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The Theory and Practice of Directors’ Remuneration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-683-0

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2012

María Dolores Vidal-Salazar, Vera Ferrón-Vilchez and Eulogio Cordón-Pozo

Purpose – Is the current economic crisis affecting the quality of working conditions within organisations? More specifically, due to constrained economic times, are…

Abstract

Purpose – Is the current economic crisis affecting the quality of working conditions within organisations? More specifically, due to constrained economic times, are organisations reducing the social benefits they offer to employees? This study analyses whether the current economic downturn influences companies’ maintenance of social benefits. Social benefits are those remunerations in kind voluntarily offered by an employer beyond what is established in labour laws and collective agreements

Design/methodology/approach – In doing so, this chapter presents an analysis of the evolution of social benefits in a sample of 171 employees, comparing the situation before and during the economic crisis.

Findings – Results showed that, in general, social benefits offered by companies to their workers have been reduced due to economic recession.

Originality/value of the chapter – Understanding the topic addressed in this work is interesting for scholars, regulators, and practitioners because the diminishing of social benefits due to the economic constraints could yield negative consequences for the employees’ involvement with the firm and have a subsequent negative impact on business performance.

Practical/social implications – This work demonstrates the need to pay greater attention to indirect remuneration. This issue is intimately related to the Internal Corporate Social Responsibility of the company.

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Social and Sustainable Enterprise: Changing the Nature of Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-254-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

An overview of all the elements that go into formulating a businessstrategy – including received wisdom from the gurus, vision andvalues, ideas on growth, forecasting…

Abstract

An overview of all the elements that go into formulating a business strategy – including received wisdom from the gurus, vision and values, ideas on growth, forecasting, information, objectives, audits, customers, markets, competition, finances, structure, training – with the focus on how to make it happen. Directed at practising managers whose task this is. Making strategic plans is the easy bit; enacting them requires changing things, getting things done through people. Discusses learning, training and development, culture, quality, with the emphasis on real people in real businesses. Underpinned by the philosophy of “action learning”.

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Management Decision, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ana Dinis, António Martins and Cidália Maria Lopes

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following research questions: Is the Portuguese corporate income tax (CIT) losing its internal consistency by extending the autonomous taxation of expenses (ATE)? Are receipts derived from autonomous taxes so relevant that what began as an exception is gradually becoming a permanent feature of the income tax? Given the constitutional principle that corporate taxation should be fundamentally based on income, is the taxation of expenses unconstitutional? Is Portugal an international outlier, in applying this type of taxation to corporate expenses?

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the paper is a blend of legal research method and case study analysis. The interpretation of legal texts and the ratio legis discussion (hermeneutical side), the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of autonomous taxes (argumentative approach) and the use of aggregate data to gauge an impression of autonomous taxes’ impact on global tax receipts (empirical side) will, jointly, be used to analyse the topic. Autonomous taxation is a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an European Union (EU) country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

Findings

The authors conclude that autonomous taxation is a relevant source of revenue and its elimination is not foreseeable, at least in the medium term. Moreover, the extension of the tax base is gradually transforming CIT in a kind of dual tax, by charging profits and some expenses. The Constitutional Court, stressing the equity principle, has not ruled autonomous taxation unconstitutional, invoking usefulness against tax evasion. Finally, with the exception of some Portuguese-speaking countries, no other comparable international experience is observed.

Practical implications

The autonomous taxes (ATE) and its progressive enlargement imply, on the one hand, that the CIT has been slowly, but inexorably, losing its sole purpose of taxing profits, and imposing a tax penalty on an increasing set of accounting expenses. On the other hand, the growing number of expenses subjected to taxation leads some authors to ponder if the Portuguese tax regime is losing attractiveness. By increasing ATE’s scope, the effective rate tends to move upwards, countering reductions in the statutory rate. Finally, tax law will increasingly influence managers’ daily decisions, given the set of expenses targeted by autonomous taxes.

