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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Karen Donders

This article aims to investigate whether and how the application of European state aid rules to the public funding of public broadcasting organisations in Europe has

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to investigate whether and how the application of European state aid rules to the public funding of public broadcasting organisations in Europe has advanced public broadcasting as a policy process and made it more adaptive to the challenges of the digital age.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings are based on a triangulation of literature study, document analysis and expert interviews (with over 50 stakeholders involved with the topic of state aid and public broadcasting).

Findings

The article consists of four main parts. Firstly, the issue of state aid and public broadcasting is contextualised within the heated discussions on the legitimacy of European intervention in a cultural policy domain such as broadcasting. Secondly, the analytical framework is presented. Thirdly, analysis of specific state aid cases follows. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are outlined. The article concludes that European state aid policy has furthered a public service media project in the EU member states.

Research limitations/implications

The article fills a void in current fragmented and often overly descriptive or overly ideological assessments of the relevance of state aid policy for public service broadcasting.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to ongoing policy debates about the issue of state aid policy for public service broadcasting.

Originality/value

The article fills a void in current fragmented and often overly descriptive or overly ideological assessments of the relevance of state aid policy for public service broadcasting.

Details

info, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Mingli Mei, Ru Zhao and Miaochen Zhu

This study investigated four different economic level areas of China (Shanghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Guizhou) to analyze the eastern and western urban and rural media

Abstract

This study investigated four different economic level areas of China (Shanghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Guizhou) to analyze the eastern and western urban and rural media service status at different development stages. This set of data comes from the comparison of regional urban and rural areas and indicates the various aspects of differences in the survey area, including the media use habits, media resources, media consumer demand, evaluation of media services, the role of media in public life, public knowledge level, and so on. On analyzing data comprehensively, one thing can be found that there is a positive correlation between the public media contact degree and the public knowledge level. The media plays an extremely important role in public life and regional public knowledge gap between urban and rural areas exists. Furthermore, this gap is positively correlated to the media resources and media exposure. The trend of media using on mobile phone and computer in urban areas increases significantly greater than in rural areas. Then, how to narrow the urban–rural and regional public knowledge gap and reduce the negative impact of the digital divide will be an important urgent task.

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Jonathan Mukwevho and Mpho Ngoepe

Despite the availability of the mandate of public archives repositories to “take archives to the people in South Africa”, archives in South Africa remain largely the…

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4358

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the availability of the mandate of public archives repositories to “take archives to the people in South Africa”, archives in South Africa remain largely the domain of the elite. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adoption of social media in South Africa as a tool for taking archives to the people especially young people between the age of 13 and 34. The researchers confined the study to all ten public archives repositories in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study collected data using survey questionnaires and web-based content analysis of social media presence of public archives repositories.

Findings

The study revealed that few public archives repositories are using Facebook, followed by Twitter and LinkedIn to engage users. The public archives repositories rely mostly on social media platforms operated by their mother bodies as they are subsidiary units within arts and culture departments in government. As a result, public archives repositories are restricted to operate their own accounts on social media. It is argued that public archives should be allowed by their mother departments to operate their own accounts on social media platforms. Failure to change this restriction could lead to public archival institutions continuing to take archives away from the people, instead of taking archives to the people.

Research limitations/implications

The study sought to provide useful practical implications for public archives repositories as it would serve as a benchmarking tool to enable the development and reporting on the visibility and accessibility of archival material, and thus ensure an increased public knowledge of archives.

Originality/value

The study triangulated data collection instruments that helped to collect as much and as diverse data as possible, which generated the best possible insights into the phenomenon of interest. Previous similar studies in South Africa utilised only survey method with either interviews or questionnaires as data collection tools.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Christopher Reddick and Leonidas Anthopoulos

This paper aims to examine the factors that can predict citizen-initiated contact with e-government as an attempt to identify important differences between service channel…

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1582

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the factors that can predict citizen-initiated contact with e-government as an attempt to identify important differences between service channel selections. Although more than two decades have passed since the initiation of e-government, digital channel choice is still being questioned, compared to traditional channels, and the level of selection with channels is being investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study states three research questions that are answered through a literature review and statistical analysis of a survey in a developed country. More specifically, it identifies the factors that impact channel choice and validates them with survey results. To this end, this paper utilizes data from a national Canadian survey, where citizens empirically evaluated their channel choice – e-government, new digital media and traditional service channels – for government contacts.

