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According to status construction theory, a social attribute becomes imbued with status value through its association with valued resources. Yet, explanations for such…
According to status construction theory, a social attribute becomes imbued with status value through its association with valued resources. Yet, explanations for such associations have received scant attention. I propose that social identity processes may lead agents controlling resources to over-allocate to in-group members. This generates a doubly dissimilar situation in which actors are differentiated both with respect to a nominal characteristic and resources, leading the characteristic to become imbued with status value. I find support for this elaboration in a sample of newly founded organizations. I discuss the implications of this elaboration for further developments in status construction theory.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
This research paper proposes a method for selecting references related to a research topic, and seeks to exemplify it for the case of a study evaluating training programs…
This research paper proposes a method for selecting references related to a research topic, and seeks to exemplify it for the case of a study evaluating training programs. The method is designed to identify references with high academic relevance in databases accessed via the internet, using a bibliometric analysis to sift the selected articles.
The study is descriptive, in so far as its goal is to describe a method, and the nature of the paper is theoretical. The study incorporates an inductive logic, and draws on secondary data sources. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods, and can therefore be described as mixed method. The research involves the application of a technical procedure.
The method employed sifted a large number of potential resources identified in a search of the internet and, after 11 stages in the proposed process, 11 papers were identified as being relevant to the research topic and highly cited. Descriptive statistics are provided of where those articles were published, how extensively the authors of those papers were published, the nature of the journals in which the papers appeared, and scientific recognition (number of citations).
The relevance of this work for HRD research is in the proposal for a structured process for identifying relevant academic articles relating to the research context, in the presentation of 11 highlighted articles in the area of training programs evaluation, in the identification of the main authors of this area of knowledge, and in the identification of the main journals that address the theme of the evaluation of training programs. Thus, practitioners, researchers and students can direct their attention to the articles, authors and journals that are most relevant to the theme of evaluation of training programs.
While most studies utilise quantitative methodologies to examine issues relevant to sexual offending behaviour, such as treatment programmes and risk assessments;…
While most studies utilise quantitative methodologies to examine issues relevant to sexual offending behaviour, such as treatment programmes and risk assessments; substantially fewer studies have utilised qualitative methods, and specifically Layder’s Adaptive Theory (AT) as a methodology; and there is a paucity of research examining community maintenance programmes altogether. The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of AT to the understanding of the significance of community maintenance programmes for high-risk sexual offenders.
Using AT as a unique framework, this study examined an Australian sample of services providers and high-risk sexual offenders participating in a community maintenance programme. In particular, the current research aimed to develop an understanding of community maintenance programmes for released sexual offenders, in a bid to develop a theoretical framework for these programmes. The research had three subject groups, service providers, programme participants who had not reoffended and programme participants who had sexually reoffended.
It appears that this methodology is a useful approach to studies within forensic rehabilitation and offender research. Common, reoccurring themes have been gathered through this approach, which would not have been possible with a quantitative methodology.
While this research methodology was applied to a small sample size, its use suggested that AT was an informative and useful research approach to utilise in offender research more broadly, yielding rich in-depth information.
Utilising AT provided an in-depth understanding and exploration of experiences for offender populations as well as staff delivering programmes, which enhances the efficacy of programmes delivered by incorporating “user feedback” and allows programme developers to utilise such feedback to improve programmes. An AT approach to offender rehabilitation has been useful in providing exploratory information in the absence of any conceptual or theoretical frameworks and with a very little extant information. Given maintenance programmes are quite understudied, this approach allowed for common themes to emerge in order to guide future research as well as the development of a paradigm. It is worth considering the utility of this methodology for a variety of forensic research, particularly areas which remain understudied.
Sexual offending behaviour is a significant societal concern. A better understanding of what makes programmes more effective for those who use them and run them, will assist in reducing recidivism, which will benefit the community at large.
Layder’s AT has not been used with an offender population in the past, and specifically within the sexual offending realm, thus this paper offers a unique and effective approach to offender research.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.
