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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Morten H. Abrahamsen

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in…

Abstract

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in the sense that revisions occur to the research question, method, theory, and context as an integral part of the research process.

Changes within networks receive less research attention, although considerable research exists on explaining business network structures in different research traditions. This study analyzes changes in networks in terms of the industrial network approach. This approach sees networks as connected relationships between actors, where interdependent companies interact based on their sensemaking of their relevant network environment. The study develops a concept of network change as well as an operationalization for comparing perceptions of change, where the study introduces a template model of dottograms to systematically analyze differences in perceptions. The study then applies the model to analyze findings from a case study of Norwegian/Japanese seafood distribution, and the chapter provides a rich description of a complex system facing considerable pressure to change. In-depth personal interviews and cognitive mapping techniques are the main research tools applied, in addition to tracer studies and personal observation.

The dottogram method represents a valuable contribution to case study research as it enables systematic within-case and across-case analyses. A further theoretical contribution of the study is the suggestion that network change is about actors seeking to change their network position to gain access to resources. Thereby, the study also implies a close relationship between the concepts network position and the network change that has not been discussed within the network approach in great detail.

Another major contribution of the study is the analysis of the role that network pictures play in actors' efforts to change their network position. The study develops seven propositions in an attempt to describe the role of network pictures in network change. So far, the relevant literature discusses network pictures mainly as a theoretical concept. Finally, the chapter concludes with important implications for management practice.

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Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Fredrik von Corswant

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization…

Abstract

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization, increased innovation, and possibilities to perform development activities in parallel. However, the differentiation of product development among a number of firms also implies that various dependencies need to be dealt with across firm boundaries. How dependencies may be dealt with across firms is related to how product development is organized. The purpose of the paper is to explore dependencies and how interactive product development may be organized with regard to these dependencies.

The analytical framework is based on the industrial network approach, and deals with the development of products in terms of adaptation and combination of heterogeneous resources. There are dependencies between resources, that is, they are embedded, implying that no resource can be developed in isolation. The characteristics of and dependencies related to four main categories of resources (products, production facilities, business units and business relationships) provide a basis for analyzing the organizing of interactive product development.

Three in-depth case studies are used to explore the organizing of interactive product development with regard to dependencies. The first two cases are based on the development of the electrical system and the seats for Volvo’s large car platform (P2), performed in interaction with Delphi and Lear respectively. The third case is based on the interaction between Scania and Dayco/DFC Tech for the development of various pipes and hoses for a new truck model.

The analysis is focused on what different dependencies the firms considered and dealt with, and how product development was organized with regard to these dependencies. It is concluded that there is a complex and dynamic pattern of dependencies that reaches far beyond the developed product as well as beyond individual business units. To deal with these dependencies, development may be organized in teams where several business units are represented. This enables interaction between different business units’ resource collections, which is important for resource adaptation as well as for innovation. The delimiting and relating functions of the team boundary are elaborated upon and it is argued that also teams may be regarded as actors. It is also concluded that a modular product structure may entail a modular organization with regard to the teams, though, interaction between business units and teams is needed. A strong connection between the technical structure and the organizational structure is identified and it is concluded that policies regarding the technical structure (e.g. concerning “carry-over”) cannot be separated from the management of the organizational structure (e.g. the supplier structure). The organizing of product development is in itself a complex and dynamic task that needs to be subject to interaction between business units.

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Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Magnar Forbord

In every industry there are resources. Some are moving, others more fixed; some are technical, others social. People working with the resources, for example, as buyers or…

Abstract

In every industry there are resources. Some are moving, others more fixed; some are technical, others social. People working with the resources, for example, as buyers or sellers, or users or producers, may not make much notice of them. A product sells. A facility functions. The business relationship in which we make our money has “always” been there. However, some times this picture of order is disturbed. A user having purchased a product for decades may “suddenly” say to the producer that s/he does not appreciate the product. And a producer having received an order of a product that s/he thought was well known, may find it impossible to sell it. Such disturbances may be ignored. Or they can be used as a platform for development. In this study we investigate the latter option, theoretically and through real world data. Concerning theory we draw on the industrial network approach. We see industrial actors as part of (industrial) networks. In their activities actors use and produce resources. Moreover, the actors interact − bilaterally and multilaterally. This leads to development of resources and networks. Through “thick” descriptions of two cases we illustrate and try to understand the interactive character of resource development and how actors do business on features of resources. The cases are about a certain type of resource, a product − goat milk. The main message to industrial actors is that they should pay attention to that products can be co-created. Successful co-creation of products, moreover, may require development also of business relationships and their connections (“networking”).

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Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Meng Xiao, Qinhai Ma and Man Li

Co-creating value with customers is important for companies in order to gain a competitive advantage. Based on resource theory and social interaction theory, the purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Co-creating value with customers is important for companies in order to gain a competitive advantage. Based on resource theory and social interaction theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the customer participation mechanism in co-creating value and test the effects of different types of customer resources and multi-level customer–firm interaction on customer value.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from tourism industry. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicate that both the customer’s human resource and relationship resource have a significantly positive effect on customers’ utilitarian value and hedonic value through reactive and proactive interactions. Reactive interaction has a full mediating effect on the relationship between relationship resource and proactive interaction, whereas proactive interaction has a full mediating effect on the relationship between reactive interaction and hedonic value.