Originality/value

Taking into account the aim of this study, the discussion of a Portuguese particular feature of corporate taxation can highlight useful policy points to a broader audience. Many Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries face a dire situation in public finances. Therefore, given the pressure to increase tax receipts, the ATE can be a case study on how a (albeit distortive) solution is being applied in an EU country to significantly enhance corporate-related tax revenue.

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International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Diego Ravenda, Maika Melina Valencia-Silva, Josep Maria Argiles-Bosch and Josep García-Blandón

This paper develops novel proxies for labour tax avoidance (LTAV) and tests their validity within a sample of 189 labour tax-avoidant offending firms (LTAOFs) accused of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper develops novel proxies for labour tax avoidance (LTAV) and tests their validity within a sample of 189 labour tax-avoidant offending firms (LTAOFs) accused of evading social security contributions (SOCs) by public authorities.

Design/methodology/approach

LTAV proxies are based on abnormal values of SOCs paid, reported in the income statements of a sample of 857,790 Spanish firm-years for the period 2001–2015, estimated through two-stage least square panel data regressions with firm fixed effects.

Findings

The results reveal that proxies specifically built to signal both conforming and non-conforming LTAV can provide evidence of abnormally low SOCs as expenses within the sample of LTAOFs. Furthermore, firm-specific financial variables as well as macroeconomic variables significantly influence LTAV.

Research limitations/implications

This study could foster further research on the efficacy of the LTAV proxies and on the drivers and sustainability implications of LTAV for firms and their stakeholders in different socio-economic and institutional contexts.

Practical implications

These LTAV proxies could integrate other methods applied to estimate the undeclared work and its trends. Furthermore, they may assist tax authorities to direct their inspections, detect labour tax evasion and then strengthen the social protection of the employees from employers' illegal exploitation practices, as well as reducing tax revenue shortfalls and related sustainability concerns in the social security systems.

Originality/value

This study proposes a novel methodology to examine LTAV and its determinants through accounting information. This methodology may support researchers to provide a more comprehensive picture of tax planning strategies pursued by companies, that include LTAV, and in this way integrate the extant mature literature on income tax avoidance.

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Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Kelly Patricia Murillo, Eugénio Rocha and Maria Fernanda Rodrigues

The purpose of this paper is to measure and compare the technical efficiency of construction companies in seven European countries: Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure and compare the technical efficiency of construction companies in seven European countries: Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain, during the 2008–2015 period. The analysis involves nine sectors grouped into three divisions: construction of buildings (F41), civil engineering (F42) and specialized construction activities (F43), by NACE classification.

Design/methodology/approach

Multidirectional efficiency analysis was adopted to investigate the levels of efficiencies, the differences in those levels and the possible causes of such differences by further defining two new indices.

Findings

It showed that F43 is the most efficient division during the study period, followed by F42 and F41. The sectors/countries with less efficiency are: construction of roads and railways/Poland, construction of other civil engineering projects/Hungary, demolition and site preparation/Poland, other specialized construction activities/Portugal. Globally, the development of building projects sector uses resources in the most inefficient way and there was a drop in the efficiency in 2011 and 2013, showing a delay in the crisis impact. After 2010, civil engineering projects required a substantial effort to access resources. Other features regarding (in)efficiency were further identified.

Originality/value

The analysis was conducted with one of the most effective techniques in frontier analysis. The first introduced index allows for comparing efficient/inefficient subgroups, and the other index measures the resource acquisition effort, allowing a better comparison along years. The study provides a good understanding of the performance of the construction industry and indirectly exposes the strategies to overcome the crisis, through the identification of the inputs/outputs which are well/badly used.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

D.A. Reisman

The Republic of the Philippines is seeking to expand access to the formal sector of medical care. Concentrates on the alternative ways in which that expansion can be…