E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to…
E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to compare their effectiveness or identify characteristics of e-learning that contribute to learning effectiveness. Based on general theories of learning, we develop a typology that compares e-learning programs in terms of the nature of the learning interactions they provide for learners in three dimensions: degree of interaction, learner control of interactions, and informational value of interactions. The typology dimensions apply to learner–instructor, learner–learner, and learner–instructional material interactions. We also discuss important theoretical implications of the typology. First, we show the utility of the typology for comparing the effectiveness of different e-learning programs. Second, we apply the typology dimensions to develop a theoretical framework for e-learning research that provides a foundation for examining factors that influence learning effectiveness in an e-learning program. The framework identifies e-learning program characteristics, learner characteristics, and contextual factors that impact learning effectiveness in different e-learning environments. It also shows how the typology dimensions align with learning goals to influence learning effectiveness.
Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each other, the functional forms of the relationships, and so on. The last 10 years have seen a substantial extension of the range of statistical tools available for use in the construction process. The progress in tool development has been accompanied by the publication of handbooks that introduce the methods in general terms (Arminger et al., 1995; Tinsley & Brown, 2000a). Each chapter in these handbooks cites a wide range of books and articles on specific analysis topics.
Wonders whether companies actually have employees best interests at heart across physical, mental and spiritual spheres. Posits that most organizations ignore their…
Wonders whether companies actually have employees best interests at heart across physical, mental and spiritual spheres. Posits that most organizations ignore their workforce – not even, in many cases, describing workers as assets! Describes many studies to back up this claim in theis work based on the 2002 Employment Research Unit Annual Conference, in Cardiff, Wales.
Fundamental theories of power and status have developed sufficiently to apply in educational and organizational contexts. The path from basic theory to program development…
Fundamental theories of power and status have developed sufficiently to apply in educational and organizational contexts. The path from basic theory to program development is neither simple nor direct. We trace the application of theoretical principles taken from network exchange theories of power as well as status characteristics and expectation states theories through the interdisciplinary field of leadership studies to applications that interrelate basic research, applied research, undergraduate educational programs, and organizational development. Two proposals result (1) a leadership training program that will produce university graduates with effective leadership skills, while also bringing diverse high school students to participate in a university program and (2) basic status characteristics research to explain the glass ceiling phenomenon.
This article explores the influence of duality in institutional logics on internal accounting, with a focus on a Polish public university. More particularly, we answer the…
This article explores the influence of duality in institutional logics on internal accounting, with a focus on a Polish public university. More particularly, we answer the research question: how does illegitimacy risk arising from the divergent pressures of the institutional environment impact management accountings in this institution?
This paper seeks to uncover intricacies of notions of internal legitimacy façade, decoupling and counter-coupling in practice. It explores details of organizational responses involving management accounting aimed at reducing illegitimacy risk. Achieving good organizational access, the authors adopt a qualitative case study approach involving contextual appreciation/document analysis/participant observation/discussion with key actors: facilitating building upon theoretical argumentation through finding things out from the field.
The authors uncover and discuss organizational solutions and legitimizing manoeuvres applied, identifying four adaptation tactics in the struggle to support legitimacy that they term ‘ceremonial calculations’, ‘legitimacy labelling’, ‘blackboxing’ and ‘shadow management accounting’. These can be seen in relation to decoupling and counter-coupling. Ceremonial calculations supported the internal façade. Shadow management accounting supported pro-effectiveness. Legitimacy labelling and blackboxing helped bind these two organizational layers, further supporting legitimacy. In interaction the four tactics engendered what can be seen as a ‘counter-coupling’ of management accounting. The authors clarify impacts for management accounting.
The usual limitations of case research apply for generalizability. Theorizing of management accounting in relation to contradictory logics is advanced.
The article illuminates how management accounting can be understood vis-à-vis contradictory logics.
Elaboration of the tactics and their interaction is a theoretical and empirical contribution. Focus on a Polish university constitutes an empirical contribution.