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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

E. Holly Buttner and Kevin B. Lowe

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the socio-demographic diversity characteristic, racioethnicity, vs the deeper-level socially constructed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the socio-demographic diversity characteristic, racioethnicity, vs the deeper-level socially constructed attribute, awareness of racial privilege (which the authors termed “racial awareness”), on perceptions of organizational justice and on trust in management (TM) (trust) in a US context. The authors predicted that racial awareness would have a greater effect on perceptions of interactional and procedural justice and on trust than would participant racioethnicity. Second, the authors predicted that justice perceptions would influence trust. Finally the authors predicted that justice perceptions would mediate between racial awareness and TM.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed Black, Hispanic and Native American professionals in one industry in the USA. The authors employed regression and bootstrap analyses to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Racial awareness influenced justice ratings and TM. Justice perceptions influenced employee trust. Interactional and procedural justice had indirect effects on the relationship between racial awareness and trust, supporting the hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were primarily African-American, so additional research to assess attitudes of other groups is needed. Respondents belonged to a minority networking group which provided the sample. It is possible that their membership sensitized the respondents to racial issues.

Practical implications

The finding suggest that managers can positively influence US minority employees’ trust regardless of the employees’ racial awareness by treating them with dignity and respect and by ensuring fairness in the application of organizational policies and procedures.

Originality/value

This study examined the impact of US minority employee racial awareness on justice perceptions and TM, important variables in the employer-employee relationship. Findings indicated that racial awareness was a better predictor of employee attitudes than was racioethnicity.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Donna Chrobot‐Mason, Belle Rose Ragins and Frank Linnehan

Like “second hand smoke,” the harmful repercussions of racial harassment may extend well beyond the target to impact others at work. This study seeks to examine the…

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1143

Abstract

Purpose

Like “second hand smoke,” the harmful repercussions of racial harassment may extend well beyond the target to impact others at work. This study seeks to examine the “second hand smoke effect”, or ambient racial harassment, which involves exposure to racial harassment aimed at others. The paper examines race differences in awareness of racial harassment and explored work and health‐related outcomes associated with exposure to racial harassment. It also examines organizational tolerance for harassment as a moderator of these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A diverse sample of 245 employees from three data sources were surveyed. One data source involved White and Black employees in the same organization; the others worked in a variety of organizations across the USA.

Findings

Whites were less likely than Blacks to be aware of racial harassment, even when employed in the same workplace. However, awareness of racial harassment predicted negative job attitudes and psychological strain for both Whites and Blacks. These relationships were amplified by perceptions of organizational tolerance for racial harassment.

Research limitations/implications

The study documents ramifications of ambient racial harassment and illuminates a racial divide in awareness of harassment at work that may exacerbate racial conflict and prevent needed organizational change.

Originality/value

The paper extends the construct of ambient racial harassment by measuring a range of overt and subtle forms that vary in type and intensity, and by examining the role of organizational tolerance for racial harassment as a moderator of the relationship between ambient racial harassment and work and health‐related outcomes.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Dana Wood and Sandra Graham

Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately…

Abstract

Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately, experiences with discrimination due to racial group membership appear to be a normal part of development for African American youth. Discrimination experiences occur within a variety of social contexts, including school, peer, and community contexts, and with increasing frequency as youth move across the adolescent years (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Seaton et al., 2008). Recent research with a nationally representative sample of African American 13–17-year olds revealed that 87% had experienced at least one racially discriminatory event during the preceding year (Seaton et al., 2008). Most of the research on the consequences of youths’ encounters with racial discrimination has focused on mental health outcomes (Cooper, McLoyd, Wood, & Hardaway, 2008), with surprisingly little work examining whether and through what mechanisms discrimination affects achievement motivation.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Applications and Contexts of Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-254-9

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Christina B. Chin and Erica Morales

At universities across the country, students of color have organized and participated in protests, walkouts, and social media campaigns to call attention to racialized…

Abstract

At universities across the country, students of color have organized and participated in protests, walkouts, and social media campaigns to call attention to racialized experiences that they feel have been largely ignored by their campus communities. Often these students of color are confronted with acts of racism that take the form of subtle everyday insults, known as racial microaggressions. Given the prevalence of racial microaggressions in higher education, the question arises as to how educators and administrators can effectively educate students on this concept in order to increase their cultural competency and combat these racialized acts. In this chapter, we consider how the classroom can be an active space to increase students’ competency and validate the experiences of marginalized groups. Drawing from critical race theory, previous literature, and our own experiences in the classroom, we outline several pedagogical strategies for educating students on racial microaggressions. First, we encourage faculty to arrange their classrooms for effective dialogue by being reflexive of your own positionality and privilege, collaborating with students on class ground rules, and unpacking the complexities of racial discussions with students. Next, we draw upon social media, popular culture, student-centered activities, and interdisciplinary research in order to demonstrate lived experiences of racial microaggressions and their consequences within higher education. Finally, we work with students on examining how they might contest these racialized insults in their own lives and potentially work toward larger social change.

