cassia and Francesca Magno

Professional service firm (PSF) performance depends on the accumulation and application of specialist knowledge to find customised solutions to customer problems. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Professional service firm (PSF) performance depends on the accumulation and application of specialist knowledge to find customised solutions to customer problems. However, available research has not examined whether knowledge acquired from external sources affects PSF outcomes by strengthening professionals’ beliefs rather than only by increasing technical competency. Drawing on self-efficacy theory, this study tests a model that links the quality of content acquired from external sources and the credibility of those sources to professionals’ self-efficacy and, in turn, to PSF outcomes (solution quality and firm performance). In particular, this paper aims to consider the case of professional content exchanged through professional social media.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional research design was applied. Data were collected from a sample of 208 accountants, auditors and lawyers who used professional social media and were analysed using covariance-based structural equation modelling.

Findings

When accessing professional content from external sources, source credibility and content quality are significant antecedents of professionals’ self-efficacy, which, in turn, has positive effects on PSF outcomes (solution quality and PSF performance).

Research limitations/implications

Self-efficacy plays a key role in the link between knowledge acquired from external sources (professional content) and PSF outcomes.

Practical implications

This study provides recommendations and actionable insights for PSFs, professionals and other actors who create and exchange professional content. Professional associations may also take an active role by contributing and sharing credible and high-quality content, using, for example, professional social media.

Originality/value

This paper advances the current understanding of the effects of professionals’ access to content from external sources on PSF outcomes. It provides an explanation of these effects based on the enhancement of professionals’ beliefs instead of their technical competencies, as indicated in previous research. In addition, it is the first research effort to consider professional social media as a communication channel to exchange content that affects the self-efficacy of PSF professionals.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2021

Philippe Chereau and Pierre-Xavier Meschi

This study explores the relationship between intense exposure to entrepreneurship education and training (EET), defined as the deliberate practice of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the relationship between intense exposure to entrepreneurship education and training (EET), defined as the deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning, and self-efficacy, for entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage. When analyzing this relationship, we account for individuals' entrepreneurial experience gained through parental ties with entrepreneurs as a moderating variable. In doing so, our research aims to contribute to the literature on the relationship between EET and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in several ways. First, we address the relationship by bridging the gap between intention and action in the context of actual entrepreneurs engaged in the early stages of their new ventures. In doing so and drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we complement the important stream of research on entrepreneurial intention by highlighting antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the post-creation stage. Second, when analyzing the relationship between EET and self-efficacy for actual entrepreneurs, we approach EET as a deliberate practice of voluntary exposure to new entrepreneurial knowledge. Third, we provide new insights into the EET–self-efficacy relationship by exploring the moderating effect of entrepreneurial vicarious learning and, more specifically, the individual's embeddedness in an entrepreneurial parental environment. Finally, drawing from Kirkpatrick's (1959a, b, 1960a, b, 1996) reference framework on training and education evaluation, we provide empirical observations of EET outcomes evaluated in the later (“behavior” and “results”) stages.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the theory of planned behavior as well as role modeling and absorptive capacity, we develop hypotheses that we examine using a sample of 76 French entrepreneurs who have created new ventures since less than five years.

Findings

The results show no significant direct influence of the intensity of EET on the different dimensions used to measure entrepreneurial self-efficacy. However, we find that entrepreneurial parental environment and non-entrepreneurial parental environment constitute two distinct moderating learning contexts leading to opposite EET intensity–self-efficacy relationships.

Originality/value

Our research has several implications for both scholars and practitioners. From a theoretical standpoint, we extend the debate on direct and vicarious experiences and their respective impact on self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977; Baron and Henry, 2010). In the context of actual entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage, our results neither support nor invalidate the superiority of one specific type of experience. In our research, vicarious experience appears fully effective when interacted with other sources of learning such as EET. As such, theoretical attention should shift from the stand-alone effect of vicarious experience on self-efficacy to its fostering effect on other learning sources. Rather than opposing these two (direct and vicarious) types of experiences, future research should theorize their joint effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Moreover, in showing the importance of entrepreneurial parental environment, our research responds to the call to further study the contingent factors enhancing the impact of EET (and deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning) on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015; Litzky et al., 2020; Rideout and Gray, 2013). From a practical standpoint, our results help formulate recommendations on how to design EET programs to enhance nascent and actual entrepreneurs' self-efficacy. Given the central role of an entrepreneurial parental environment in developing self-efficacy, we suggest that, in addition to teaching traditional entrepreneurial academic content, EET programs should allow students to vicariously experience the entrepreneur's curriculum through in-depth role modeling. More precisely, this role modeling should go beyond mere testimonials and engage students in trusted, intense, repeated interactions with inspiring instructors, both entrepreneurs and lecturers, to create and activate the fostering conditions of an entrepreneurial (parental) environment. In simulating quasi-parental role modeling within EET programs, academic institutions can contextualize the positive impact of EET on entrepreneurial venturing.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Fayez Ahmad and Francisco Guzmán

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with consumer decision-making. This study aims to investigate the relationship among skepticism, reliance and consumer purchase decisions in an online review context. It also investigates the moderating role of review self-efficacy and regulatory focus in the relationship between skepticism and reliance on online reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with a nationally representative sample and two experimental studies are conducted.

Findings

Skepticism negatively affects consumers’ reliance on online reviews and reliance on online reviews mediates the relationship between skepticism and review-based purchase decisions. High review self-efficacy participants tend to rely more on online reviews than low review self-efficacy participants. Promotion-focused people rely more on online reviews than prevention-focused people, despite similar levels of skepticism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the skepticism, self-efficacy and regulatory focus literature. The general framework of the relationship among skepticism, reliance and purchase decision is also applicable in an online review context.

Originality/value

The results provide evidence of a stronger reliance on online reviews of high review self-efficacy and promotion-oriented consumers compared to low review self-efficacy and prevention-oriented consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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