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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Oskar Wolski and Marcin Wójcik

Smart villages are a currently discussed approach to rural development promoted by the European Union. This approach factors in the diversity of rural areas and the…

Abstract

Smart villages are a currently discussed approach to rural development promoted by the European Union. This approach factors in the diversity of rural areas and the different nature of challenges faced by each area. The central role is assigned to local communities – formation of appropriate characteristics and attitudes that enable the creation of optimal conditions for development. This is also the result of the evolution of a Rural Development Policy, which is driven by the dynamics and direction of change of rural areas and changes in societal perception of change events in rural areas.

The implementation of this development approach at the local level requires a transformation of the current school of thinking on development and the utilization of available resources. The key role in this process is played by local governments, which are part of the local community and also represent its interests.

The chapter combines theoretical and practical issues, and represents a geographic perspective. Its first aim is to answer the question: How can local governments create the right conditions for smart development at the local level? The second aim is to discuss the smart village approach in the context of selected development concepts. This leads to a number of specific recommendations for policymakers. It also helps them to understand the approach, which is vital in the implementation of the aforesaid recommendations.

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Smart Villages in the EU and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-846-8

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Jingzhong Ye and Huiyang Fu

In any time and space and under any circumstance, we find peasants are never passive actors in their livelihoods and rural development. Instead, they always create space…

Abstract

In any time and space and under any circumstance, we find peasants are never passive actors in their livelihoods and rural development. Instead, they always create space for manoeuvre in order to make changes. This chapter analyses the innovative actions taken by the majority of rural inhabitants in rural areas during the overwhelming modernization process, so as to affirm that peasants are the main actors of rural development. It is they who have shaped the transformation of rural societies and the history. Through the analysis, this chapter concludes that rural development is not an objective, a blueprint nor a design. It is not the to-be-developed rear field in modernization. It is not the babysitter for cities, nor a rehearsal place for bureaucrats to testify their random thoughts. Rural development is what peasants do. The path they have chosen reveals scenery so different from modernization. If we regard development as a social change, or a cross with influential meanings, we could understand rural development as peasants’ victories over their predicament. Villages accommodate not only peasants, but without peasants villages would surely vanish. In this sense, the most important part in rural development or rural change is peasants – their conditions and their feelings.

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Constructing a New Framework for Rural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-622-5

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Rudolf van Broekhuizen, Bart Soldaat, Henk Oostindie and Jan Douwe van der Ploeg

Comparing rural development with agricultural modernisation, there are fundamental differences. Industrial development of agriculture more and more segregates agriculture…

Abstract

Comparing rural development with agricultural modernisation, there are fundamental differences. Industrial development of agriculture more and more segregates agriculture from other functions and is based on an ‘individualised transaction model’ in which the world consists of loose particles that are linked by markets (atomistic world view). Conversely rural development can be perceived as a form of re-socialisation of agriculture and is based on a ‘relational cooperation model’ in which new relations characterise business development.

This chapter is a second level type of analysis of many research findings of these common traits or features and gives a picture of the distinctiveness of rural development practices. Nine different features that characterize rural development practices are described and discussed: (1) novelty production, (2) relative autonomy, (3) synergy, (4) clashes and competing claims, (5) coalitions and new relations; the construction of rural webs, (6) common pool resources, (7) new division of labour, (8) the distinctive different impact and (9) resilience. The more these features are present and intertwined, the better the specific practice can face and withstand adverse conditions. These features and the associated practices have to be understood as part of a wider transitional process that might co-evolve with or run counter to competing transitional processes.

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Constructing a New Framework for Rural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-622-5

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Rhonda L.P. Koster

Towns and cities across Canada face rapidly changing economic circumstances and many are turning to a variety of strategies, including tourism, to provide stability in…

Abstract

Towns and cities across Canada face rapidly changing economic circumstances and many are turning to a variety of strategies, including tourism, to provide stability in their communities. Community Economic Development (CED) has become an accepted form of economic development, with recognition that such planning benefits from a more holistic approach and community participation. However, much of why particular strategies are chosen, what process the community undertakes to implement those choices and how success is measured is not fully understood. Furthermore, CED lacks a developed theoretical basis from which to examine these questions. By investigating communities that have chosen to develop their tourism potential through the use of murals, these various themes can be explored. There are three purposes to this research: (1) to acquire an understanding of the “how” and the “why” behind the adoption and diffusion of mural-based tourism as a CED strategy in rural communities; (2) to contribute to the emerging theory of CED by linking together theories of rural geography, rural change and sustainability, and rural tourism; and (3) to contribute to the development of a framework for evaluating the potential and success of tourism development within a CED process.

