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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Phillip E. Pfeifer and Paul W. Farris

Five carefully constructed problems illustrate the concepts of second-market discounting, price skimming, limit pricing, random discounting, premium pricing, and bundling.

Abstract

Five carefully constructed problems illustrate the concepts of second-market discounting, price skimming, limit pricing, random discounting, premium pricing, and bundling.

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Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

F. Javier Rondan-Cataluña, Bernabe Escobar-Perez and Manuel A. Moreno-Prada

This research enables the authors to highlight the importance of proper pricing for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of demand-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This research enables the authors to highlight the importance of proper pricing for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of demand-based pricing, providing empirical results that reveal the validity of this pricing philosophy in the sport retailing industry. In particular, this study has identified the limits of acceptable prices for the products studied, selected the most appropriate method for pricing products suffering from high competition and compared the impact produced on price perceptions according to different retail environments to be able to relate changes in the acceptable prices ranges according to the geographical location of each point of sale, differentiating between rural or urban environment and type of client.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have carried out surveys of 350 customers in each of the three points of sale analysed. Therefore, there are a total of 1,050 interviewees, for the three products analysed. The direct method of acceptable prices setting is developed. In addition, ANOVA and t-test have been carried out to find differences between the three shops.

Findings

One main finding is that the acceptable price range is not unique. Each point of sale has one that is distinct because it depends on many factors: the competition, the economic capacity of the closest residents, the location of the point of sale or the ability to attract customers.

Originality/value

The foremost contribution of this paper is to demonstrate empirically how considering the local demand at setting prices would generate larger earnings, even for a small retail chain. The direct method of setting acceptable prices enables us to set the prices according to the demand. The best option is if these prices are above the costs. It can be noted that the prices should be set according to each shop, and a different price used in each point of sale to maximise profits and to adapt to what the typical customer of each shop is willing to pay, despite the products being the same and the points of sale belonging to the same retail chain.

Objetivos

Esta investigación nos permite resaltar la importancia de una fijación de precios adecuada para los minoristas. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es demostrar la importancia de la fijación de precios basada en la demanda, proporcionando resultados empíricos que revelan la validez de esta filosofía de fijación de precios en el sector minorista de productos deportivos. En particular, en este estudio se han identificado los intervalos de precios aceptables para los productos estudiados; se ha seleccionado el método más apropiado para la fijación de precios de productos que sufren alta competencia; y se ha comparado el impacto en las percepciones de precios según el entorno detallista y se han encontrado cambios en los intervalos aceptables de precios en función de la localización geográfica del punto de venta, diferenciando entre entorno rural y urbano, y el tipo de cliente.

Metodología

Los autores han realizado encuestas a 350 clientes en cada uno de los 3 puntos de venta analizados. Por lo tanto, hay un total de 1050 entrevistados, para los 3 productos analizados. Se desarrolla el método directo de fijación de precios aceptables. Además, se han realizado pruebas ANOVAs y T para encontrar diferencias entre las 3 tiendas.

Resultados

Un hallazgo principal es que el intervalo de precios aceptable no es único. Cada punto de venta tiene uno distinto porque depende de muchos factores: la competencia, la capacidad económica de los residentes más cercanos, la ubicación del punto de venta o la capacidad de atraer clientes.

Originalidad/valor

La principal contribución de este artículo es demostrar empíricamente cómo considerar la demanda local al establecer precios generaría mayores ganancias, incluso para una pequeña cadena minorista. El método directo de establecer precios aceptables nos permite establecer los precios de acuerdo con la demanda. La mejor opción es si estos precios están por encima de los costos. Se puede observar que los precios deben establecerse de acuerdo con cada tienda, y se debe usar un precio diferente en cada punto de venta para maximizar los beneficios y adaptarse a lo que el cliente típico de cada tienda está dispuesto a pagar. A pesar de que los productos son los mismos y los puntos de venta pertenecientes a la misma cadena minorista.

