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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2019

John Hartley

Philosophers and political theorists have long warned of the “perils of dogmatism” for public discourse and identified intellectual humility as a necessary corrective…

Abstract

Philosophers and political theorists have long warned of the “perils of dogmatism” for public discourse and identified intellectual humility as a necessary corrective. Sufficient intellectual humility encompasses at least four elements: openness to error, recognition of bias, recognition of intellectual parity in interlocutors, and avoidance of recourse to authority. Religions seem to present obstacles on all four fronts, particularly when actors embody more conservative renderings of a given religion’s repertoire. As such, a case involving different groups of religious exclusivists engaging one another on topics that directly interact their deepest faith commitments and political visions presents a useful test case for our theories of intellectual humility. This chapter considers conservative protestants engaging in public discourse with Muslims about whether or not Muslim and Christian understandings of “loving God” and “loving neighbor” have sufficient overlap to support political cooperation. The results of the dialogue effort were a mixture of controversy and cooperation. For evangelicals, the engagement produced sharp conflict and yet helped to shift the community’s plausibility structures, opening further the possibility of fruitful public discourse and strategic action in cooperation with Muslims. The analysis suggests a conceptualization of practical intellectual humility that emphasizes recognition of the other.

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Religion, Humility, and Democracy in a Divided America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-949-7

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Abstract

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Religion, Humility, and Democracy in a Divided America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-949-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Wiwiek Rabiatul Adawiyah and Bambang Agus Pramuka

Exponential growth in interest of workplace spirituality has led to the development of numerous theories based on various religious faiths. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Exponential growth in interest of workplace spirituality has led to the development of numerous theories based on various religious faiths. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the underlying dimensions of workplace spirituality in Islam by developing a scale to measure it and to present a subset of knowledge on workplace spirituality from both western and Islamic perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 223 employees working at Islamic-based institutions in Indonesia. They tested the validity and reliability of the proposed indicators of Islamic workplace spirituality using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

This study enhances the literature in the field of human resources development, especially in the area of workplace spirituality, by empirically assessing the extent of spirituality in the Islamic workplace. The findings revealed 13 indicators that define Islamic workplace spirituality in the Indonesian business organizational context.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to Indonesia. In order to apply the 13 indicators in a broader, more global context, researchers need to conduct similar studies on a number of institutions worldwide.

Practical implications

Scholars and professionals may use the research findings to justify their efforts in designing, developing, and implementing appropriate learning and performance improvement interventions, so that Islamic spirituality can increase continuously among employees.

Social implications

This study provides guidelines to the human resources managers of Islamic-based institution to assess the degree of spirituality of each job applicants during job selection.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to examine and measure Islamic spirituality in the workplace, not only in Indonesia, but also worldwide. The 13 indicators, drawn from religious psychology, provide a new scale to measure spirituality.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Mohamed Safiullah Munsoor and Hannah Safiullah Munsoor

Modern life is characterized by its hectic life-style, which invariably leads to high levels of stress having negative consequences for the mind-body. Thus, people are…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern life is characterized by its hectic life-style, which invariably leads to high levels of stress having negative consequences for the mind-body. Thus, people are seeking for natural ways to achieve a sense of equilibrium and peace. Neuroscience has identified beneficial findings from contemplative practices like meditation, prayers and fasting. Within the Islamic framework, these practices were found to be beneficial for both the body and the mind. However, comparatively little research has been carried out on Islamic contemplative practices. Thus, there is a dire need to carry out further research, where the focus needs to be more on the inward aspects of Islam especially the contemplative practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took an integrated approach, whereby, objective experimental data from various sources were combined with the religious narratives from the Qur’an and the Hadiths or the practice of the Prophet in Islam. This was augmented by the subjective experiences of the participants of the study and all of these woven to present a case for Islamic contemplative practices.

Findings

Worship, be it Yogic, Buddhist and Islamic, seems to have positive mental and physical benefits for individuals. Much has been documented within the field of Yoga and Buddhist practices, and it is only recently that Islamic practices are beginning to be studied and are yielding similar results. It has been found that Islamic ritual prayers, fasting and meditation (dhikr) have an impact on the well-being of the worshipper. The communities of practice commonly known as “tariqas” and other religio-spiritual orders can serve as a vehicle to further these practices. This opens the door for more extensive research in this direction.

Research limitations/implications

This study clearly indicates that Islamic practices have positive benefits; however, the number of studies are limited. Moreover, there are a whole system of practices as the contemplative tree in this paper points out, which needs more robust as well as longitudinal studies to outline more conclusive evidence to this effect.

Practical implications

Muslims have been looking at other traditions like Yoga and Buddhist meditation to find ways of improving their physical and mental health. This meta-study indicates that Islamic contemplative practices have positive benefits, and thus, there are a variety of practices like ritual prayers, fasting and meditation, which is found to demonstrate positive health benefits. Thus, it has direct practical reasons to pursue these practices and derive the innate benefits from them.

Social implications

The data from the various neuroscience studies have demonstrated the neurological and physiological impact on individuals directly relating to worship. However, the studies on the Islamic ritual prayer (salat) cited in this study points out to its social implications, where congregational prayers was found to be more beneficial than the individual prayers. Thus, this indicates the social implications that collective worship can have. Further research is needed in terms of understanding the social impact on the various collective contemplative practices.

Originality/value

The originality of this literature review and analysis is bringing together the various strands of neuroscience and health data to demonstrate the positive impact of worship emanating from others faiths, while building a case for Islamic contemplative practices. This is further augmented by its integrated approach of weaving hard and soft data and synthesizing it to present health benefits of worship.

