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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Atul Gupta, Ipseeta Satpathy, B. Chandra Mohan Patnaik and Niharika Patel

Health is an important issue in our life. A person with good health will have peace of mind and will be able to contribute to nation-building. We cannot expect performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Health is an important issue in our life. A person with good health will have peace of mind and will be able to contribute to nation-building. We cannot expect performance from an ill person with a low morale. In the present paper, the authors tried to understand the ground realities of health-care facilities provided in India and more specifically in Odisha, India.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical paper used a non-experimental design to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. In this paper, an initial pilot study was conducted by taking 44 various variables; however, after the study and taking the expert opinion, the variables were restricted to only 30. For the purpose of study, only state-sponsored hospitals were considered on a random sampling method.

Findings

The analysis of data is conducted on a simple percentage method with closed-end options. It is found that even after 67 years of independence, people do not have access to basic medical care facilities in the rural areas and to some extent in semi-urban areas also. The major stumbling block is inadequate infrastructure in these hospitals.

Research limitations/implications

While this study offers some insight into the status of healthcare infrastructure in rural India, the sample was limited to respondents in state-sponsored hospitals, which may not represent the views about private hospitals.

Practical implications

It seems that in some interior areas of Odisha, people rely more on their fate than then these health-care services.

Social implications

Various governments claim that they are spending millions of rupees on health-care service, but the benefits are not being felt by the masses. We are sure that our attempt to highlight the scenario of health-care services in the state of Odisha will be an eye opener and will compel the various stake holders to introspect their involvement in the health-care services provided in these areas.

Originality/value

A considerable amount of research has been done evaluating the status of healthcare in India, but this is the first empirical research study to date based on respondents from the rural parts of the state of Odisha in India. Some of these areas are not reachable to researchers due to the poor infrastructure. This contribution is also of special importance amid the recent criticism of the healthcare infrastructure in India by prominent management scholars.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Ramona Franić and Ornella Mikuš

During the past two decades Croatia has faced numerous challenges: gaining independence, war conflicts, political and economic transition and the process of European Union…

Abstract

During the past two decades Croatia has faced numerous challenges: gaining independence, war conflicts, political and economic transition and the process of European Union (EU) accession. Despite rich and diversified landscapes and cultural heritage, it is still faced with problems limiting the economic development. So the purpose of this chapter is to point out the pragmatic reasons of Croatian delay in the process of adjustment to European business and agricultural policy standards.Based on statistic and literature analysis, the study determines specific characteristics of Croatian regions, rural areas, rural population and agriculture. Agriculture after independence shows increase in utilized area, but the production is still below pre-war level and results with unsteady and modest value. Harmonization with Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) standards is slow; big steps have been made in establishing new institutions in agriculture and preparing adequate legislative framework, so there are no significant formal differences between Croatian and European agricultural policy. However, European agricultural policy models cause problems. There is a daily debate about a low degree of self-sufficiency of the domestic production, low competitiveness and uncontrolled import of farm products. Farmers still often expect for the government to organize the production and guarantee the purchase prices as were in former, socialistic system.Due to these reasons, a fear was expressed by farmers that they could not be able to meet the strict criteria for the European financing. Despite this, a large part of farmers see the possibilities for their existence in rural areas, mostly through development of non-agricultural activities.

Details

Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-597-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Fredrik Pettersson and Jamil Khan

There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport…

Abstract

There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport, and public transport shares are low in rural areas. New information and communication technology (ICT) solutions and autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to improve the conditions for public transport in rural areas, as they may increase efficiency and reduce costs. Still, these technological novelties are rarely tested in rural settings and policy focus and pilot tests have occurred almost exclusively in cities. The aim of this chapter is to explore the conditions and challenges for public transport in rural areas through ICT and AVs. The authors will discuss how policy focus needs to change to increase attention to rural areas and give suggestions on concrete policy measures that can be used. In the chapter, the authors draw empirically on results from two research projects in Sweden about the conditions for public transport in rural areas and ongoing tests with new ICT solutions.

Details

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2016

Kjell Andersson, Kenneth Nordberg and Erland Eklund

The aim is to depict the effects of the rural-urban transformation visible in most western societies during the last few decades by examining the Swedish-speaking part of…

Abstract

The aim is to depict the effects of the rural-urban transformation visible in most western societies during the last few decades by examining the Swedish-speaking part of Finland, a geographically divided region kept together by a common language and culture. Everything from the remotely rural to the very central urban is represented here, as well as all possible types of outcomes of the post-industrial urbanization process: growing metropolitan centres, suburbs and commuting areas, declining smaller regional centres, counter-urbanization, and both viable and declining rural areas.