Findings

Statistical analysis over this data return valuable findings such as that the e-government channel is more appropriate for information collection, whereas traditional service channels are more likely to establish individual problem solving. Moreover, the digital divide appears to have an impact on citizen channel choice. Furthermore, digitally literate citizens who are aware of privacy issues are more likely to use new digital media. Finally, citizens are quite satisfied from their new digital media experience, but are not as satisfied with their traditional contact experience.

Originality/value

These outcomes show that e-government obstacles regarding digital divide, trust and efficiency remain active and have to be addressed more carefully by governments. This study shows that e-government and new digital media are not simple channel choices, but are complex in public service delivery. These outcomes confirm the significance of channel choice for transforming government, as e-government appears to be a part of a broader channel choice agenda.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Roman Batko and Jan Kreft

However, the scale of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation in Polish media organisations is diversified. The survey, which was conducted among the CEOs of…

Abstract

Purpose

However, the scale of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation in Polish media organisations is diversified. The survey, which was conducted among the CEOs of some regional radio broadcast partnerships in Poland, indicates that only one of them has in fact accepted the CSR solutions. The majority of this group think there is no need to implement CSR because they consider it to be a duplication of the public media mission. Considering commercial media, all the biggest TV and radio stations apply CSR. The pressure is manifested by the fact that numerous media organisations – commercial and public ones – have accepted solutions of CSR. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To verify the hypotheses, a survey was conducted from January to June 2015, in 12 (out of 17) Polish regional radio stations (independent partnerships). The research was of quality character – each media organisation selected for the survey was a separate case study. To collect the required data, two research methods were applied: in-depth interviews with the radio station CEOs (N1-N12); analysis of organisation documents concerning the mission of public organisations. We assumed that an in-depth analysis of a fragment of the empirical material in the form of a case study comes as an element of universal experience, and it reflects the universe (Denzin and Lincoln, 2009).

Findings

The survey suggests that only one organisation implements CSR standards. Its CEO, however is mainly driven by business reasoning. He considers that “it is an excellent tool to improve the image of the organisation in the advertisement market” and “a good way to present a radio company as a reliable business partner”.

Research limitations/implications

A critical attitude to CSR in media organisations has a double source: generally, CSR is not adequate to all organisations; CSR multiplies social functions of a media organisation, and a role which it plays in the society. It comes as an immanent feature of the way how a media organisation functions in its basic dimension. As presented above, the attempt to define specific elements, which allow us to analyse the level of “advance” characteristic for a media organisation, drives us to a following conclusion: communication and implementation of the CSR standards seems natural in the context of such activities of media companies as placing orders (relations with business partners, internal policy of employment, etc.), however, it only comes as a confirmation of such expectations from media organisations which are connected with maintenance of journalist standards.

Practical implications

As the survey of the CEOs of Polish public radio companies suggests, the problem of multiplying social responsibility of media refers, first of all, to public media. Majority of the executives considers CSR as duplication of fulfilling the public mission, and as some superfluous practice in public media.

Social implications

Considering this situation, it is possible to state that the concept of CSR, first of all, results from the presence of media entities in the market, where they compete mainly for the attention of listeners and advertisers. The consumer-investor dimension of media operations also contributes to the perception of CSR as the operation which is apparently pro-social, however which truly aims at increasing the company value by the improvement of its image as goods and service provider.

Originality/value

The source of acceptance for public media is a strong belief in social value of honest and competent information reporting and its contextualisation. At the same time, however, a basic deteriorating factor of media legitimisation is their transformation into market-oriented economy. Commodification of media means constant pressure to increase the role of “business” rhetoric and “business” solutions. The pressure is manifested by the fact that numerous media organisations – commercial and public ones – have accepted solutions of CSR.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Yanni Yang, Yue Zhang and An-Ling Xiang

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing social media usage effectiveness of publishing-related entities and discuss the differences between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing social media usage effectiveness of publishing-related entities and discuss the differences between publishing-related individuals and organizations in their usage of social media and the differences between commercial organizations and public service organizations (such as libraries).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studied 546 publishing-related entities’ accounts on the leading Chinese social media and built a theoretical model for the usage of social media by publishing-related entities. Furthermore, it examined the influencing factors from two aspects: power of influence of an entity (entity influence) and the relational interaction of a publishing-related entity with its audience (interactive relationship).

