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Article

Abdou Diaw and Abdoulaye Mbow

The paper aims to compare the return on Mudhārabah deposits (ROMD) to the return on equity (ROE) in Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to compare the return on Mudhārabah deposits (ROMD) to the return on equity (ROE) in Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The summary statistics of the ROMD and the ROE is used to make a comparison between them with a sample of nine Islamic banks, from seven countries, over the last five years. Regression analysis is also undertaken to unveil the variables affecting the behaviour of ROMD and ROE at Kuwait Finance House.

Findings

The results show that the ROE tend to be at least two times higher than the ROMD. In most of the investigated cases the ROMD are more correlated to the corresponding conventional interest rate than to ROE. The regression analysis suggests that the return on assets affects more significantly the ROE than the ROMD.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper resides in the size of the sample and in the design and the findings.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

George W. Blazenko and Yufen Fu

The value‐premium is the empirical observation that “value” stocks (low market/book) have higher returns than “growth” stocks (high market/book). The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The value‐premium is the empirical observation that “value” stocks (low market/book) have higher returns than “growth” stocks (high market/book). The purpose of this paper is to propose a new explanation for the value‐premium that the authors call the limits to growth hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

To guide the testing, a dynamic equity valuation model was used that has the property that profitability increases risk for value firms in anticipation of future growth‐leverage, whereas, profitability “covers” the capital expenditure costs of growth, which decreases risk for growth firms. Because the authors interpret dividends as a corporate response to growth‐limits, they test for this predicted differential relation between profitability and risk for value versus growth stocks with the returns of profitable dividend‐paying firms.

Findings

It is found that profitability increases returns to a greater extent for dividend‐paying value firms compared to dividend‐paying growth firms, which is consistent with a differential relation between profitability and risk. At the same time, it is also found that growth firms have lower returns than value firms.

Originality/value

The authors use the limits‐to‐growth hypothesis to explain why profitability can either increase or decrease risk. High‐profitability dividend‐paying growth firms have lower returns than low‐profitability dividend‐paying value firms. This value‐premium is consistent with the argument that high profitability “covers” the capital expenditure costs of growth, which decreases risk and, thus, returns. At the same time, profitability increases returns to a greater extent for value stocks compared to growth stocks, which is consistent with the hypothesis that profitability increases risk for value firms in anticipation of future growth‐leverage.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Leonard C. Soffer

I show that the common residual income model assumption that return on equity approaches zero in the long run as competitive advantage dissipates is incorrect. This…

Abstract

I show that the common residual income model assumption that return on equity approaches zero in the long run as competitive advantage dissipates is incorrect. This erroneous assumption comes from the common misinterpretation of the spread between return on equity and the cost of equity as a measure of economic profit. I also show that an unbiased accounting system (Feltham and Ohlson, 1995), which would make such an interpretation acceptable, is unlikely to exist in actual financial statements. Finally, I argue that because an accounting system can be deemed to be unbiased only if the firm's value is already known, the concept is of little practical use for actual valuation work.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article

Lindon J. Robison and Peter J. Barry

This paper demonstrates that present value (PV) models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of accrual income statements (AISs). Failure to include AIS details in PV…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper demonstrates that present value (PV) models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of accrual income statements (AISs). Failure to include AIS details in PV models may lead to inaccurate estimates of earnings and rates of return on assets and equity and inconsistent rankings of mutually exclusive investments. Finally, this paper points out that rankings based on assets and equity earnings and rates of return need not be consistent, requiring financial managers to consider carefully the questions they expect PV models to answer.

Design/methodology/approach

AISs are used to guide the construction of PV models. Numerical examples illustrate the results. Deductions from AIS definitions demonstrate the potential conflict between asset and equity earnings and rates of return.

Findings

PV models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of AISs. Mutually exclusive rankings based on assets and equity earnings and rates of return need not be consistent.

Research limitations/implications

PV models are sometimes constructed without the details included in AISs. The result of this simplified approach to PV model construction is that earnings and rates of return may be miscalculated and rankings based as asset and equity earnings and rates of return are inconsistent. Tax adjustments for asset and equity earnings may be miscalculated in applied models.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidelines for properly constructing PV models consistent with AISs.