Details

Cultural Competence in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-772-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Bonita L. Betters‐Reed and Lynda L. Moore

Proposes that women will not make significant advances in Americanbusinesses unless the focus shifts from a preoccupation on genderawareness to one of multicultural…

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1603

Abstract

Proposes that women will not make significant advances in American businesses unless the focus shifts from a preoccupation on gender awareness to one of multicultural awareness. Discusses the whitewash dilemma and dominant assumptions about women in management to help explain the current management development paradigm that fails to recognize diversity among women. Makes a case for increasing organizational education about racial and gender similarities and differences which are crucial for establishing a successful multicultural organization where a new, all‐inclusive paradigm can prevail and the voices of all women can be heard. An analysis and critique of the women in management field precedes by an emerging model of individual and organizational stages of awareness. Finally proposes recommendations for interventions to shift existing management development practices towards the new paradigm.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Amy P. Lippa, Linda C. Lee, Meghan D. Lehr, Daniel D. Spikes, Leslie A. Coward, Bradley W. Davis, Mark A. Gooden and Dorothy R. Hall

As a team of eight scholars at the University of Texas, we collaborate to research issues that directly focus on the development, training, and experiences of anti-racist…

Abstract

As a team of eight scholars at the University of Texas, we collaborate to research issues that directly focus on the development, training, and experiences of anti-racist and social justice leaders in urban secondary schools. Each of us considered a personal event, or series of events, that significantly influenced our thinking about social justice. We share experiences of personal and institutional racism, and reflect on how these experiences continue to shape our awareness of race. Our perspectives capture how issues of race and racial discrimination persist in a status quo educational system and how past experiences directly influence our work.

Details

Living the Work: Promoting Social Justice and Equity Work in Schools around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-127-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

Gloria L. Lee

The majority of New Commonwealth immigrants to Britain arrived during the 1950s and early 1960s but for them and their children, equal opportunities are not yet a reality…

Abstract

The majority of New Commonwealth immigrants to Britain arrived during the 1950s and early 1960s but for them and their children, equal opportunities are not yet a reality. To understand why this is so, requires some background on the establishment of a multi‐racial society in Britain.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

E. Holly Buttner, Kevin B. Lowe and Lenora Billings‐Harris

The purposes of this paper are three‐fold: first, to examine the effect of diversity climate on professional employee of color outcomes, organizational commitment and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are three‐fold: first, to examine the effect of diversity climate on professional employee of color outcomes, organizational commitment and turnover intentions; second, to investigate the moderating and mediating roles of interactional and procedural justice on the relationships between diversity climate and the outcomes; and third, to explore the interactive effect of racial awareness and diversity climate on reported psychological contract violation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey of 182 professionals of color. Correlation, factor analysis, and regression were employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that diversity climate affects organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Interactional and procedural justice played mediating roles between diversity climate and employee outcomes. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that for turnover intentions, there was moderated mediation under both low and high procedural justice conditions. When a diversity climate was perceived to be fair, racially aware respondents reported lower levels of psychological contract violation.

Research limitations/implications

Professionals of color from one US industry completed the survey, so conclusions about generalizability should be drawn with caution. Data were cross‐sectional and single‐source. However, the findings were consistent with past research, lending credibility to the results.

Originality/value

Recent research on workforce diversity has highlighted the importance of effectively managing all organizational members. The paper shows that the diversity climate and organizational justice impact employee of color outcomes. Thus, for managers, creating and maintaining a positive, fair diversity climate will be important for attracting and retaining high‐quality professionals of color in US organizations.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2017

Ana Campos-Holland

Children and youth of color in White and adult-dominated societies confront racism and adultism that shapes their peer cultures. Yet, the “new” sociology of childhood…

Abstract

Children and youth of color in White and adult-dominated societies confront racism and adultism that shapes their peer cultures. Yet, the “new” sociology of childhood lacks the theory and methodology to explore racialized peer cultures. Thus, this chapter aims to sharpen its research tools. Theoretically, this chapter draws from Technologies of the Self (Foucault, 1988) and Critical Race Theory (Delgado & Stefancic, 2012) to enhance Valentine’s (1997) “adult-youth binary” and Corsaro’s (2015) “interpretive reproduction.” Methodologically, it combines the “doing research with children” approach (Greig, Taylor, & MacKay, 2013) with Critical Race Methodology (Solórzano & Yosso, 2002) to do research with youth of color. These enhanced research tools are then used to explore how boys and girls of color (n = 150), 9- to 17-year olds, experience peer culture in suburban schools, under police surveillance, and on social media. In the field, interviewers navigated their adult privilege and racial/ethnic positionalities in relation to that of participants and the racial dynamic in the research setting, ultimately aiming to co-create a safe space for counter-storytelling. As a result, this chapter captured how White-dominated peer cultures used racial microaggressions against youth of color in suburban schools, boy peer cultures navigated racialized policing, and online-offline peer cultures curtailed protective and controlling racialized adult surveillance. Theoretically, the racially enhanced interpretive reproduction and adult-youth binary exposed the adultism-racism intersection that shapes youth peer cultures. Methodologically, counter-storytelling revealed the painful realities that youth of color face and that those with adult and/or White privilege would rather ignore.

Details

Researching Children and Youth: Methodological Issues, Strategies, and Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-098-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Joanna Bennett

Social policy in the UK has subsumed race inequality into a wider framework of inequalities, managing diversity and social exclusion. However, the David Bennett Inquiry…

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268

Abstract

Social policy in the UK has subsumed race inequality into a wider framework of inequalities, managing diversity and social exclusion. However, the David Bennett Inquiry and the Race Relations Amendment Act (2000) have placed ‘race’ firmly back onto the policy agenda, particularly within mental health services. In response to the Inquiry and as part of a wider strategy, the Department of Health has set out proposals to improve mental health services to black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Although there is a long history of race equality training to address race inequality in public services in the UK, the definition and effectiveness of race equality training remains unclear.This paper presents an overview of approaches to training in the UK, the evidence of effectiveness and explores whether cultural competency is an appropriate and adequate framework to address race inequality.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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