Population mobility may upset the formation (or preservation) of communities, and while these are vital for any sound and well-functioning society, we see a sense of community as especially crucial for the survival of minority populations. The empirical study consists of an overview of demographic trends during the time period from 1980 onwards to 2012, and in parallel, an overview of mobility patterns between urban and rural areas as well as of commuting.

The late modern trend of counter-urbanization is visible in our material, but still, while this does not extend outside the narrow commuting area, counter-urbanization may not be comprehended as a major trend in the Swedish-speaking regions. The main finding is the effect on communities of urbanization and counter-urbanization depicted by the ability to ‘live in Swedish’ in the different types of areas on the rural-urban scale. The study shows that while an area seemingly thrives, with evidence of population growth and in-migration, a high level of mobility may still hurt the prerequisites for community formation.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Nikolaos Apostolopoulos, Vanessa Ratten, Stavros Stavroyiannis, Ilias Makris, Sotiris Apostolopoulos and Panagiotis Liargovas

The COVID-19 crisis has brought to the forefront the importance of rural health enterprises (RHEs), the peculiarity, in these terms, of rural areas, and the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 crisis has brought to the forefront the importance of rural health enterprises (RHEs), the peculiarity, in these terms, of rural areas, and the impact of rurality on health entrepreneurial activities. This paper aims to undertake a literature review regarding RHEs in the EU, identify research gaps and set future research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted and the key aspects coded across four thematic areas – after examining 68 papers.

Findings

The findings reveal that more intense research should be conducted across four area which emerged; rural health providers vs urban health providers; RHEs and rural development; RHEs and quality of life; and social RHEs.

Research limitations/implications

Future research avenues were identified and suggestions for further research on RHEs were provided.

Practical implications

The paper provides insights into how rural areas can attract health enterprises and how health enterprises can operate in rural areas.

Originality/value

This research expands on the limited existing knowledge of RHEs and sets the foundations for further research.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Manas Ranjan Behera, Chardsumon Prutipinyo, Nithat Sirichotiratana and Chukiat Viwatwongkasem

Retention of medical doctors and nurses in remote and rural areas is a key issue in India. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relevant policies and provisions with…

Abstract

Purpose

Retention of medical doctors and nurses in remote and rural areas is a key issue in India. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relevant policies and provisions with respect to health care professionals, aiming to develop feasible retention strategies in rural areas of Odisha state of India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed documentary review and key informant interviews with policy elites (health planners, policy maker, researchers, etc.). The document review included published and unpublished reports, policy notifications and articles on human resources for health (HRH) in Odisha and similar settings. Throughout the study, the authors adapted World Health Organization’s framework to study policies relevant to HRH retention in rural areas. The adapted framework comprised of the four policy domains, education, regulation, financial incentives, professional and personal support, and 16 recommendations.

Findings

In Odisha, the district quota system for admission is not practiced; however, students from special tribal and caste (Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste) communities, Socially and Educationally Backward Classes of citizens, and Persons with Disabilities have some allocated quota to study medicine and nursing. Medical education has a provision of community placement in rural hospitals. In government jobs, the newly recruited medical doctors serve a minimum of three years in rural areas. Doctors are given with location-based incentives to work in remote and difficult areas. The government has career development, deployment, and promotion avenues for doctors and nurses; however, these provisions are not implemented effectively.

Originality/value

The government could address the rural retention problems, as illustrated in the study and put in place the most effective policies and provisions toward recruitment, deployment and attraction of HRH in remote and rural areas. At the same time, implementation HRH strategies and activities must be rigorously monitored and evaluated effectively.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

A.S. Gbadegesin and F.B. Olorunfemi

After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The…

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1019

Abstract

Purpose

After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The situation is worse in the rural areas. There is, therefore, the need to better understand the constraints and challenges of water supply, especially in the rural areas of the country. With this regard this study seeks to assess the extent to which stakeholders are willing and able to adopt and implement sustainable, cost‐effective and environmentally friendly management options for water resources in selected rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study areas include three rural/semi‐urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo state. The three LGAs are Ibarapa, Afijio, and Lagelu. The choice of the three study areas is justified on the grounds that the areas are different in terms of potable water supply problems and management. The study adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology, including Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), in‐depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders as well as a structured and semi‐structured questionnaires survey.

