This paper investigates rose and rose oil production in the province of Isparta, Turkey, with reference to the discourses on and procedures of price formation. Farmers…
This paper investigates rose and rose oil production in the province of Isparta, Turkey, with reference to the discourses on and procedures of price formation. Farmers have been engaging in rose cultivation for over a century and rose oil production is considered to be a traditional industry. The market actors for rose oil are global cosmetic and local processing firms and almost all rose oil from Isparta is exported. Prices and production have been steadily increasing since 2010. Although prices are seen as good, there are concerns about overproduction and fierce competition between the rose oil firms to buy the harvest, hence pushing up rose prices and, leading to a crash in rose oil prices on the world market. Through careful observation of payment and price formation procedures, the paper raises issues concerning the moral economy of price formation. Findings are provisional and the research is on-going, but the discourse on just prices clearly suggests that value judgments are embedded in and implicitly critical of capitalist markets.
The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU…
The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU, 50 g/l) finishing formulation of 65/35 cotton/polyester blended fabric, enhances the resiliency of the fabric, which is expressed as the dry wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). The fabric acquires the ability to keep a rose oil fragrance upon storage up to 3 months. Improving the WRA and acquiring the ability to keep the fragrance can be descendingly arranged as follows: Siligen VN>Basosoft SWK>Leomin NI. Increasing the Siligen VN concentration (0-30 g/l) in the finishing formulation is accompanied by a small increase in the WRA, and a noticeable enhancement in the ability to keep the rose oil fragrance upon storage. By increasing the rose oil concentration (100-300 g/l) in a perfumed bath of cross-linked/Siligen VN, the softened fabric is accompanied by a slight drop in the WRA, and a decreasing ability to keep the fragrance up to 3 months.
However, the extent of the fragrance is higher at higher rose oil concentrations, regardless of the storage time. The ability of the fabric to keep the fragrance can be attributed to solubilization and/or encapsulation of the perfume in the oleophilic segments of the softener, and its slow release with time, so that the smell can be sensed. This ability decreases after increasing the storage time up to 3 months, and depending on the type of perfume oil used, is descendingly arranged as follows: jasmine oil > rose oil > sandal oil.
This paper aims to examine the level of customer knowledge (CK) for natural cosmetic products, namely Bulgarian rose products, in three European countries – Bulgaria…
This paper aims to examine the level of customer knowledge (CK) for natural cosmetic products, namely Bulgarian rose products, in three European countries – Bulgaria, Montenegro and Italy – and to propose appropriate solutions for its management.
The research structure is based on a questionnaire and represents a part of the general investigation about the nature of the Bulgarian rose products. The study includes the responses to priority questions on customers' knowledge about these products. Feedback is received from 236 respondents in 450 distributed inquiries for the whole investigation.
The results of the research indicate that the role of the customers in the cognitive process of knowledge accumulation for the specific and rare aromatic rose products is captive, based on a new learning for the nature of the product and on the application of integrated marketing ideas for product development and promotion.
This paper gives suggestions for the customers' preferences of organizing communication systems by the use of integrated media mix of TV, internet and journals on the unique natural cosmetic products in Bulgaria. The empirical results show the opportunity to organize a collected database for healthy products as Bulgarian rose products.
The study of CK in the natural cosmetics industry is structured on the basis of logit regression model, which targets to analyze the increase of the chance for effective knowledge transfer with customers, with the recognition of motivation for purchasing natural Bulgarian rose products and the exchange of high‐grade information with customers about this product.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relationship between the current account (CA) and fiscal deficit (FD), and the real exchange rate for India, for the managed…
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relationship between the current account (CA) and fiscal deficit (FD), and the real exchange rate for India, for the managed float period 1996 Q2 to 2015 Q4, after controlling for output growth and oil shocks. It also examines the cyclicality of the CA, the size of each shock, and assesses whether aggregate demand, forward-looking smoothing, or supply shocks dominate outcomes.
The authors use several variants of structural vector autoregression (SVAR), implemented with quarterly Indian data, to control for effects of oil prices, and the output cycle, and then see how FD shocks affect the current account deficit (CAD) and the real exchange rate. For robustness, the authors tried different identifications, changed variable definitions, added new variables, or substituted with other variables. The cyclicality issue is addressed by examining the effect of growth shocks. The relative size of each shock is assessed through co-movement decompositions of the forecast errors. Responses to shocks help identify dominant influences on India’s CAD.
The CAD is found to be countercyclical. A FD shock raises the CAD, but high impact growth shocks and large variance oil shocks lead to overall divergence of the deficits. There is some support for the aggregate demand channel, but it is moderated by supply shocks and compositional effects. Consumption is sticky rather than forward-looking.
The paper contributes to the literature by including supply shocks, compositional effects, cyclicality, real interest and exchange rate in a theoretically and empirically consistent way for the analysis of twin deficits. The large empirical literature on twin deficits in EMs has not yet done this. There is no study using quarterly data in an SVAR allowing the dynamic relationship between the variables to be explored. The extensions bring in the supply side and compositional effects qualify the working of both the channels, with empirical exercises supporting theoretical predictions.
This paper aims to examine the impact of oil prices on trade's sensitivity to distance. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate if the nature of trade and the type of goods have a mediating role on the oil prices' impact on trade.
A set of gravity models are estimated on a unique panel dataset from China Customs Statistics that reports trade by customs regime (processing trade vs non‐processing trade) and by transportation mode (air vs sea) for the years 1988‐2008.
Higher oil prices increase the sensitivity of China's exports to distance. This effect is especially pronounced for processing exports, where goods cross borders multiple times. On the other hand, it is smaller for exports shipped by air. While these results are statistically significant, their economic effects are relatively small. This paper estimates that the quadrupling of oil prices between 2002 and 2008 has increased the elasticity of Chinese exports with respect to distance by a mere 5‐7 per cent.
The surge of oil prices in recent years has led to speculation that rising transportation costs could end the period of dramatic world trade growth – in the words of Rubin, “[…] Your world is going to get a whole lot smaller.” This paper suggests that this concern is overstated.
This is the first paper that estimates the mediating role that the nature of trade and the type of goods play on trade's sensitivity to distance.