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Book part
Publication date: 5 July 2005

Guglielmo Carchedi

This article aims at contributing to the development of a Marxist theory of the production of knowledge, and in particular of natural sciences and techniques (NST), under…

Abstract

This article aims at contributing to the development of a Marxist theory of the production of knowledge, and in particular of natural sciences and techniques (NST), under capitalism. It rejects the double critique that the labor theory of value has become obsolete under modern capitalism and that Marx’s theoretical structure cannot accommodate mental production. The paper starts with two preliminary sections. First, some relevant aspects of dialectics as a tool of social research are submitted. Then, notions such as Information Society or Service Society are debunked. On this basis, the production of individual and of social knowledge is inquired into and the conditions for knowledge production to be production of (surplus) value are analyzed. Next, the question is tackled as to why and how this knowledge (and in particular NST) is functional for the interests of the capitalist class, even though in a contradictory way. Several examples are provided. Particular attention is paid to the computer and to biotechnology and genetic engineering. The most common objections against the thesis of the class determination of knowledge are dealt with. It is argued that class determination of knowledge can explain why the science and techniques developed in one society and by one class can be used in other societies and by other classes. Examples are provided of trans-class and trans-epochal elements of knowledge. Finally, the last section submits that a radically different type of NST can originate only from a radically different type of society, based on radically different production relations.

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The Capitalist State and Its Economy: Democracy in Socialism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-176-7

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2011

Heesang Jeon

This chapter attempts to theorize the role of knowledge in the determination of the value of commodities. This draws from the South Korean controversy on the value and…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to theorize the role of knowledge in the determination of the value of commodities. This draws from the South Korean controversy on the value and price of information commodities such as computer software and digital music. One group of writers has argued that the value of software copies (=commodities) is contributed by the labor time expended to produce the source code (=knowledge) in a piecemeal fashion. For another group, the source code has nothing to do with the production of the value of copies given that the source code is unnecessary for the (re)production of copies, and thus the value of software copies is approximately zero and its price is a high monopoly price. Both approaches are flawed. In the case of the former, no value can actually be transferred from the source code to copies because no changes are made to the source code before or after the production of copies. In case of the latter, knowledge is viewed as having nothing to do with value production. On the basis of this critique, an alternative view is put forward, in which knowledge plays an important role in value production by determining the productivity and/or complexity of labor. Knowledge “virtually intensifies” labor. It is also argued that intellectual property rights should be theorized in a way to refine and reproduce the role of knowledge – the virtual intensification of labor – at more complex and concrete levels of analysis.

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Revitalizing Marxist Theory for Today's Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-255-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Charles Egbu

This paper seeks to address the importance of knowledge production and capabilities for the construction industry; and the implications of the challenges associated with…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to address the importance of knowledge production and capabilities for the construction industry; and the implications of the challenges associated with their effective exploitation for the construction industry in China.

Design/methodology/approach

A thorough review of extant literature and 31 detailed semi‐structured interviews with practitioners from 14 large, medium and small organisations in the UK construction industry. Content analysis was adopted as the analytical approach.

Findings

The main triggers of knowledge production in the construction industry are: the need to effectively deal with complex projects; the effective use of new, innovative building materials, systems, services; managing change (both project change and organisational change); coping with the uniqueness of projects; and managing team member interfaces (e.g. consultant‐contractor). Knowledge production is a complex process which can occur through a number of ways (e.g. formal research, reflective practice, transformation and combination of existing knowledge). Organisational culture influences knowledge production both positively and negatively.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the main ways in which knowledge production can benefit construction organisations and can impact positively to organisational innovations. It addresses the role of leadership and culture in knowledge production in organisations. Skilled and competent workforce is key in knowledge production, especially in addressing problem‐solving situations. Appropriate and focused training programmes (e.g. continuing professional development events, other short courses, in‐house programmes‐mentoring, coaching, and job rotation) are important in stimulating approaches for improved knowledge production in organisations. As shortages of skilled personnel are rife in construction in China, organisations need to take the issue of knowledge production more seriously.

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Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Yicha Zhang, Alain Bernard, Ravi Kumar Gupta and Ramy Harik

The purpose of this paper is to present research work based on the authors’ conceptual framework reported in the VRAP Conference 2013. It is related with an efficient…

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1097

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present research work based on the authors’ conceptual framework reported in the VRAP Conference 2013. It is related with an efficient method to obtain an optimal part build orientation for additive manufacturing (AM) by using AM features with associated AM production knowledge and multi-attribute decision-making (MADM). The paper also emphasizes the importance of AM feature and the implied AM knowledge in AM process planning.

