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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2016

Elena Crivellaro

While there has been intense debate in the empirical literature over the evolution of the college wage premium in the United States, its evolution in Europe has received…

Abstract

While there has been intense debate in the empirical literature over the evolution of the college wage premium in the United States, its evolution in Europe has received little attention. This paper investigates the causes of the evolution of the college wage premium in 12 European countries from 1994 to 2009, assessing the relevance of the supply factor as a determinant of the college wage premium. I use cross-country variation in relative supply, demand, and labour market institutions to examine their effects on the trend in wage inequality. I address possible concerns of endogeneity of the relative supply using an IV strategy exploiting the differential legislations of university autonomy and their variations over time. Results show that the strong increase in the relative supply that European countries have experienced has decreased the college wage premium. The most relevant institution is the minimun wage, which significantly decreases college wage premium.

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Inequality: Causes and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-810-0

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2018

Oyakhilome Wallace Ibhagui

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse how different exchange rate regimes affect the links between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse how different exchange rate regimes affect the links between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Pedroni method for panel cointegration, mean group and pooled mean group and the panel vector autoregressive technique, this study empirically investigates whether monetary fundamentals impact exchange rates similarly in both regimes. Thus, the author acquires needed and credible empirical data.

Findings

The result suggests that the impact is dissimilar. In the floating regime, an increase in relative money supply and relative real output depreciates and appreciates the nominal exchange rate in the long run whereas in the non-floating regime, the evidence is mixed. Thus, exchange rates bear a theoretically consistent relationship with monetary fundamentals across SSA countries with floating regimes but fails under non-floating regimes. This provides evidence that regime choice is important if the relationship between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in SSA are to be theoretically consistent.

Originality/value

This study empirically incorporates the dissimilarities in exchange rate regimes in a panel framework and study the links between exchange rates and monetary fundamentals. The focus on how exchange rate regimes might alter the equilibrium relationships between exchange rates and monetary fundamentals in SSA is a pioneering experiment.

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China Finance Review International, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Kamel A. Fantazy, Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu and Vinod Kumar

– The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework conceptualizing the relative openness of a supply chain and its impact on organizational performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework conceptualizing the relative openness of a supply chain and its impact on organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature on system theory and the attributes of supply chain management are used to develop a framework describing the relative openness of a supply chain.

Findings

Different supply chain terminologies – such as adaptive supply chain network, best value supply chain, and open inter-organizational system – partially draw upon the basic premises of an open system. The relative openness of a supply chain and, consequently, the dynamics of different supply chain attributes remain understudied. This supports the idea that an open system perspective of the supply chain is imperative to improve the understanding of the influence of supply chain openness on organizational performance.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework posits that different supply chain attributes affect the openness of supply chain to a varying degree which ultimately influences the organizational performance. The proposed framework and research propositions will serve as a springboard for conducting future empirical studies.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

Don Bellante, Carl A. Kogut and Raul Moncarz

The effect of the relative supply of Hispanics onthe relative earnings of Blacks in US labourmarkets is examined. The data source for theempirical estimates is the March…

Abstract

The effect of the relative supply of Hispanics on the relative earnings of Blacks in US labour markets is examined. The data source for the empirical estimates is the March 1988 Current Population Survey. The results support one of the key features of the Becker model of discrimination, namely, that the extent of discrimination is affected by relative supply. Results also indicated that an increase in the number of Hispanics in a local labour market will reduce the income of otherwise comparable Blacks. However, if the Black labour supply in a local labour market is sufficiently large, a given percentage increase in the relative supply of Blacks will have a more negative impact on average Black earnings than would the same percentage increase in the number of Hispanics.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Abstract

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The Economic Decoding of Religious Dogmas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-536-8

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2012

Lorenzo Corsini

This article studies the evolution of the wage differentials between graduate (skilled) and non-graduate (unskilled) workers in several European countries from the…

Abstract

This article studies the evolution of the wage differentials between graduate (skilled) and non-graduate (unskilled) workers in several European countries from the beginning of the 1990s to the beginning of this century. The starting point is that all European countries show a common increase in the relative supply of skilled workers but different evolution of wage differentials. Economics theory usually relates the evolution of wage differentials not only to relative supply but also to skill-biased technological progress. I complement this explanation providing a theoretical model of wage bargaining where wage differentials are determined also by labour market institutions. My empirical findings show that both technological progress and labour market institutions are important in the determination of wage differentials. As for the former, I find that differentials depend on the pace and intensity at which technological progress takes place. As for labour market institutions, their effect, though important, is not always straightforward. In fact, some aspects of institutions, like minimum wage and the duration of unemployment benefits, favour unskilled workers while other aspects, like bargaining power and replacement rates from unemployment benefits, may magnify the differences in outside options and actually increase wage differentials.

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Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-358-2

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Abstract

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

Abstract

Details

Explaining Unemployment: Econometric Models for the Netherlands
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-847-6

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Paulo de Andrade Jacinto, Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro and Tulio Cravo

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate skilled labor demand determinants in Brazil, considering alternatives explanations: changes in relative wages, non-homothetic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate skilled labor demand determinants in Brazil, considering alternatives explanations: changes in relative wages, non-homothetic technology output growth and skill-biased technical change.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on a rich and unique matched employer-employee data set for manufacturing sector, from 1996 to 2003. The analysis considers a translog functional form labor demand system estimated using seemingly unrelated regression and instrumental variables to control for possible measurement errors and wages and output endogeneity.

Findings

The demand function estimates suggest that: labor demand underlying technology is non-homothetic, research and development investment is biased toward skilled workers, the non-homothetic technology is not skill biased so output changes contributed positively for skilled labor increase, relative wages played a significant role and international trade has little explanatory power explaining labor demand shifts.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that considers alternative explanations for the increase in the demand of skilled workers for manufacturing in Brazil simultaneously: changes in relative wages, output changes with non-homothetic technology, skill-biased technical change and, to a lesser extent, international trade. The study challenges current empirical evidence that considers trade and trade liberalization as the main factor explaining labor demand shifts.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Raquel Sebastian and Magdalena Ulceluse

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of an increase in the relative supply of immigrants on natives’ task reallocation, with a focus on Germany…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of an increase in the relative supply of immigrants on natives’ task reallocation, with a focus on Germany. Specifically, it investigates whether natives, as a response to increased immigration, re-specialise in communication-intensive occupations, where they arguably have a comparative advantage due to language proficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses regional data from the German Labour Force Survey between 2002 and 2014. To derive data on job tasks requirements, it employs the US Department of Labor’s O*NET database, the results of which are tested through a sensitivity analysis using the European Working Condition Survey and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies data sets.

Findings

The paper finds that indeed German workers respond to increasing immigration by shifting their task supply and providing more communication relative to manual tasks. Importantly, the decrease in the supply of communication tasks is stronger and more robust than the increase in the supply of manual tasks, pointing to a potential displacement effect taking place between natives and immigrants, alongside task reallocation. This would suggest that countries with relatively more rigid labour markets are less responsive to immigration shocks. Moreover, it suggests that labour market rigidity can minimise the gains from immigration and exacerbate employment effects.

Originality/value

The paper not only investigates task reallocation as a result of immigration in a different institutional context and labour market functioning, but the results feed into broader policy and scholarly discussions on the effects of immigration, including questions about how the institutional context affects labour market adjustment to immigration, worker occupational mobility in a more rigid labour markets and the fine balance needed between flexibility and rigidity.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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