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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Richard P. Nielsen

This chapter considers viable and nonviable methods for corruption and ethics reform. Among the different types of methods considered are: vision and values based methods;…

Abstract

This chapter considers viable and nonviable methods for corruption and ethics reform. Among the different types of methods considered are: vision and values based methods; win-win incentive and ethics networking methods; power-based top-down compliance and bottom-up whistle-blowing methods; alternative institution building methods; and, social movement methods. The chapter analyzes how the different types of methods can be more and less viable depending upon the specific multilevel situational factors related to micro individual, meso organizational, and macro institutional level, political-economic, and cultural obstacles to corruption and ethics reform.

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The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1991

Jinglian Wu

After three years of economic reform in urban areas, China has beenconfronted with a series of choices. Six of these choices are examined:the focus of the reform, its…

Abstract

After three years of economic reform in urban areas, China has been confronted with a series of choices. Six of these choices are examined: the focus of the reform, its approach, its target, the pattern of national economic macro‐management, the macro‐economic policy, and the pace of the reform. It is held that the focus of the reform should be the establishment of a planned commodity economic system, which is the correct target of the reform; such a reform must be carried out step by step, systematically and in the light of an integrated design worked out in advance, with greater paces to shorten the period in which two systems confront each other; the macro‐management of the economy should be carried out by the central authority on the basis of an integrated market rather than administrative decentralisation; the money supply should be controlled in order to create a relatively relaxed environment for reform. On each of the six aspects, other prevailing views are analysed.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 8/9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Thi Kinh Kieu, Jane Singer and Tracey Jean Gannon

The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges in education for sustainable development (ESD) implementation in teacher education institutions (TEIs) in Vietnam and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges in education for sustainable development (ESD) implementation in teacher education institutions (TEIs) in Vietnam and propose some appropriate solutions to advance ESD in training teachers toward sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed ten lecturers and 75 students in five TEIs across Vietnam and organized focus groups to obtain qualitative data which were coded to identify themes and provide quantitative results for analysis.

Findings

ESD-related topics were included in both formal and non-formal education. However, there remains a wide gap between ESD cognition and ESD teaching capacity among teacher trainees due to the prevalence of top-down pedagogy, large classes and poor facilities. Through strengthening collaboration among multiple stakeholders, TEIs should achieve more effective ESD approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Future research is required to examine the role of non-formal educational educators, NGOs, for instance, in training teachers about ESD.

Practical implications

Low-cost initiatives generating from the paper may be applied in higher education institutions, particularly in training teachers across developing countries.

Social implications

The paper analyses the key role of lecturers in ESD implementation and promotion which should be useful for ESD educators.

Originality/value

The paper points out current challenges in ESD implementation in TEIs in Vietnam and suggests some solutions which may be applied in ESD teaching education in other developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Fei Jiang and Lawrence A. Leger

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in initial public offering (IPO) underpricing and short‐run performance following a regulatory reform (No. 54…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in initial public offering (IPO) underpricing and short‐run performance following a regulatory reform (No. 54 [2002] China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC)) of the method of allocating IPO shares in China.

Design/methodology/approach

On 20 May 2002, the CSRC announced that IPO subscription and allotment would be based on the market value of investors' tradable shareholdings. Before the regulatory change, this was determined by the amount of funds used for subscription. The reform was intended to increase participation by both smaller and institutional investors. Based on a sample of 209 IPOs in the Shanghai A‐share market during the period 2001‐2003, the paper employs an event study methodology to examine the impact of this IPO regulatory reform.

Findings

The paper finds that the overall (pre‐ and post‐reform) average abnormal initial return of 116.94 per cent is lower than in earlier studies of Chinese IPOs but higher than in other markets. Post‐reform underpricing decreases by 42.27 per cent compared to pre‐reform levels. In the post‐listing aftermarket a pre‐reform upward trend of cumulative abnormal returns was reversed to become downward post‐reform. The results suggest that the regulatory change has encouraged well‐informed investors, consistent with Information Cascades and Bandwagon hypotheses. It also appears that the reform improved market efficiency and secondary market liquidity.

