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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Xianzhi Jiang, Caihua Xiong, Ronglei Sun, Xiaolin Huang and Youlun Xiong

The purpose of this paper is to present the static and dynamic characteristics of the rehabilitation joint.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the static and dynamic characteristics of the rehabilitation joint.

Design/methodology/approach

The rehabilitation joint is driven by pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). Rehabilitation robot is normally composed of several rehabilitation joints. The static and dynamic characteristics of the rehabilitation joint are important for control of the rehabilitation robot. Analysis and modeling of the rehabilitation joint is based on experiments.

Findings

The static model of the PMA is obtained by the method of curve fitting and achieved better precision compared to the existing representative models. A second‐order model fits the dynamic characteristic of the rehabilitation joint better than a first order one.

Research limitations/implications

The rehabilitation joint and the patient's joint combine to make an independent system, and the unstable factors of the patient's joint make it difficult in precisely modeling the rehabilitation joint.

Originality/value

The characteristics of the rehabilitation joint are all based on the data that were recorded in a series of with experiments, the same with modeling of the rehabilitation joint.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Derek Ward, Martin Severs and Tara Dean

The continued expansion of the intermediate care initiative has resulted in the use of alternative care settings, such as nursing and care homes, for the delivery of…

Abstract

The continued expansion of the intermediate care initiative has resulted in the use of alternative care settings, such as nursing and care homes, for the delivery of rehabilitative interventions for older people. In this paper, we report on the findings from the second stage of a national survey of rehabilitation schemes that use care home settings. The survey reveals a wide range of approaches and standards, leading us to ask whether there is a gap between policy goals, good practice and actual service provision. The care home rehabilitation schemes were selected on the basis that they offered, as a minimum, rehabilitation to improve an older person's physical status.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Abdelrahman M. Farouk, Rahimi A. Rahman and Noor Suraya Romali

Sustainable water management has been a trending goal in the past decade. Non-revenue water (NRW) is one form of water loss that should be addressed to reach water…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable water management has been a trending goal in the past decade. Non-revenue water (NRW) is one form of water loss that should be addressed to reach water sustainability. While rehabilitating water distribution networks (WDNs) is one way to decrease NRW, the process is often delayed owing to cost. Therefore, it is essential to provide decision-makers with cost-effective approaches to optimize WDN rehabilitation. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of approaches for rehabilitating WDN from developing countries’ perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was first conducted to identify different WDN rehabilitation methods and techniques to develop the questionnaire survey. This is followed by collecting questionnaire survey data in Malaysia and Egypt on the cost and effectiveness of the WDN rehabilitation methods and techniques. A total of 176 respondents were collected, 109 from Malaysia and 67 from Egypt. Then, the data were analyzed using mean score ranking with normalization technique and agreement analysis.

Findings

The results from the data analysis show that the cost-effective approaches are “programming,” “simulation,” “digital twin” and “supervisory control and data acquisition.” Additionally, the data from Malaysia suggest two additional cost-effective approaches: “zoning network” and “genetic algorithm.”

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents one of the first studies that laterally compares the cost-effectiveness of existing and potential WDN rehabilitation approaches between different countries. There is yet a study that compared these WDN rehabilitation approaches. This comparison which is developed depending on the systematic review could be a reference for future studies or surveys which could be done on different countries in the future. The main findings of this paper can be a useful reference for decision-makers, especially those from middle-income countries, when looking into approaches for WDN rehabilitation. A better WDN rehabilitation supports NRW reduction, moving towards sustainable water management.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Xinjie Wang, Yan Cheng, Huadong Zheng, Yihao Li and Caidong Wang

Currently, rehabilitation medical care is expensive, requires a large number of rehabilitation therapist and which can only limit in the fixed location. In addition, there…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, rehabilitation medical care is expensive, requires a large number of rehabilitation therapist and which can only limit in the fixed location. In addition, there is a lack of research on the structure optimization and theoretical analysis of soft actuators for hand rehabilitation. In view of the problems above, this paper aims to propose a cheap, portable, wearable soft multiple joints rehabilitation glove.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this paper determined the hyperelastic constitutive model by material tensile test. Second, the soft actuator’s internal longitudinal section shape was optimized through the comparison of three diverse chamber structures. Meanwhile, the motion model of the soft actuator is established by the finite element model analysis method. Then, this paper established the constitutive model of the soft actuator according to the torque equilibrium equation and analyzed the relationship between the soft actuator’s bending angle and the input air pressure. This paper has verified that the theoretical model is correct through the soft actuator bending test. Finally, rehabilitation gloves were manufactured according to the model and the rehabilitation performance and grasping ability of gloves were verified through experiments.

Findings

The optimization results show that the internal semicircular cavity has better performance. Then, the actuator performance is better after adding the external arc structure and optimizing the physical dimension. The experimental results show that the trajectory of the actuator conforms to the mathematical model and rehabilitation gloves can meet the needs of rehabilitation treatment.