Two levels of data collection and analysis were employed in this research. Initially, a survey of Canadian provincial tourism guides was conducted to determine the number of communities in Canada that market themselves as having a mural-based tourism attraction (N=32). A survey was sent to these communities, resulting in 31 responses suitable for descriptive statistical analysis, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A case study analysis of the 6 Saskatchewan communities was conducted through in-depth, in person interviews with 40 participants. These interviews were subsequently analyzed utilizing a combined Grounded Theory (GT) and Content Analysis approach.

The surveys indicated that mural development spread within a relatively short time period across Canada from Chemainus, British Columbia. Although tourism is often the reason behind mural development, increasing community spirit and beautification were also cited. This research demonstrates that the reasons this choice is made and the successful outcome of that choice is often dependent upon factors related to community size, proximity to larger populations and the economic (re)stability of existing industry. Analysis also determined that theories of institutional thickness, governance, embeddedness and conceptualizations of leadership provide a body of literature that offers an opportunity to theorize the process and outcomes of CED in rural places while at the same time aiding our understanding of the relationship between tourism and its possible contribution to rural sustainability within a Canadian context. Finally, this research revealed that both the CED process undertaken and the measurement of success are dependent upon the desired outcomes of mural development. Furthermore, particular attributes of rural places play a critical role in how CED is understood, defined and carried out, and how successes, both tangible and intangible, are measured.

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Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Xiwen Chen

China's economic and social structure are changing quickly since the start of the new century and how to balance the urban‐rural development has become a key point of the…

Abstract

Purpose

China's economic and social structure are changing quickly since the start of the new century and how to balance the urban‐rural development has become a key point of the further development of the whole economy. Based on a brief review of rural policies since the new century, the paper aims to investigate whether these policies are successful and discusses what the government should do next as well as how to improve the reform and development of rural economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the framework of China's rural policy since 2000 in the first section. Then, the impact of the financial crisis on rural development is analyzed. In the third section, this paper discusses the new issues of current rural reform and development.

Findings

The current rural polices are successful and have improved rural economic and social development greatly in the past six years. However, new problems have appeared such as insufficient funds for rural public services, inefficiency of agricultural subsidies, and unfair treatment of rural migrant workers and so on. The impact of the financial crisis on rural development is not as bad as anticipated.

Originality/value

The paper reviews the main policies of China's agriculture and rural development and points out the new issues during the rural reform. The impact of the financial crisis on rural development is discussed also. The paper's findings are very important for future policy making.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Valeda Frances Dent

The purpose of this paper is to present a cursory overview of economic development in Uganda, and discusses some important links between the rural library and the ways it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a cursory overview of economic development in Uganda, and discusses some important links between the rural library and the ways it might impact human development areas such as economic uplift, education and literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Real‐life examples of small‐scale economic development projects from the Kitengesa Community Library in rural Uganda are used to contextualize some of these connections. A comprehensive review of the literature on rural development, economic development in Uganda, the relationship between literacy, libraries and economic development and the rural community library provide a context for the paper. This paper reflects an in‐depth review of the professional literature on economic and human development in Uganda, literacy, and the rural library. It also incorporates some qualitative data gathered from research studies conducted at Kitengesa Community Library in 2004 and 2005, including individual interviews with library users, teachers, local business merchants, and librarians at Kitengesa.

Findings

The article concludes that there is potential for rural community libraries to impact small‐scale local economic development. The projects at the Kitengesa Community Library are still in their infancy, and long‐term economic outcomes are not certain. At the same time, the projects have created a new sense of hope and possibility for many library users. There are numerous implications for other rural libraries, as income‐generating projects may be a way to attract new users, attract outside financial support, showcase the practical nature of these libraries, and provide a means for local peoples to improve their lives.

Research limitations/implications

A longitudinal quantitative evaluation of the success of the Kitengesa projects and the income they generate would be the next step in terms of future research – such a study would highlight the role of the rural library in local economic development and provide further support for establishing more rural community libraries.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in that it expands on the concept of the rural community library as just a place to read books, and highlights the important role these libraries might play in developing areas where there is a profound lack of access to information, and few ways for residents to improve their economic standing.