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Humanomics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1997

John O’Shaughnessy

Marketing eschatology judges marketing’s sins of omission and commission and describes the future state where “good” triumphs over that which led us to error. Begins by…

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Marketing eschatology judges marketing’s sins of omission and commission and describes the future state where “good” triumphs over that which led us to error. Begins by presenting the argument that the future will reject methodological exclusivism involving the two rival claims of methodological monism to the effect that there is just one method for all the sciences and the rival claim that the study of human beings requires a methodology of its own, distinct from that of the natural sciences. Methodological exclusivism should be replaced with methodological pluralism which will be objective pluralism and not a matter of “anything goes”. Continues by arguing that marketing, in drawing theories from the behavioural sciences, has paid insufficient attention to the questions and problems to be addressed resulting in illicit grafts with dysfunctional consequences. Marketing in the future will avoid such errors. The third part discusses the status of the principles of marketing and shows how such principles will be justified in the future, other than by disavowing all such principles, unless they are the result of formal empirical inquiry. Finally, discusses marketing’s traditional vain obsession with mechanistic approaches and the belief in the universality of universal “laws” and why the future will eschew such beliefs.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Stuart Hannabuss

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Reference Reviews, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2011

Lionel Obadia and Donald C. Wood

The “economics of religion” has grown into a new and groundbreaking approach to the study of religious beliefs, preferences, attitudes, belongings, organizations, and…

Abstract

The “economics of religion” has grown into a new and groundbreaking approach to the study of religious beliefs, preferences, attitudes, belongings, organizations, and dynamics. This chapter circumscribes its epistemological area, outlines some of the major developments in the field, allows place for the presentation of both important theoretical models (market theory, rational choice, supply-and-demand) and crucial criticisms that have been directed toward them. If the “economics of religion” partakes of an attempt to explain religion in ancient or recent history, in the conceptual prism of economics, the general movement known as globalization has accelerated the convergence of economics and cultural/social analysis in religious studies. Anthropology, however, has gone its own way regarding economic issues. It has been somewhat reluctant to espouse the principles of “economics of religion,” even while being convinced of its relevance. Some recent anthropological works on globalization and religion are presented here as examples of this ambivalent contribution of anthropology to the economics of religion in global settings.

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The Economics of Religion: Anthropological Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-228-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2008

Fethi Keles

This chapter presents a theoretical argument that looking at how some grand matters of politics are simplified for practical use on the street is necessary to adequately…

Abstract

This chapter presents a theoretical argument that looking at how some grand matters of politics are simplified for practical use on the street is necessary to adequately understand how ordinary Serbs and Croats (and to a limited extent, Muslims) were transformed into enemies of their neighbors, workmates, and covillagers in the havoc wrought in Bosnia-Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Locals’ shifting attitudes toward consanguinal identity, expressions of greeting, and dressing patterns are found to be examples of everyday practices through which perceived differences in civilization, competitive ideas of statehood, and macroconstructions of group identity produce ethnic conflict. A broad conclusion is that attention to localized manifestations of the macropolitical will yield more comprehensive understanding in analyses of ethnic conflict.

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Pushing the Boundaries: New Frontiersin Conflict Resolution and Collaboration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-290-6

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2011

Lionel Obadia

Buddhism, a globalizing religion, offers a remarkable opportunity to test different hypotheses and models coined in the field of “economics of religion.” Since their…

Abstract

Buddhism, a globalizing religion, offers a remarkable opportunity to test different hypotheses and models coined in the field of “economics of religion.” Since their foundation over 25 centuries ago, Buddhist ethics have always epitomized extra-worldly and noneconomic philosophies of renunciation. And in the context of globalization, contemporary Buddhist voices praise resistance to the human-engineered damage caused by expansive capitalism. Buddhist traditions have, however, always followed commercial routes and have been involved, although indirectly, in economic affairs. The globalization of Buddhism perpetuates this tendency but also uncovers the rise of “new” relationships between Asian tradition and (capitalistic) economy, in the realm of religious values, behaviors, and organization. This chapter aims at differentiating three models: Buddhism and economy, Buddhist economics, and the economics of Buddhism. It raises questions about the relevance of the “economic”-inspired conceptualization of Buddhist forms and dynamics.

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The Economics of Religion: Anthropological Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-228-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Hartoyo Hartoyo, Haryanto Sindung, Fahmi Teuku and Sunarto Sunarto

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of socio-demographic factors on ethnic tolerance (ET) and religious tolerance (RT) as well as the participation of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of socio-demographic factors on ethnic tolerance (ET) and religious tolerance (RT) as well as the participation of the local community in peacebuilding in post-ethnic violent conflicts in a multi-cultural society.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted in the rural areas of Indonesia, on the basis of an empirical study that was performed in Lampung, a province at the southern tip of Sumatra. Data were collected through a survey of 500 respondents from five districts susceptible to ethnic conflicts. From each district, two villages that experienced ethnic conflicts were chosen and from each village, 50 respondents were randomly selected. To strengthen the explanation of quantitative data, in-depth interviews were also conducted with another 50 residents, five informants from each of ten villages. Informants comprised community leaders or traditional leaders, local police officers, local military officers and district government officials.

Findings

First, the degree of tolerance is not specifically concentrated in the socio-demographic characteristics. Second, ET affects RT. Third, local community participation in peacebuilding in post-ethnic violent conflicts is not influenced by the socio-demographic characteristics but is influenced by ET and RT. The socio-cultural approach is the main strategy for peacebuilding in post-ethnic (and religious) conflicts in multi-cultural societies. The weakness of inter-ethnic relations soon improves in the post-peace period through the reconstruction of social and cultural factors to strengthen social cohesion and social capital at the local community level by involving various stakeholders

Originality/value

This paper is a valuable source of information regarding current research on the role of local communities in strengthening and building peace in post-ethnic violent conflicts in multi-cultural societies.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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