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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kevin K Byon, Michael Cottingham and Michael S Carroll

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from…

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from five matches held in the Midwest United States involving registered United States Quad Rugby Association teams. The Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC; Trail & James, 2001) was adapted to measure spectator motivation and predict repatronage intentions and online media consumption among wheelchair rugby spectators. Results indicated that two spectator motivation factors, physical skill and knowledge, were related to repatronage intentions. In addition, knowledge and vicarious achievement were found to be related to online media consumption.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

John Harris

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect upon the place of rugby union in contemporary Wales where the game is used as an important tool to promote images of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect upon the place of rugby union in contemporary Wales where the game is used as an important tool to promote images of the nation. Using Benedict Anderson's conceptualisation of the nation as an “imagined community” the paper aims to locate and analyse the game within and around discourses of Cool Cymru, a term coined in the late twentieth century to promote images of a new vibrant Wales as popularised through its leading music bands.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical sociological approach analyses and problematises notions of Welshness as it relates to the national sport of rugby.

Findings

The nation is often (re)presented and conceptualised as a monolithic whole where rugby's assumed centrality is rarely questioned. This essay focuses upon the areas of language, geography and gender to demonstrate the situated limits of these (re)presentations. Rugby union and Cool Cymru are also located alongside devolution and are examined further with specific reference to the postmodern sporting celebrity.

Originality/value

This work highlights an increasing primacy afforded to the capital city of Cardiff within a re‐imagining of the nation and the national game.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 27 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Guillaume Bodet

This paper analyses the marketing strategy, marketing mix and brand development of SF Paris rugby union club, which succeeded in attracting huge crowds (around 75,000…

Abstract

This paper analyses the marketing strategy, marketing mix and brand development of SF Paris rugby union club, which succeeded in attracting huge crowds (around 75,000 spectators) for several regular season games and in building strong brand equity. Parallels with American professional sports are drawn and differences from other European clubs highlighted. Finally, planning, consistency and in particular innovation are identified as key factors for success in implementation of the club's marketing strategy.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Robert James Thomas

The aim of this study is to evaluate rugby fans’ attitudes toward financial sponsorship, specifically event sponsorship and Dove Men+Care and its association with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to evaluate rugby fans’ attitudes toward financial sponsorship, specifically event sponsorship and Dove Men+Care and its association with the Welsh Rugby Union. The study examines four issues: How do rugby fans perceive event sponsorship? How does such sponsorship affect consumption choices? Do fans engage in long-term relationships with the event’s sponsoring brand? Are relationships affected by the event sponsor’s engagement with other international teams and rugby events?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a theory-building, exploratory study that utilised a qualitative framework. Data were collected over a 12-month period, incorporating the autumn internationals of 2012 and 2013, with 198 fans participating in focus groups before and after games.

Findings

The results reveal a distinct lack of brand awareness on the part of the participants, a collective perception of the sponsor as incongruent given the event and a demonstration of enmity arising from rival sponsorships by the sponsoring brand. Additionally, the findings reveal a reluctance to consume the sponsoring brand in either the short or long term given its incongruence, lack of functionality, pre-existing schematic frameworks and obdurate brand preferences.

Research limitations/implications

Given that autumn internationals are held every season by several of the international rugby board (IRB) ranked teams, the findings of this research have an immediate and direct application for brand managers involved or implementing sponsorship programs. The research outlines both short and long term mistakes made by the sponsor as perceived by the fans’ themselves, and suggests that those brands considering becoming involved in sport and event sponsorship instigate a more informed, strategic approach to their sponsorship activities. However, the work is context driven and therefore not generalisable.

Practical implications

The findings enable marketing brand managers to effectively evaluate events against the backdrop of strategic fit, as well as fan/consumer expectations, their needs and wants and willingness to engage.

Originality/value

Despite rugby union’s growing global presence, little or no research has examined sponsorship within the context of rugby union and none exists that has evaluated event sponsorship, and been driven by fans’ perspectives. This paper fills that void. The research delineates fans attitudes, opinions and brand conceptualisations relating to event sponsorship, incorporating evaluations of identity, congruence and fit. Moreover, the paper highlights what to avoid from a strategic and brand building perspective when considering event sponsorship in a rugby union context.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Rob Wilson and Daniel Plumley

Rugby union’s late move to professionalism in 1995 has led to concerns about the financial development of the game. The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Rugby union’s late move to professionalism in 1995 has led to concerns about the financial development of the game. The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge base on professional team sports in the UK by analysing the financial and sporting performance of rugby union clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained by dissecting the annual accounts of nine English Premiership rugby clubs between 2006 and 2015. Analysis was performed using the performance assessment model, which analyses both financial and sporting areas of performance and is devised through statistical analysis procedures to provide a holistic measure of overall performance for each club.