Details

New Library World, vol. 108 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Robert Blair, Jerome Deichert and David J. Drozd

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this…

Abstract

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this extensive intergovernmental collaboration. The authors collected data on Community Development Block Grant awards made by one state to small and rural communities for a variety of development projects over a period of more than ten years, and using a modified rural classification system detected patterns and trends in allocation. This study seeks to determine if a federally funded program assists states address the development needs of a diverse mix of rural communities. Do federal block grant programs help states meet rural community development policy objectives? This information should be helpful to local, state, and national government policy makers as they ponder proposals to reorganize dramatically the funding and implementation of community and economic development resources. Perhaps most importantly, this study will also help policy makers understand the complexity of the federal-state-local partnership for rural community development.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Mokubung Nkomo and Chika Sehoole

The purpose of this paper is to focus on how two rural‐based universities in South Africa can contribute towards sustainable development especially in their immediate rural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on how two rural‐based universities in South Africa can contribute towards sustainable development especially in their immediate rural communities. It addresses the following questions: what conditions or policy frameworks exist that can engender a sustainable development trajectory? How can rural‐based universities reconstitute themselves so they can become effective agents for sustainable rural development? Historically, because of apartheid policies, these and other black universities were on the margins of the knowledge production process and have not effectively engaged in real development activities that would meaningfully improve the livelihoods of rural dwellers. The research identified policy and legislative instruments and strategies that can promote a dynamic interaction with other institutions thus empowering and promoting sustainability. The aim of the paper is to raise awareness about existing possibilities at the disposal of these institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is the outcome of two research initiatives: one was a doctoral study by one of the authors, and the other was a study conducted at both universities. Both studies involved extensive interviews with a wide spectrum of stakeholders (local and provincial authorities, members of the business and university communities). Both also involved document analyses.

Findings

That rural‐based universities are advantageously situated and possess a variety of characteristics that can enable them to effectively contribute to sustainable development. These include their strategic location within the rural communities; reinventing their mission orientation so as to enhance their research capacity; expanding their intellectual/entrepreneurial/social capital; and the establishment of strong collaborative relationships.

Practical implications

The first aim of the paper is to raise the awareness of policy makers and other stakeholders about the strategic value of these institutions. The awareness should lead to a series of engagements with appropriate individuals with the view to develop appropriate strategies for application.

Originality/value

The contribution of rural‐based universities to sustainable development has not been sufficiently researched in South Africa and, therefore, the study fills the gap by adding valuable knowledge, new perspectives, and presents possibilities for consideration.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Tarsem Lal

The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of financial inclusion on rural development through cooperatives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of financial inclusion on rural development through cooperatives.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data were collected from 540 beneficiaries of Cooperatives banks operating in three northern states of India, i.e., J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab using purposive sampling during January to June 2016. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, ANOVA, t-test and structural equation modelling were used for scale purification and data analysis.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that financial inclusion through cooperatives has direct and significant impact on rural development. Further, the results support the notion that financial inclusion is a strategy of inclusive growth, but inclusive growth itself is a subset of a larger set of inclusive development which means that the benefit must reach the all, particularly the women and the children, minority groups, the extremely poor and those pushed below the poverty line by natural and human-made disasters.

Research limitations/implications

The research has certain inescapable limitations. First, the in-depth analysis of the study is restricted to three northern states of India only because of time and resource constraints. Second, the study is confined to the perception of financial inclusion beneficiaries only, which in future could be carried further on the perception of other stakeholders such as SHGs, banking correspondents, etc. Third, possibility of subjective interpretation in some cases cannot be ruled out.

Originality/value

The study makes contribution towards financial inclusion literature relating to sustainable rural development and fulfils the research gap to some extent by assessing the impact of financial inclusion on rural development through cooperatives.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Robert Blair, Jerome Deichert and David J. Drozd

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this…

Abstract

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this extensive intergovernmental collaboration. The authors collected data on Community Development Block Grant awards made by one state to small and rural communities for a variety of development projects over a period of more than ten years, and using a modified rural classification system detected patterns and trends in allocation. This study seeks to determine if a federally funded program assists states address the development needs of a diverse mix of rural communities. Do federal block grant programs help states meet rural community development policy objectives? This information should be helpful to local, state, and national government policy makers as they ponder proposals to reorganize dramatically the funding and implementation of community and economic development resources. But maybe most importantly, this study will also help policy makers understand the complexity of the federal-state-local partnership for rural community development.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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