Practical implications

Rehabilitation gloves made of actuators can help patients with hand dysfunction in daily rehabilitation training. Then, it can also assist patients with some fine and complicated hand movements.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new type of soft rehabilitation glove, which is composed of new soft actuators and adapting pieces. The new actuator is small enough to be fitted to the knuckle of the glove to move each joint of the finger.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Silvia Dorado

This chapter explores how hybrid organizations navigate the challenges (and opportunities) associated with advancing unconventional logic combinations. It draws from a…

Abstract

This chapter explores how hybrid organizations navigate the challenges (and opportunities) associated with advancing unconventional logic combinations. It draws from a study of the 180-year history of sheltered workshops in the United States. Sheltered workshops are hybrids that combine social and commercial logics to provide gainful employment to individuals with disabilities. This chapter theorizes a connection between the governance system – that is, country-based social norms and regulatory settlements – framing hybrids and the agency that allows them the discretion required to advance unconventional combinations. It introduces the term hybrid agency to describe this connection and identifies four types: upstream, midstream, downstream, and crosscurrent. Upstream agency draws from the entrepreneurial vision of charismatic founders. It allows hybrids the discretion to advance unconventional logic combinations in unsupportive times, but it also requires them to observe certain dominant cultural norms. Midstream agency draws from hybrids’ adaptation and advocacy skills and resources in periods of historical change. It allows access to resources and legitimacy for unconventional combinations. Downstream agency draws from organizational slack possible in supportive times. Slack eases tensions and tradeoffs between conflicting logics but may also fuel mission drift. Finally, crosscurrent agency also draws from hybrids’ adaptation and advocacy skills and resources. It provides hybrids with the opportunity to grapple with challenges in periods of contestation.

Details

Organizational Hybridity: Perspectives, Processes, Promises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-355-5

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2011

Walter Schönfelder and Trond Bliksvær

Contemporary categorizations of western-style welfare states distinguish a particular pattern of organizing social security mainly found in Scandinavian countries, and…

Abstract

Contemporary categorizations of western-style welfare states distinguish a particular pattern of organizing social security mainly found in Scandinavian countries, and sometimes labeled as a “social democratic welfare regime.” This is characterized by general access of the population to a social security system organized and administered by public authorities. This categorization is widely acknowledged, but the Scandinavian “social democratic” model is rarely ever analyzed in detail.

While most health services are provided by public actors, it is often overlooked that health services in Scandinavian countries in certain fields are delivered to a substantial part by private actors. In Norwegian rehabilitation specialist health care, these private actors stand for more than 30% of all service delivery.

Based on a content analysis of publications of the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services we look into the relation between public and private actors in rehabilitation and relate our findings to classifications of Scandinavian welfare states into an institutional, social democratic model.

Details

Access to Care and Factors that Impact Access, Patients as Partners in Care and Changing Roles of Health Providers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-716-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Julie Vryhof and Fabricio E. Balcazar

The Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Service System was created in 1973 in the United States as a way to help people with disabilities access necessary supports and services…

Abstract

The Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Service System was created in 1973 in the United States as a way to help people with disabilities access necessary supports and services to return to work and live independently. The program receives federal funds and operates in all 50 states and territories. The program is designed to allow consumers to develop a rehabilitation plan in collaboration with a VR counselor and receive necessary services and supports in order to meet their rehabilitation goals. Unfortunately, there are serious issues with access to services and rehabilitation success for minority individuals in the program, particularly African Americans. The chapter will first provide a brief overview of the Rehabilitation Act and its purpose, then we will introduce some of the research that has been conducted to evaluate the program over the years, with particular emphasis on the outcomes for African Americans, and then will focus on a series of studies that have been conducted by the authors in the state of Illinois. The chapter will conclude with some suggestions about ways in which the system could be improved and ways to empower African Americans in pursue of their rehabilitation and independent living goals, including peer-support and supported employment.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Yassine Bouteraa, Ismail Ben Abdallah and Ahmed Elmogy

The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a new robotic device for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs. The authors are focusing on a new symmetrical robot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a new robotic device for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs. The authors are focusing on a new symmetrical robot which can be used to rehabilitate the right upper limb and the left upper limb. The robotic arm can be automatically extended or reduced depending on the measurements of the patient's arm. The main idea is to integrate electrical stimulation into motor rehabilitation by robot. The goal is to provide automatic electrical stimulation based on muscle status during the rehabilitation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed robotic arm can be automatically extended or reduced depending on the measurements of the patient's arm. The system merges two rehabilitation strategies: motor rehabilitation and electrical stimulation. The goal is to take the advantages of both approaches. Electrical stimulation is often used for building muscle through endurance, resistance and strength exercises. However, in the proposed approach the electrical stimulation is used for recovery, relaxation and pain relief. In addition, the device includes an electromyography (EMG) muscle sensor that records muscle activity in real time. The control architecture provides the ability to automatically activate the appropriate stimulation mode based on the acquired EMG signal. The system software provides two modes for stimulation activation: the manual preset mode and the EMG driven mode. The program ensures traceability and provides the ability to issue a patient status monitoring report.