Findings

The outcome of the study reveals that the knowledge base of the different stakeholder groups about the technological, socio‐economic and ecological dimensions of water resources management is very low. For some communities, however, the indigenous knowledge in the conservation of traditional water sources (e.g. streams and rivers) exists but needs to be improved.

Originality/value

The results formed a database on the ideas and experience of local initiatives which could be adapted to solve water supply problems in similar rural communities in Nigeria and elsewhere in the African continent.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Hacer Celik Ates and Melike Ceylan

People living in rural and urban areas experience different socioeconomic conditions, which should affect their consumer behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine…

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2047

Abstract

Purpose

People living in rural and urban areas experience different socioeconomic conditions, which should affect their consumer behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of these socio-economic differences on the consumption of milk, yoghurt, and cheese.

Design/methodology/approach

Face-to-face interviews are conducted with 191 households in the city of Van (Eastern Turkey). The collected data are evaluated using SPSS – Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

Findings

Results of the evaluations show that there are socio-economical differences between urban and rural populations in terms of age, education, occupation, and income, which affects their consumption behaviour. The rural consumers generally consume raw (unpasteurized, unpackaged) milk. These consumers tend to have low income and be illiterate. The urban consumers, on the other hand, consume pasteurized milk and have higher incomes compared with the rural consumers and have a mid-level to university education. In the rural areas, consumers usually make their own yoghurt but those who purchase their yoghurt pay attention to its packaging the most. In the rural areas, consumers who make their own cheese have mid-level income and primary school education.

Originality/value

The paper analyses the current effects of socio-economic differences in rural and urban areas on the consumption behaviour of milk, yoghurt, and cheese using the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). MCA analysis has rarely been used in this area.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Akarsh Arora and S.P. Singh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regional profile of poverty in Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated and impoverished states of India. It also identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regional profile of poverty in Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated and impoverished states of India. It also identifies the factors underlying the inter-regional differences of poverty in the state.

Design/methodology/approach

Regional estimates have been evaluated by dividing the state into four economically classified regions (Western, Central, Southern, and Eastern), using the unit-level records of two latest available Consumption Expenditure Surveys of NSSO representing the period 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Poverty has been defined by the latest available Rangarajan Expert Groups’ poverty line and aggregated in terms of headcount ratio and share of below poverty line population. Furthermore, to investigate the correlates of poverty, a survey-based logistic regression has been estimated specifically for each region and for both rural and urban areas.

Findings

Estimates reveal that though overall poverty in the state has declined, inter-regional poverty trends witness rise in the level of impoverishment particularly in urban Southern Region (SR), rural Eastern Region (ER), and in both rural and urban areas of Central Region. Nevertheless, the inter-regional disparity in poverty has observed a decline; it can further be eliminated if such high poverty reduction in urban ER and rural SR is sustained along with a similar progress in their impoverished counterparts.

Originality/value

The study recommends that poverty alleviating policies in the state should focus more on reducing the household size, development of socially excluded sub-groups (Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes), delivery of basic facilities (education and health care), and enhancement of employment prospects for casual laborers, with special emphasis on identified impoverished regions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

David Deakins and Jo Bensemann

The purpose of this paper is to present qualitative evidence on strategies undertaken by 34 innovative small firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present qualitative evidence on strategies undertaken by 34 innovative small firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of innovative firms is solely recruited from the agri-business sector that are located in contrasting environments varying from rural areas with low urban influence to areas with high urban influence and “main” urban or city areas. The authors discuss strategies in the light of a theoretical approach that incorporates a resource-based view, dynamic capabilities (DCs) and social network theory.

Findings

Although there is diversity in strategies across the 34 innovative small firms, irrespective of their “rural” or “urban” environment, qualitative evidence sheds light on differences in the way that strategies are pursued.

Research limitations/implications

The study indicates that small firms in rural environments can be just as innovative as their counterparts in urban environments; however, the authors demonstrate that they adopt different strategies, which have been shaped by their environment, to achieve innovation. The authors use the qualitative evidence to develop the theory of DCs and classify the sample into four clusters which marries the environmental context and innovative DCs.

Originality/value

The paper makes a contribution to a research gap on the way that the environment can shape management strategies in innovative small firms. It contributes to a limited literature in this area.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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