Design/methodology/approach

To solve the orientation problem in AM, two sub-tasks, the generation of a set of alternative orientations and the identification of an optimal one within the generated list, should be accomplished. In this paper, AM feature is defined and associated with AM production knowledge to be used for generating a set of alternative orientations. Key attributes for the decision-making of the orientation problem are then identified and used to represent those generated orientations. Finally, an integrated MADM model is adopted to find out the optimal orientation among the generated alternative orientations.

Findings

The proposed method to find out an optimal part build orientation for those parts with simple or medium complex geometric shapes is reasonable and efficient. It also has the potential to deal with more complex parts with cellular or porous structures in a short time by using high-performance computers.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method is a proof-of-concept. There is a need to investigate AM feature types and the association with related AM production knowledge further so as to suite the context of orientating parts with more complex geometric features. There are also research opportunities for developing more advanced algorithms to recognize AM features and generate alternative orientations and refine alternative orientations.

Originality/value

AM feature is defined and introduced to the orientation problem in AM for generating the alternative orientations. It is also used as one of the key attributes for decision-making so as to help express production requirements on specific geometric features of a desired part.

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Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Malgorzata Zieba and Paweł Kończyński

This paper aims to explore the topic of client co-production in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS). The paper first sketches a theoretical background and reviews…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the topic of client co-production in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS). The paper first sketches a theoretical background and reviews previous studies on factors affecting successful client co-production in such companies and then examines these factors via case study research among a small KIBS company and its five customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an in-depth analysis of literature devoted to client co-production in KIBS firms and on the results of case studies analysis. The authors explore theoretically and empirically the perception of factors behind a successful client co-production process of a KIBS company from the point of view of both customers and service provider. The examination resulted in the clarification of what a successful client-KIBS firm cooperation should look like and what kind of actions KIBS firms should undertake to provide it.

Findings

As the analysis shows, to perceive client-KIBS firm cooperation as successful, customers desire on hand immediate effects that would justify and compensate their time and money investments (e.g. new clients or brand recognition) and on the other hand, some of them desire positive changes in longer-term, which tangible form is associated with the newly obtained knowledge and more importantly, freshly developed and written strategy. Among the factors that influence the co-production process one can list teamwork, trust, communication and knowledge flows.

Research limitations/implications

Research results are limited to one KIBS company operating in Poland and its five customers. As such, they are not conclusive for the whole KIBS sector. The findings of both literature review and case study analysis indicate that there are several outcomes that are expected from the point of view of a KIBS customer when selecting the service of a KIBS company. The paper examines important aspect of service co-production and provides practical guidelines how cooperation between KIBS firms and their customers should look like.

Practical implications

The paper examines the relationship between a client and a KIBS company and explores the factors influencing the successful outcome of this relation. The paper provides guidelines on how this type of relation should be handled by managers or owners of KIBS firms.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on KIBS firms, especially in the scarce area of practical mechanics of their cooperation with customers. The paper also suggests further research possibilities in this area.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Murat Karamuftuoglu

The main objective of this article is to show the increasing relevance of the knowledge production capability of information storage and retrieval systems in the context of

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1252

Abstract

The main objective of this article is to show the increasing relevance of the knowledge production capability of information storage and retrieval systems in the context of ‘perpetual innovation’, otherwise known as the ‘information’ economy. The knowledge production potential of information retrieval systems is only barely recognised in the information science community. Traditionally, information professionals and retrieval systems devised by them are conceived merely as guardians and facilitators of knowledge. This prevents information professionals playing a key role in an innovation based economy. In a perpetual innovation economy, information/knowledge embedded in commodities becomes the main source of profit. However, the peculiar character of information/knowledge means that privately owned knowledge tends to flow back into the public domain. This peculiarity necessitates continuous production of new knowledge applied to products and production techniques. Creative acts are not individualistic but collective/collaborative processes. Emerging collaborative systems on computer networks, such as the Internet, make it possible to devise work environments that are conducive to the development and cultivation of collective practices. Informational retrieval systems designers and practitioners may find it useful to study such systems to develop retrieval mechanisms that enhance creativity and facilitate knowledge production as well as knowledge transfer. It is hoped that by putting information retrieval in the context of the perpetual innovation economy, the knowledge production potential of information retrieval systems becomes more widely acknowledged and accepted among information practitioners.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Glykeria Karagouni

The purpose of this paper is to explore how low-technology corporate ventures use knowledge from multiple and often trans-sectoral fields to intensively create and deploy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how low-technology corporate ventures use knowledge from multiple and often trans-sectoral fields to intensively create and deploy innovative production technologies in order to sustain significant competitive advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper primarily draws evidence from an exploratory case study of a low-tech private enterprise operating in the wood processing industry in Greece.