Originality/value

The findings shed light on the relationship between IPO costs, IPO pricing, market liquidity and market microstructure. They also have important implications for issuers, underwriters and in particular for policy markers.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Christopher G. Reddick

An exciting opportunity that many advanced industrial democracies faced in the late 1990s was the movement from budgetary deficit to surplus. This came after years of…

Abstract

An exciting opportunity that many advanced industrial democracies faced in the late 1990s was the movement from budgetary deficit to surplus. This came after years of persistent deficits. Traditional decisionmaking theories such as budgetary incrementalism failed to explain this longrun relationship, since it has been inherently a short-run theory. This paper uses rational expectations theory to demonstrate its relationship to budgetary decision-making reforms and the deficit (surplus) for Canada, the UK and the United States. The results demonstrated that there was an intertemporal budget constraint in operation in the three countries, and decision-makers at the macro level used rational expectations in the formulation of their annual budget. In the theory, budget actors strived to balance their budget, but did so over the longrun as opposed to the short-run incrementalist interpretation.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim, Tarek Abdelfattah and Khaled Hussainey

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 61 non-financial companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange for the years 2004–2011. The authors use discretionary accruals as a proxy for artificial income smoothing and income/loss from asset sales as a proxy for real income smoothing.

Findings

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from some limitations. First, the study sample is limited to only 338 observations. However, this is due to collecting the data manually and to the small number of listed firms during the study period. Second, the study period ended in 2011 due to the unprecedented political instability after the 2011 Egyptian people revolution. Third, although this study examines the effect of corporate governance, not all the governance aspects have been examined in the study models due to the lack of data.

Practical implications

First, the results of the total samples reveal that managers prefer real income smoothing than accruals income smoothing. This result may confirm the literature arguments on the advantages of REM methods over AEM methods. Cohen et al. (2008) find that firms switch to manage earnings using REM methods and explain that REM methods are harder to detect because they depend on operating decisions (Schipper, 1989). REM can be undertaken anytime during the year (Gunny, 2010). Besides, REM could not be deemed a violation of accounting standards or regulations (MyVay, 2006).

Originality/value

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Eko Prasojo and Defny Holidin

Leadership for public sector reforms in Indonesia involves both national level efforts and leadership from local levels that have been empowered by prior decentralization…

Abstract

Leadership for public sector reforms in Indonesia involves both national level efforts and leadership from local levels that have been empowered by prior decentralization. This chapter focuses on reforms made by the national government, which has been guided by the values of serving public, increasing efficiency and becoming corruption-free. Although the National Development Agency and the Ministry for Administrative Reform provided central impetus and coordination, reforms were seen as quite fragmented across ministries with uneven results. The authors are concerned about reform effectiveness and sustainability. Reform leadership is challenged by human capital and legally mandated but inefficient bureaucratic processes and structures as well as challenges of public distrust and disobedient civil servants. The latter is sometimes dealt with by using patronage to insert allies for reform, and they take note of leaders gaining leverage from working across boundaries and jurisdictions, and by improving their authorizing environment. The chapter describes a strategy of leaders-led efforts that are cascaded through ministries through institutionalization (e.g., of policies) and obtaining support from successive reform champions at different levels and locations. The authors argue for increasing the number of ‘champion leaders’ who pragmatically, transactionally and successfully get subordinates to commit to reform efforts.

Details

Leadership and Public Sector Reform in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-309-0

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

John Creedy, Guyonne Kalb and Rosanna Scutella

Recent studies have examined tax policy issues using labour supply models characterised by a discretised budget set. Microsimulation modelling using a discrete hours…

Abstract

Recent studies have examined tax policy issues using labour supply models characterised by a discretised budget set. Microsimulation modelling using a discrete hours approach is probabilistic. This makes analysis of the distribution of income difficult as even for a small sample with a modest range of labour supply points the range of possible labour supply combinations over the sample is extremely large. This paper proposes a method of approximating measures of income distribution and compares the performance of this method to alternative approaches in a microsimulation context. In this approach a pseudo income distribution is constructed, which uses the probability of a particular labour supply value occurring (standardised by the population size) to refer to a particular position in the pseudo income distribution. This approach is compared to using an expected income level for each individual and to a simulated approach, in which labour supply values are drawn from each individual’s hours distribution and summary statistics of the distribution of income are calculated by taking the average over each set of draws. The paper shows that the outcomes of various distributional measures using the pseudo method converge quickly to their true values as the sample size increases. The expected income approach results in a less accurate approximation. To illustrate the method, we simulate the distributional implications of a tax reform using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

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