Social implications

PV models are especially important for small to medium size firms that characterize much of agricultural. Providing a model consistent with AIS construction principles should help financial managers view the linkage between building financial statements and investment analysis.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to develop the idea that the PV model can be viewed as a multiperiod extension of an AIS.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Stephanie M. Weidman, Daniel J. McFarland, Gulser Meric and Ilhan Meric

DuPont financial analysis is generally used in micro-economic studies to compare an individual firm’s financial performance with industry averages. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

DuPont financial analysis is generally used in micro-economic studies to compare an individual firm’s financial performance with industry averages. The purpose of this paper is to undertake a macro-economic cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of return-on-equity (ROE) in USA, German and Japanese manufacturing firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use cross-sectional log-linear multivariate regression analysis to determine the elasticity of ROE to changes in net profit margin (NPM), total assets turnover (TAT) and equity multiplier (EQM) in USA, German and Japanese manufacturing firms. The authors obtain the data for the analysis from the COMPUSTAT Research Insight/Global Vintage database.

Findings

With data for all manufacturing firms, the authors find that the most important determinant of ROE is NPM in all three countries. The least important determinant of ROE is TAT in the USA and Germany, and EQM in Japan. Electronics is the most important manufacturing industry in all three countries, the authors also apply the analysis to data for the electronics manufacturing firms in the three countries. The authors find that an increase of 10 percent in NPM increases ROE by about 9.8 percent in Germany, by about 8.3 percent in the USA, and by about 6.9 percent in Japan. An increase of 10 percent in TAT increases ROE by about 2.2 percent in Germany and by about 1.5 percent in Japan. An increase of 10 percent in EQM increases ROE by about 1.9 percent in Germany and by about 1.5 percent in the USA.

Practical implications

The empirical findings of this study can provide useful insights for financial managers regarding the determinants of ROE they should focus on to achieve the greatest impact on ROE.

Originality/value

DuPont analysis is generally used as a micro-economic tool at the firm level. This study is a macro-economic application of the tool to study the cross-sectional determinants of ROE at the industry level.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Lama Tarek Al-Kayed, Sharifah Raihan Syed Mohd Zain and Jarita Duasa

This paper aims to examine the effect of capital structure on Islamic banks’ (IBs) performance to provide guidance to finance managers for raising capital funds. As…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of capital structure on Islamic banks’ (IBs) performance to provide guidance to finance managers for raising capital funds. As newcomers to the markets, IBs are facing a trade-off. They can either use high capital ratios which increase the soundness and safety of the bank and lower the required return by investors, or depend on deposits and Islamic bonds which are considered cheaper sources of funds due to their tax rebate. An IB’s management must carefully decide the appropriate mix of debt and equity, i.e. capital structure, to maximize the value of the bank.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 85 IBs covering banking systems in 19 countries, the study uses a two-stage least squares method to examine the performance determinants of IBs to control the reverse causality from performance to capital structure.

Findings

After control of the macroeconomic environment, financial market structure and taxation, results indicate that IBs’ performance (profitability) responds positively to an increase in equity (capital ratio). The result is consistent with the signaling theory which predicts that banks expected to have better performance credibly transmit this information through higher capital. Optimal capital structure results of the IBs found a non-monotonic U-shaped relationship between the capital-asset ratio and profitability, supporting the efficiency risk and franchise value hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

Due to limitations for market data, the study uses book accounting ratios. Future research where market data are available could use performance measures, such as Tobin’s Q in performance determinants models.

Practical implications

The non-monotonic relationship found between IBs’ return on equity and capital ratios suggests that equity issuances for IBs’ with low capital ratios (lower than the turning point of 37.41 per cent) are expensive and have a negative effect on their profitability. On the other hand, managers of well-capitalized IBs (banks with capital ratios beyond 37.41 per cent) are advised to rely on equity when faced by a decision to raise capital, as the capital ratio starts to affect their profitability positively.

Originality/value

Islamic banking literature has been silent on IBs’ capital structure and its relevance; this study will try to fill in the existent gap.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article

Steven Isberg and Dennis Pitta

The purpose of this article is to describe a method of assessing brand equity quantitatively.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to describe a method of assessing brand equity quantitatively.

Design/methodology/approach

The article describes an example of analysis using publicly available financial data to assess brand equity.

Findings

Brand equity measurement has been an elusive goal for product managers. While qualitative definitions are available, few studies have attempted to quantify a product or company's brand equity. Using financial analysis techniques focusing on return on equity and return on assets, the case examines the results of two distinct brand equity growth strategies. The first is growth by acquisition; the second, organic brand development. Using historical financial data for the Safeway corporation, the case calculates the brand equity effects of two distinct marketing strategies. In the example, organic brand development, the traditional task of the brand manager, results in higher brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

As in all case studies, the specific conditions found in one organization may not be found more generally in others. Readers are cautioned that the conclusions drawn may have limited applicability.