Originality/value

This study explores the mediating effects of customer–firm interaction between customer resources and customer value. This paper contributes to the understanding of customers’ motivations for, and the processes of, participating in value co-creation.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Arnela Ceric

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a growing body of research on the applicability of resource-based theory (RBT) to the information systems (IS) area. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a growing body of research on the applicability of resource-based theory (RBT) to the information systems (IS) area. In particular, the paper provides an understanding of the IS value creation process, and strategies for managing it by demonstrating the application of cross-impact analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

RBT and systems theory are adopted as a theoretical framework in this study. Cross-impact analysis is used as a method for investigating interactions among elements of an IS value creation system. These elements were identified through 22 semi-structured interviews with organisational stakeholders, and assessed in terms of direction and strength of their interactions, and depicted in a coordinate system.

Findings

The result of the analysis is a meaningful classification of elements in an IS value creation system as: levers, indicators, identities, buffers or trends, based on their position in the system. The results provide additional clarity and insights into the relationships between IS and organisational resources and their effect on IS value.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings have important implications for researchers and managers in terms of understanding the impact of interactions among IS and organisational resources on formulating successful strategies for managing the IS value creation system.

Originality/value

This study explores interactions among IS/information technology resources and organisational resources by using cross-impact analysis. It shows that interactions among the identified resources do have a major influence on the overall IS value creation system.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Morten H. Abrahamsen and Håkan Håkansson

The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of customer-supplier interaction and integration from a resource perspective. In economic terms, a fish may be seen as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the phenomenon of customer-supplier interaction and integration from a resource perspective. In economic terms, a fish may be seen as a more or less homogeneous resource. If the herring is seen as a homogeneous resource, a market should be the best way to handle the selling and buying. However, if the herring is seen as a heterogeneous resource, a more extensive type of interaction is needed. One interesting aspect with herring is that different business actors apparently see this resource in different ways. Thus, the authors will have a mixed situation, creating possible difficulties for the actors involved.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors start this study in Germany, one of the most important export markets for Norwegian herring. Today, Norwegian legislation hinders the possibility of vertical integration and cooperation at the supply side of the network. However, the industry sees opportunities for growth and integration on the marketing side. To examine this issue, the study uses a qualitative design methodology, incorporating personal in-depth interviews with selected respondents in Norway and Germany. Secondary data is also used. To analyse the data, the authors introduce five interaction and integration patterns termed pure exchange – no integration; limited interaction and integration; extensive interaction and developed integration and; indirect interaction and structural integration; and full integration.

Findings

The findings suggest that there is a link between how the actors perceive herring as a resource and how they interact with counterparts. The authors find that the actors who see the resource as homogeneous have limited interaction and little or no integration, whereas the actors who see the resource as heterogeneous have a much more extensive interaction and closer ties.

Originality/value

The paper is an investigation of the link between the resource heterogeneity and the patterns of customer-supplier integration.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Tommy Tsung Ying Shih

Researchers continue to seek understanding of industrialization as a state managed process. How to create and implement new industries based on advanced knowledge is on…

Abstract

Researchers continue to seek understanding of industrialization as a state managed process. How to create and implement new industries based on advanced knowledge is on the policy agenda of many advanced nations. Measures that promote these developments include national capacity building in science and technology, the formation of technology transfer systems, and the establishment of industrial clusters. What these templates often overlook is an analysis of use. This chapter aims to increase the understanding of the processes that embed new solutions in structures from an industrial network perspective. The chapter describes an empirical study of high-technology industrialization in Taiwan that the researcher conducts to this end. The study shows that the Taiwanese industrial model is oversimplified and omits several important factors in the development of new industries. This study bases its findings on the notions that resource combination occurs in different time and space, the new always builds on existing resource structures, and the users are important as active participants in development processes.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Håkan Håkansson and David Ford

The purpose of this paper is to address three aspects of the managerial challenge that arises from the process of business interaction: the diversity of interaction; the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address three aspects of the managerial challenge that arises from the process of business interaction: the diversity of interaction; the dynamic effects of interaction; and the integration of interaction into company operations and strategy. The paper develops a typology which characterizes different types of interaction in order to identify the managerial issues they represent.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the empirical research programme of the IMP Group (impgroup.org) and on a recent large scale research project within that programme.

Findings

The paper seeks to identify the dynamic effects of each type of interaction on the resources and activities involved in it and address the implications that these effects have for management. Finally, the paper discusses how the challenges and opportunities presented by business interaction can be integrated into the general management of a company.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is mainly based on detailed empirical observations focusing some special features. Focusing other aspects would give another result.

Practical implications

Important for all companies having important business relationships.

Originality/value

Gives a new view of managerial challenges related to the variety in business relationships.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Handyanto Widjojo, Avanti Fontana, Gita Gayatri and Agus W. Soehadi

The purpose of this paper is to explore how value co-creation in the Indonesian Organic Community overcomes the resource limitations of small enterprises through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how value co-creation in the Indonesian Organic Community overcomes the resource limitations of small enterprises through the integration of collective resources to drive innovation. A framework is derived and developed from service-dominant logic (SDL) and supported by consumer culture theory (CCT). It also offers a specific strategy that is required for the growth and sustainability of the organic-products entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Applied thematic analysis was performed by combining observation and in-depth interviews to multi-actors in the community.

Findings

The result shows that a collaboration network with external actors and the dynamic interaction within the community drive resource integration forming value co-creation platform and lead to innovation in product, process, marketing and organization.

Originality/value

A combination of SDL and CCT provides a new marketing perspective of value co-creation concept. SDL offers an understanding of multi-actor value co-creation that is built from the knowledge and skills-based resources. CCT unveils the roles of the community in developing the positive perception of organic products in the market ecosystem.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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1 – 10 of over 100000