Abstract

The Republic of the Philippines is seeking to expand access to the formal sector of medical care. Concentrates on the alternative ways in which that expansion can be financed. First, provides the background by presenting data on mortality and morbidity as indicators of health status, and of manpower and institutions as measures of care inputs. Second, examines private payment, concentrating on family resources, community co‐operatives, private insurance and employer provided services. Third, considers direct provision and national health insurance, which are the principal modes of public payment for care. Makes recommendations about the financing of health care and the mixed health economy that are of relevance in developed and less‐developed countries alike.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2018

Mónica Santillán Vera and Angel de la Vega Navarro

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively examine if varying household consumption activities at different income levels drove CO2 emissions to different degrees in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively examine if varying household consumption activities at different income levels drove CO2 emissions to different degrees in Mexico from 1990 to 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applied a simple expenditure-CO2 emissions elasticity model – a top-down approach – using data from consumption-based CO2 emission inventories and the “Household Income and Expenditure Survey” and assuming a range of 0.7-1.0 elasticity values.

Findings

The paper results show a large carbon inequality among income groups in Mexico throughout the period. The household consumption patterns at the highest income levels are related to significantly more total CO2 emissions (direct + indirect) than the household consumption patterns at the lowest income levels, in absolute terms, per household and per capita. In 2014, for example, the poorest household decile emitted 1.6 tCO2 per capita on average, while the wealthiest decile reached 8.6 tCO2 per capita.

Practical/implications

The results suggest that it is necessary to rethink the effect of consumption patterns on climate change and the allocation of mitigation responsibilities, thus opening up complementary options for designing mitigation strategies and policies.

Originality/value

The paper represents an alternative approach for studying CO2 emissions responsibility in Mexico from the demand side, which has been practically absent in previous studies. The paper thereby opens a way for studying and discussing climate change in terms of consumption and equity in the country.

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International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Yanping Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the farmers’ income and to analyze the factors affecting the farmers’ income as well as rural life during the People’s Commune period.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the farmers’ income and to analyze the factors affecting the farmers’ income as well as rural life during the People’s Commune period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s data are drawn from unique account books of production team and a great deal of rural archives from the aspects of commune, production brigade and production team during the People’s Commune period.

Findings

The fate of the people’s commune is closely related to the income of its members. This study tries to explore the answers to “what determines members’ income” and “what influences their income,” which include the impact of the materialization on farmers’ income, the gender structure of the household labor force, the life cycle of the family and the population and so on. The main reason for farmers’ income differentiation is the difference in the demographic structure of the farmers, while the social system and traditional culture strengthen the role of this factor.

Originality/value

The biggest feature of the study is that it deeply explored the unique account books of production team from a micro-view, and studied the issue of People’s Commune from the level of farmers using the methods of historical textual research and mathematical analysis. This study is a supplement of the research on the family level which has long been lacked in the academic community.

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China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Manuela López, María Sicilia and Carmen Hidalgo-Alcázar

Companies are interested in engaging consumers in spreading the word about their products or brands. Although more and more studies are analysing word of mouth marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies are interested in engaging consumers in spreading the word about their products or brands. Although more and more studies are analysing word of mouth marketing (WOMM), the topic is still very recent, thus very little is known about how to develop a WOMM campaign effectively. This chapter develops a literature review on WOMM in social media for better understanding on how to manage WOMM.

Methodology/approach

The studies reviewed have allowed us to identify the main decisions that should be taken when planning a WOMM campaign: the selection of the seed, the type of message and the inclusion of incentives.

Findings

We identify the two types of objectives that companies can follow with WOMM: information diffusion or consumers’ persuasion. Depending on the campaign objectives, the strategy to be used in order to be successful is different.

Social implications

This chapter can be useful to both, marketers, by showing them how to develop a WOMM campaign effectively; and researchers, by showing them the main gaps on WOMM that should be addressed in future studies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to review the literature and organize knowledge on WOMM. Concepts that have been treated as synonymous by many researchers such as opinion leaders, market mavens, innovative consumers, and hubs are clarified and distinguished one from the other which may help in improving previous knowledge on this field.

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

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