Practical implications

The work illustrates a technique that a product/service manager may use to assess the brand equity effects of a marketing strategy.

Originality/value

The work describes a technique not widely publicized in the brand literature.

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Article

Chiedza Ndlovu and Paul Alagidede

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of industry structure and macroeconomic indicators on return on equity (ROE) of listed financial services firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of industry structure and macroeconomic indicators on return on equity (ROE) of listed financial services firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Herfindahl–Hirschman Index concentration scales were used to categorise industries into competitive, moderate and concentrated segments, while Arbitrage Pricing Model principles were used to capture the effect of macroeconomic fundamentals on ROE. Generalised method of moments estimator was used to model random effects which were supported by the Hausman test.

Findings

Findings suggest that the influence of macroeconomic fundamentals on ROE deteriorates as one moves from competitive to concentrated industries. ROE is volatile in concentrated markets and less volatile in competitive markets. Concentrated markets generally enjoy monopoly profits. Gross domestic product and interest rates have a positive impact on ROE, while inflation, unemployment and exchange rates have a negative effect.

Originality/value

This study highlights the need to apply appropriate business strategies and policies depending on the structure of the industry. Competitive advantage strategies may assist in sustaining profits of firms in competitive markets. Regulators need to be proactive and stress test the impact of a policy on industry performance before implementation because competitive and concentrated markets react differently to external shocks. Risk tolerant investors may invest in volatile markets such as Russia and South Africa, while risk-averse investors may prefer to invest in less volatile markets such as India and China.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Kirti Madan

The article seeks to evaluate the capital structure of leading hotel chains of India to examine the role of financing decision in the overall performance of companies. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The article seeks to evaluate the capital structure of leading hotel chains of India to examine the role of financing decision in the overall performance of companies. It aims to analyze the debt‐equity structure of these hotels, try to discover the industry benchmark and scrutinize how capital structure plays a momentous role in the company's overall growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on financial data collected on leading hotel chains in India. The consolidated financial results of the hotels have been considered for selecting these hotel companies.

Findings

From the financial perspective, capital structure is one of the most important determinants of a company's sustainable growth. Leverage seems to be working only for a few companies, whilst affecting others negatively. Firms that have been moderately geared have been able to generate a good return on equity.

Practical implications

The paper would be of specific use for top and middle level management of the selected hotel chains to reassess their capital structure for enhanced financial performance. For the hospitality industry in general, it would divulge best financial practices in terms of debt‐equity mix and would assist in fixing on better financing decisions.

Originality/value

The findings of the research are pertinent for the industry, as no explicit study in this area has been conducted in the Indian context. More so, because it focuses on the high turnover segment of the industry which captures the major market share in the business, it would beg the question – “Does being big always mean being better?”

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Content available
Article

Rebeca Cordeiro da Cunha Araújo and Márcio André Veras Machado

This study aims to analyze the influence of future expectations of the book-to-market ratio (B/M) and return on equity (ROE) in explaining the Brazilian capital market returns.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the influence of future expectations of the book-to-market ratio (B/M) and return on equity (ROE) in explaining the Brazilian capital market returns.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzed the explanatory power of risk-factor approach variables such as beta, size, B/M ratio, momentum and liquidity.

Findings

The results show that future expectations of the B/M ratio and ROE, when combined with proxies for risk factors, were able to explain part of the variations of Brazilian stock returns. With respect to risk factors approach variables, the authors verified the existence of size and B/M effects and a liquidity premium in the Brazilian capital market, during the period analyzed.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to the non-financial companies with shares traded at Brasil, Bolsa and Balcão, from January 1, 1995 to June 30, 2015. This way, the conclusions reached are limited to the sample used herein.

Practical implications

The evidences herein presented can also contribute to establishing investment strategies, considering that the B/M ratio may be calculated through accounting information announced by companies. Besides, using historical data enable investors, in a specific year, to calculate the predictor variables for the B/M ratio and ROE in the next year, which enhance the explanatory power of the current B/M, when combined in the form of an aggregate predictor variable for stock returns.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study to the literature is to demonstrate how the expected future B/M ratio and ROE may improve the explanatory capacity of the stock return, when compared with the variables traditionally studied in the literature.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

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