Findings

There is financial disparity amongst clubs that has widened over the period of the study. In terms of sporting performance, the data suggest that competition is more equal, something that is less evident in other UK professional team sports such as football and rugby league. Correlation analysis reveals that overall performance varies over time in cycles.

Research limitations/implications

The study has implications for the clubs competing in the English Premiership and for the league organisers themselves, particularly with reference to regulatory procedures such as raising the salary cap and increased broadcasting deals.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the importance of balancing multiple performance objectives in professional team sports and has expanded the academic discussion on the financial health of professional team sports in the UK, particularly with reference to the financial health of rugby union where research has historically been scarce.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Lloyd C. Harris and Huw Jenkins

Aims to: supply an exploration and description of the extent to which strategic marketing planning is being undertaken by UK rugby union clubs; and identify, explore and…

Abstract

Aims to: supply an exploration and description of the extent to which strategic marketing planning is being undertaken by UK rugby union clubs; and identify, explore and outline the main intra and extra‐organizational barriers and impediments to the development of planning within rugby clubs. Begins with an overview of relevant literature. First, existing views on the content, processes and obstacles to strategic marketing planning are reviewed. Second, the topics of sports management, organization and sports marketing planning are introduced and discussed. After the presentation of the research design and methodology employed, the findings of an exploratory study into the extent and the barriers to strategic marketing planning within UK rugby union clubs are presented. Finishes with a discussion of conclusions and implications for both theorists and practitioners.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Christopher Francis Baldwin

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the experiences the author encountered during one of his rugby union refereeing seasons.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the experiences the author encountered during one of his rugby union refereeing seasons.

Design/methodology/approach

When the author assumed the role of a senior referee in a local community rugby union competition in Sydney, Australia, he started collating his matches in the form of a diary. His lived experiences, as recorded in the diary, were the sole source of data for this inquiry. The data collected were over a 12‐month period (2010).

Findings

This study provides a descriptive analysis of the author's weekend and, on occasion, week day/night match experiences in rugby union as a referee and the challenges of fairness and subjectivity encountered.

Originality/value

The paper identifies challenges of maintaining a viable and competitive local rugby union competition free from violence amidst a growing trend in declining player numbers and skill levels at the local community rugby union level. It is envisaged that the findings may benefit competition administrators in designing and facilitating better ways to cater for the diverse playing abilities of local rugby union players in an increasingly competitive sport market who are looking for ways to participate in team‐based sports.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Steven J. Jackson, Richard Batty and Jay Scherer

This study examines the strategies used, and the challenges faced, by global sport company adidas as it established a major sponsorship deal with the New Zealand Rugby

Abstract

This study examines the strategies used, and the challenges faced, by global sport company adidas as it established a major sponsorship deal with the New Zealand Rugby Football Union. In particular the study focuses on how adidas 'localised' into the New Zealand market, how they used the All Blacks as part of their global marketing campaign and, the resistance they encountered based on claims they were exploiting the Maori haka.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Giovanna Follo

Purpose – The purpose of this exploratory research study was to bring the experiences of women in contact sport to the forefront of the discussion of gender and sport. The…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this exploratory research study was to bring the experiences of women in contact sport to the forefront of the discussion of gender and sport. The findings that I present here focus on the unique group of six female martial artists between the ages of 40 and 44 and the similarities and differences that emerged in comparison with the younger group of female rugby players and martial artists.

Methodology – A Standpoint Feminist approach was used through in-depth interviewing in a nonprobability purposive sample. The sample consisted of 15 female rugby players and 15 female martial artists.

Findings – In many ways, women in the younger and older groups have similar perceptions about the body and femininity. However, age may produce different perceptions about femininity in terms of gendered life stages. Age also appears to influence women's perceptions about femininity being an issue for athletes. In terms of the body, several of the women in the older group did begin comparing their older body to their younger body, although all mentioned weight.

Limitations – The research concentrated on only two contact sports, future research should be expanded. In addition, only 30 participants were interviewed in Canada. Future research should include a larger number of participants in an international sporting environment. This would increase generalizability.

Originality – This research presents an opportunity to explore age differences in sporting experiences, a topic whose coverage is limited in the literature.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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