Findings

The developed robotic device is symmetrical and reconfigurable. The presented rehabilitation system includes a muscle stimulator associated with the robot to improve the quality of the rehabilitation process. The integration of neuromuscular electrical stimulation into the physical rehabilitation process offers effective rehabilitation sessions for neuromuscular recovery of the upper limb. A laboratory-made stimulator is developed to generate three modes of stimulation: pain relief, massage and relaxation. Through the control software interface, the physiotherapist can set the exercise movement parameters, define the stimulation mode and record the patient training in real time.

Research limitations/implications

There are certain constraints when applying the proposed method, such as the sensitivity of the acquired EMG signals. This involves the use of professional equipment and mainly the implementation of sophisticated algorithms for signal extraction.

Practical implications

Functional electrical stimulation and robot-based motor rehabilitation are the most important technologies applied in post-stroke rehabilitation. The main objective of integrating robots into the rehabilitation process is to compensate for the functions lost in people with physical disabilities. The stimulation technique can be used for recovery, relaxation and drainage and pain relief. In this context, the idea is to integrate electrical stimulation into motor rehabilitation based on a robot to obtain the advantages of the two approaches to further improve the rehabilitation process. The introduction of this type of robot also makes it possible to develop new exciting assistance devices.

Originality/value

The proposed design is symmetrical, reconfigurable and light, covering all the joints of the upper limbs and their movements. In addition, the developed platform is inexpensive and a portable solution based on open source hardware platforms which opens the way to more extensions and developments. Electrical stimulation is often used to improve motor function and restore loss of function. However, the main objective behind the proposed stimulation in this paper is to recover after effort. The novelty of the proposed solution is to integrate the electrical stimulation powered by EMG in robotic rehabilitation.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Rohollah Hasanzadeh Fereydooni, Hassan Siahkali, Heidar Ali Shayanfar and Amir Houshang Mazinan

This paper aims to propose an innovative adaptive control method for lower-limb rehabilitation robots.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an innovative adaptive control method for lower-limb rehabilitation robots.

Design/methodology/approach

Despite carrying out various studies on the subject of rehabilitation robots, the flexibility and stability of the closed-loop control system is still a challenging problem. In the proposed method, surface electromyography (sEMG) and human force-based dual closed-loop control strategy is designed to adaptively control the rehabilitation robots. A motion analysis of human lower limbs is performed by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to obtain the desired trajectory of patients. In the outer loop, the reference trajectory of the robot is modified by a variable impedance controller (VIC) on the basis of the sEMG and human force. Thenceforward, in the inner loop, a model reference adaptive controller with parameter updating laws based on the Lyapunov stability theory forces the rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory.

Findings

The experiment results confirm that the trajectory tracking error is efficiently decreased by the VIC and adaptively correct the reference trajectory synchronizing with the patients’ motion intention; the model reference controller is able to outstandingly force the rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory. The method proposed in this paper can better the functioning of the rehabilitation robot system and is expandable to other applications of the rehabilitation field.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is interesting for the design of an intelligent control of rehabilitation robots. The main contributions of this paper are: using a WNN to obtain the desired trajectory of patients based on sEMG signal, modifying the reference trajectory by the VIC and using model reference control to force rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Vilani Sachitra and Neranji Wijewardhana

The place of rehabilitation programmes in the reformation and transformation of prison inmates has continued to be on the front burner of professionals such as educators…

Abstract

Purpose

The place of rehabilitation programmes in the reformation and transformation of prison inmates has continued to be on the front burner of professionals such as educators, counsellors, social workers, psychologists and medical doctors. Analysis has taken something of a top-down approach, and consideration has been placed on how the organizational context of individual prisoners interact with those rehabilitation programmes has been neglected. Drawing on interview data, this study aims to add to our understanding how rehabilitation programme affects inmates’ skills and attitudes in Sri Lankan prisons.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an inductive qualitative case study approach as it requires a deep understanding of the effect of rehabilitation programme on inmates’ skills and attitudes and how inmates view rehabilitation programmes.

Findings

The study identified seven views of inmates regarding rehabilitation programmes conducted and understood that rehabilitation programme facilitates inmates to acquire strong self-assurance of future career options and deal with potentially destructive feeling such as anger, frustration and loneliness. However, inmates who showed a strong propensity to suffer injustice and internalized blame have found no substantial impact on their skills and attitude through the programme.

Practical implications

It is arguable that operation of meaningful prison-based rehabilitation programme is influenced by comprehensive picture of the profile of the prison population, shortages in resources, the attitudes of prison staffs, inability to meet real world settings and network building with a wide range of private, public or voluntary providers.

Originality/value

This study represents the first prison-based study to understand the inmates view on the rehabilitation programmes in Sri Lanka.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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