Findings

The study found that for publishing-related individual users of social media, entity influence has a greater positive effect on the effectiveness of social media usage than on the effect of interactive relationship. For publishing-related commercial organizations, the entity influence and interactive relationship have equal impacts on the effectiveness of social media usage. It is also found that interactive relationship has a stronger positive effect on the usage effectiveness of social media, especially for publishing-related public service organizations.

Originality/value

This research fills the gap in the research of comparative analysis in the understanding of social media usage by individuals and organizations related to publishing activities. Moreover, it has tried to propose a theoretical model that can help promote the effectiveness of social media usages by various publishing-related entities and their business strategies.

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Sultana Lubna Alam

Recent technological advances have enabled consumers and citizens to contribute to organizational processes through co-production and co-creation in ways that challenge…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent technological advances have enabled consumers and citizens to contribute to organizational processes through co-production and co-creation in ways that challenge traditional co-production. However, the practices and capabilities for value co-creation are less understood, particularly in an increasingly networked social government ecosystem. The purpose of this research is to examine the enablement of new digital co-production practices in social media platforms (SMPs) and theorize SMP-enabled digital co-production vis-à-vis traditional co-production for public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Primarily using principles of interpretivist approaches, a qualitative content analysis of communication practices (i.e. genres) observed within Australian government Facebook pages was carried out to examine the salient digital forms of co-production practices.

Findings

SMPs enable new practices in digital co-production for public sector (information dissemination, Q&A, feedback and co-creation), ranging from lower to higher intensity in terms of resource integration, scale of contributions, engagement and extent of relationship vis-à-vis traditional co-production.

Research limitations/implications

This research is bounded by its geographical emphasis on Australian Federal government. Hence, the results may not be readily transferable to other contexts.

Practical implications

Our framework offers an array of choices for digital co-production strategies to suit agency's focus and goals for engagement in the Facebook Pages. As agencies progress to reach higher intensity co-production, public engagement and impact increases.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to co-production in social government ecosystem by increasing the theoretical and practical understanding of new form of SMP-enabled digital co-production defined as “small-scale, repetitive, user-driven co-production that is flexible, durable, ad-hoc, and sporadic, where many hands make light work”. The proposed “co-production to co-creation” framework provides valuable guideline for enhancing public service provision via SMPs.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Lucia Bellucci

Purpose – This chapter aims to show how media law strongly contributed to shape in Hungary what has been pictured as a U-turn. This illiberal trend was subsequently…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to show how media law strongly contributed to shape in Hungary what has been pictured as a U-turn. This illiberal trend was subsequently strengthened during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodology/Approach – It considers that law also constitutes and not only orders political and social relationships. Law, including media law, has been in Hungary one of the main factors of change or rather of political-social construction. This chapter therefore moves from the study of positive law and analyzes Hungarian media laws within the theoretical framework of illiberal democracy, drawing from contributions to political science and socio-legal studies. Findings – This chapter demonstrated that media laws have outlined in Hungary a centralized regulatory system with broad powers, which lacks political independence, therefore encouraging self-censorship and limiting freedom of expression and pluralism. These laws contributed to shape the illiberal U-turn occurred in the country before the pandemic, but the coronavirus offered the occasion to reinforce government powers, giving the leeway to rule with no or minimum scrutiny for an indefinite period and further limiting dissent. The analysis enabled to argue that neither the media regulation established during the past decade nor the laws adopted during the Covid-19 pandemic are compatible with a modern democracy. Originality/Value – Based on existing literature, little research has been conducted on the appearance and endurance of non-democratic regimes, and supposedly even less within the context of the coronavirus pandemic which started only a few months ago, compared to the contributions available on democratization processes and democratic consolidation.

Details

Media and Law: Between Free Speech and Censorship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-729-9

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Indrek Ibrus

This chapter establishes the conceptual and analytic framework for the book. It relates not only to much of the existing work in evolutionary and institutional economics

Abstract

This chapter establishes the conceptual and analytic framework for the book. It relates not only to much of the existing work in evolutionary and institutional economics, but also to work in cultural science and cultural semiotics domains as well as in media convergence and transmedia studies. The central concept it first deploys is ‘innovation systems’ as applied in national, regional, international and sectoral contexts. It then builds on the general theory of economic evolution by Kurt Dopfer and Jason Potts and reviews the tools this theory provides to carry out a meso-level analysis of industries co-innovating and converging. It then proposes a new concept – ‘cross-innovation’ – to refer to the emergence of new structures and ‘rules’ at the boundaries of existing industries.

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Europe's public service media.

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