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Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Mattias Ganslandt and Keith E. Maskus

The existence of parallel imports (PI) raises a number of interesting policy and strategic questions, which are the subject of this survey article. For example, parallel…

Abstract

The existence of parallel imports (PI) raises a number of interesting policy and strategic questions, which are the subject of this survey article. For example, parallel trade is essentially arbitrage within policy-integrated markets of IPR-protected goods, which may have different prices across countries. Thus, we analyze fully two types of price differences that give rise to such arbitrage. First is simple retail-level trade in horizontal markets because consumer prices may differ. Second is the deeper, and more strategic, issue of vertical pricing within the common distribution organization of an original manufacturer selling its goods through wholesale distributors in different markets. This vertical price control problem presents the IPR-holding firm a menu of strategic choices regarding how to compete with PI. Another strategic question is how the existence of PI might affect incentives of IPR holders to invest in research and development (R&D). The global research-based pharmaceutical firms, for example, strongly oppose any relaxation of restrictions against PI of drugs into the United States, arguing that the potential reduction in profits would diminish their ability to innovate. There is a close linkage here with price controls for medicines, which are a key component of national health policies but can give rise to arbitrage through PI. We also discuss the complex economic relationships between PI and other forms of competition policy, or attempts to limit the abuse of market power offered by patents and copyrights. Finally, we review the emerging literature on how policies governing PI may affect international trade agreements.

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Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Sumner La Croix and Ming Liu

The World Health Organization estimated that in 1999 roughly one-third of the world's population lacked access to essential medicines that would have saved or improved…

Abstract

The World Health Organization estimated that in 1999 roughly one-third of the world's population lacked access to essential medicines that would have saved or improved their lives. Our analysis focuses on how pharmaceutical product patents restrict access to essential medicines in developing countries. It is well established that pharmaceutical product patents provide little incentive for pharmaceutical companies to develop new medicines designed to treat diseases prevalent in developing countries or to market in developing countries those patented medicines developed to treat diseases prevalent in developed countries. Economists have developed theoretical models showing that these incentives could be changed if (1) developing countries provided intellectual property protection for new pharmaceutical innovations and (2) an international regulatory framework were established to facilitate pharmaceutical companies setting lower prices in developing countries and higher prices in developed countries for patented medicines. We develop an index of property rights in pharmaceutical innovations covering 129 countries from 1960 to 2005. It shows that in 1960 only a handful of countries provided significant protection for pharmaceutical innovations, but by 2005 over 95 percent of countries in our sample provided significant statutory protections. However, an international framework to allow pharmaceutical companies to price discriminate has not been put in place. We conclude that international price discrimination mechanisms, compulsory patent licenses, and regional patent buyouts are not viable mechanisms for providing access to essential medicines to patients in developing countries. Global patent buyouts are more likely to achieve this goal, as they are not founded on an impractical separation of pharmaceutical markets in developing and developed countries and they provide critical incentives to develop new essential medicines.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2019

Sérgio Dominique-Ferreira and Cristina Antunes

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify the price sensitivity of consumers of three- and five-star hotels and to determine the impact of bundling…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify the price sensitivity of consumers of three- and five-star hotels and to determine the impact of bundling strategies on consumers’ price sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

To calculate price sensitivity, authors apply the van Westendorp’s price sensitivity meter (PSM). To understand the impact of bundling strategies, univariate and bivariate techniques are applied.

Findings

PSM results reveal the optimal prices and the range of acceptable prices for three- and five-star hotel. The bundling strategy results reveal that five-star customers are less sensitive to mixed-leader bundling. Regarding mixed-joint bundling, managers could improve sales through bundling strategies if they selected an attractive service (e.g. restaurants).

Practical implications

Findings assist hotel managers to understand the different price sensitivities, according to the hotel typology. Managers can manage prices without the risk of losing market share or revenue. The results help managers in deciding which bundling strategies they can create, as well as the services to be included to achieve highest profitability.

Originality/value

No research to date to the best of the authors’ knowledge has attempted to understand and compare the role of bundling strategies in three- and five-stars hotels. Moreover, no research has attempted to measure and compare customers’ price sensitivity of three- and five-stars hotels.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8494

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Richard I. Hawkesworth

Five years ago, Budgens plc, Britain’s tenth largest grocery retailer, established an alliance with REWE of Germany to develop a discount format in the south of England …