Findings

Low-technology firms appear to invest mainly in process innovation and therefore production technologies, in order to secure a position within mature markets. Within the notion of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship (KIE), a creative bricolage of knowledge based on research work and industrial practice results in innovative products and processes covering technologies from a wide range, including high-tech industries. The case indicates that low-tech companies may be something more than just “borrowers” of technology.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations regard the single case study research design and the focus on the wood industry in Greece. Future research may pursue more case studies in different traditional sectors and national contexts.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs and managers of low-technology firms should focus on technological innovation and more specifically on co-creation of novel production technologies in order to sustain strong competitive advantages and enhance performances.

Originality/value

The analysis challenges the established opinion of common entrepreneurial processes in low-tech sectors. It adds to the ongoing discussion of low-tech, KIE and it contributes to the literature of industrial dynamics since there are only a handful of studies that probe the role of production technologies within a low-tech but knowledge-intensive context.

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Anne Bang, Christine Mølgaard Cleemann and Pia Bramming

The main purpose of this paper is to explore and revitalise key contributions of Peter Drucker for the understanding of how changing conditions in the economy radically…

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2600

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to explore and revitalise key contributions of Peter Drucker for the understanding of how changing conditions in the economy radically alter the ways business value is created. Second, the authors wish to demonstrate how the changes in key economic resources pose altogether different challenges and opportunities for management research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking Peter F. Drucker as a point of departure, the paper presents a conceptual reflection of the conditions and new challenges for the creation of business. Drucker's insights are discussed and accelerated with a philosophical and sociologically inspired position on management.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that the creation of business value in the knowledge economy is highly immaterial and socially embedded. This demands a broadening of perspective to (ontologically) encompass both the technical and the social. Production and the value of consumption cannot be measured independently of the affects produced in the consuming, social subject.

Practical implications

The paper helps to conceptualise the productivity of knowledge work in the new economy in order to direct managerial practice towards the basics of value driving production.

Social implications

Both the production of business value as well as the working conditions of this production must be readdressed in respect of both the creative and the repressive forces of how social subjects are formed.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that the economy is faced with new challenges following the changing relationship between the creation of business value from the optimisation and exploitation of knowledge as the new key economic resource.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Lan Guo, Jutta Tobias, Elliot Bendoly and Yuming Hu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents and performance consequences of voluntary information exchange between the production and sales functions.

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1834

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents and performance consequences of voluntary information exchange between the production and sales functions.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the motivation-opportunity-ability framework, the authors first posit a general model for bilateral information exchange across functional levels. The innovation presented in this model consists in allowing both sides of such an exchange (e.g. production-to-sales and sales-to-production) to differ in the perceived adequacy of information they receive. The two sides can also differ in terms of how their motivation and ability impact that adequacy. To test the model, the authors make use of survey responses and objective data from sales, production and executive managers of 182 Chinese manufacturers.

Findings

Analysis of the sample shows that the sales-to-production exchange has a smaller estimated performance effect than the production-to-sales exchange. Although shared opportunity is important in predicting both sides of the exchange, the measure of motivation appears to only significantly impact the sales-to-production exchange. In contrast, the measure of ability only appears to significantly affect the production-to-sales exchange.

Research limitations/implications

Although limited to a regional context, differences in information-sharing drivers on the two sides of production-sales dyads pose strong implications that may be generalizable.

Practical implications

Specifically, these findings suggest alternative approaches and foci for resource investment that higher level managers can leverage in developing more effective cross-functional work settings.

Originality/value

This study differentiates itself from extant literature on information sharing by focusing on cross-functional (vs intra-functional) and voluntary (vs routine) information exchange.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Douglas Rafael Veit, Daniel Pacheco Lacerda, Luis Felipe Riehs Camargo, Liane Mahlmann Kipper and Aline Dresch

Research in business processes has been developed around a disciplinary approach toward the production of traditional knowledge, known as Mode 1. The problems studied with…

Abstract

Purpose

Research in business processes has been developed around a disciplinary approach toward the production of traditional knowledge, known as Mode 1. The problems studied with this approach are solved in a context in which academic knowledge prevails, with no major concerns regarding its practical applicability. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to propose a structure for knowledge production based on Mode 2 for business process researches.

Design/methodology/approach

A bibliometric research was conducted to define and conceptualize the classes of disciplinary problems, by assessing the years 2007-2012 of the Business Process Management Journal publications.

Findings

A framework for the Mode 2 knowledge production was proposed in the development of research in business process and conceptualized classes of problems related to this issue.

Research limitations/implications

This work was carried out with specific focus on research in business process, so the defined classes of problems cannot be generalized.

Originality/value

The studies identified by this research are in the form of a disciplinary approach toward the production of traditional knowledge, known as Mode 1. This paper aims to fill the gap of a transdisciplinary production of knowledge and practical application, known as Mode 2 in the context of business process.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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