Abstract

Five years ago, Budgens plc, Britain’s tenth largest grocery retailer, established an alliance with REWE of Germany to develop a discount format in the south of England ‐ Budgens’ heartland ‐ to exploit what was perceived as a growth area in the UK as the other multiples had tended to vacate this sector of the market. Budgens had no experience of discounting and thus an alliance with REWE, a large German discount operator, was an attractive proposition. The article explains why and how the alliance developed and, importantly, assesses why the experiment was relatively short‐lived. Essentially, it illuminates the problems of attempting to pursue both differentiation and cost/price leadership strategies.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

JOHN P. FORMBY and LOUIS AMATO

North Carolina is one of fourteen states directly regulating and controlling milk markets. The regulations are administratively complex and vary from state to state, but…

Abstract

North Carolina is one of fourteen states directly regulating and controlling milk markets. The regulations are administratively complex and vary from state to state, but the general pattern of regulation follows that set by the comprehensive Federal regulation which began in 1937 with the passage of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Milk markets in most of the country, including the major producing regions, are regulated and controlled by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). As a result of both state and federal controls, virtually no markets are unregulated. The consequences of Federal regulation of milk markets have been studied intensively, notably by Kessel and more recently by Kwoka. Less is known about the form and effects of state regulation. In this paper we analyze the case of milk market regulation in North Carolina. Specifically, we (1) review the ongoing regulation and assess the market structure and conduct of market participants including regulators; (2) review and analyze the economic implications and legal developments in reconstituting milk; and (3) investigate the policy alternatives with the purpose of determining whether there are options which, if adopted, will generate more social gains than associated social losses.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Ursula Backhaus

Wilhelm Launhardt (1832‐1918) is a founder of mathematical economics. His main work, Mathematical Foundations of Economics, published in 1885, was translated into English…

Abstract

Wilhelm Launhardt (1832‐1918) is a founder of mathematical economics. His main work, Mathematical Foundations of Economics, published in 1885, was translated into English in 1993. As an engineer, he contributed to the field of not only engineering, but also of economics and, in particular, to those parts in economics which can be treated fruitfully with mathematics. Launhardt developed his work independently from the French engineers, but based it squarely on the work of the agricultural engineer von Thünen. He made references to the economists Sax, Walras and Jevons. His main economic contribution lies in founding location theory but, beyond that, he contributed to the mathematical treatment of economics, labor economics, monetary economics and technology economics with a special emphasis on railway issues from a locational point of view. Hence, it is the purpose of this paper to show how Launhardt used mathematics in his engineering‐based approach to the economics of location and technology.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Hsiu‐Li Chen

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of parallel importation on brand equity in high and low product involvement arrangements.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of parallel importation on brand equity in high and low product involvement arrangements.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 (authorized goods/gray‐marketed goods)×(high involvement/low involvement) between‐subjects experimental design is utilized; consumer electronics and ballpoint pens are examined.

Findings

The results of this empirical study show that source channel (authorized goods versus gray goods) has a significant impact on brand equity; among the five brand equity dimensions, consumers are most concerned about the difference in “perceived quality” between gray goods and authorized goods; given the levels of stimuli, sourcing channel stimuli are found to have more powerful effects than product involvement on consumer evaluations of brand equity.

Practical implications

Marketing implications of the study are as follows. For authorized agents: they could emphasize the “perceived quality” of their products in order to prevent market “squatting” from gray marketers. For manufacturers: authorized goods have a stronger effect on brand equity than gray goods; therefore, manufacturers could adapt the contents and packaging of their products to match consumption behavior in each different country to achieve the purpose of market segmentation and to prevent the products from being diverted. For gray marketers: they should not only emphasize the lower prices of their products, but also highlight their brand knowledge and the brand recognition and provide a valid and sensitive reflection of the brand's standing to their customers.

Originality/value

The most notable finding from this study may be that given the levels of stimuli, sourcing channel stimuli were found to have more powerful effects than product involvement on consumer evaluations of brand equity.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 1995

Colin Gilligan

Given the ways in which the research pressures on university staff are becoming seemingly ever greater, an issue of the European Journal of Marketing that is given over to…

Abstract

Given the ways in which the research pressures on university staff are becoming seemingly ever greater, an issue of the European Journal of Marketing that is given over to a survey of the kinds of research initiatives which are currently being carried out is timely. The study which provides the basis for this was conducted between December 1994 and February 1995, with questionnaires being sent to staff in universities throughout Europe. At the time the final selection was made, a total of 150 responses had been received from 18 countries.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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