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Using data from a qualitative longitudinal sample of 31 non-traditional fathers-to-be interviewed in 2011 and then again in 2013, when the child was about 18 months old…
Using data from a qualitative longitudinal sample of 31 non-traditional fathers-to-be interviewed in 2011 and then again in 2013, when the child was about 18 months old, we examine the relationship between prenatal anticipation and the development of ‘positive paternal involvement’ (i.e. an engaged, accessible and responsible type of fatherhood). We expect differences with regard to the antenatal development of a non-normative father identity to explain variations in subsequent paternal involvement. While there might be – and there often is – a discrepancy between fathers’ prenatal intentions and actual practices after childbirth, anticipating concrete needs and actively foreseeing particular paid work adaptations favour the development of a positive paternal involvement. Our analysis reveals the importance of anticipation during pregnancy – that is, the development of an identity as a father and of explicit plans for employment adaptations – in facilitating men’s greater implication in care. The empirical findings also show that non-traditional gender attitudes and favourable working conditions facilitate fathers’ involvement, yet are not enough in themselves to guarantee the development of a positive type of fatherhood covering the three noted dimensions of care. Achieving the latter in Spain will likely require the encouragement of shared parenting responsibilities through normative changes in workplaces, the revision of parental leave policies and the integration of fathers-to-be in prenatal education classes. Our research contributes to shedding new light on the elements that favour a positive paternal involvement, which has the potential to enhance both children’s well-being and gender equality.
Racial/ethnic minority, low-income teens represent a significantly underserved group in terms of reproductive health care including birth control and prenatal care. This…
Racial/ethnic minority, low-income teens represent a significantly underserved group in terms of reproductive health care including birth control and prenatal care. This paper provides patients’ perspectives through analysis of in-depth interviews with 51 African American teen mothers about their reproductive health care and focuses on the influence of gender ideologies and behavior expectations on teens’, and their perceptions of their mothers’, decisions around these issues. The findings suggest that attention to cultural influences of gender on teens’ decisions around sexuality and reproduction is critical to our theoretical and practical approaches to expanding health care services to underserved populations.
This paper aims to investigate the role of nature and nurture in students’ entrepreneurial intention (EIs). In doing so, the study examines the relationship between…
This paper aims to investigate the role of nature and nurture in students’ entrepreneurial intention (EIs). In doing so, the study examines the relationship between prenatal testosterone exposure (2D:4D), risk-taking propensity, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EIs. Moreover, the moderating role of entrepreneurial education between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EI is also investigated.
In line with previous studies on EI, the authors tested hypotheses based on quantitative data obtained from university students.
Data were analyzed with the help of the structural equation modeling technique, and the results revealed that all the hypothesized relationships were supported.
The field of entrepreneurship has become an attractive area of research for practitioners and academics. One tinted area of research in entrepreneurship is the investigation of EI because it is a good predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. Several antecedents of EIs have been recognized in the literature ranging from personality traits to environmental factors. However, less is known about the role of biology in entrepreneurship. Incorporating biological factors in the field of entrepreneurship appears to be theoretically viable and sound. Thus, this study investigates the effect of biological factors in the presence of psychological factors on EIs, which is a unique contribution to the literature on entrepreneurship.
Purpose – This chapter examines the relationship between prenatal testing, Down syndrome identification, and selective termination practices, and it does so by considering…
Purpose – This chapter examines the relationship between prenatal testing, Down syndrome identification, and selective termination practices, and it does so by considering whether the selective termination of fetuses with Down syndrome might constitute genocidal practices.
Methodology/approach – Exploratory and speculative in nature, this chapter brings the phenomenon of prenatal testing and selective termination practices together, and explores whether the increasingly widespread termination of fetuses with Down syndrome fits within definitions of genocide.
Findings – Addressing perceptions of Down syndrome and disability, and integrating aspects of crip politics and definitions of genocide, this chapter concludes that the phenomenon of selective termination involving fetuses with Down syndrome can constitute genocide when particular definitions and interpretations are adopted.
Originality/value – This chapter is perhaps the first academic text to critically evaluate the relationship between prenatal testing, selective termination of fetuses with Down syndrome, and criminological genocide scholarship. Importantly, it does not evaluate individual decision-making practices regarding termination, but instead focuses on collective practices and conditions that work to minimize the number of people with Down syndrome in society.
The study aims to investigate the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') prenatal testosterone exposure, absorptive capacity and e-commerce adoption by…
The study aims to investigate the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') prenatal testosterone exposure, absorptive capacity and e-commerce adoption by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
Based on a study of 1,519 SMEs led by a male CEO in China, the impact of entrepreneur's digital ratio on e-commerce adoption is empirically analyzed through a multivariate logistic model.
The results show that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a reverse measurement of prenatal testosterone exposure, is negatively correlated with the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs. This evidence suggests that CEOs with high prenatal testosterone exposure have a higher probability of adopting e-commerce. In addition, this research indicates a positive correlation between absorptive capacity, which is defined by market innovation, process innovation and marketing innovation, and the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs.
This research can contribute to the discussion by providing new insights into the antecedents of the adoption of e-commerce in SMEs.
This paper examines the implications of the disability rights critique of prenatal testing on the development of genetic policy and abortion rights. It traces the…
This paper examines the implications of the disability rights critique of prenatal testing on the development of genetic policy and abortion rights. It traces the reappearance of the disabled body in public deliberations over reproductive and genetic politics that use disability to frame arguments about which bodies are worthy of protection, how and why we limit reproductive choices, and what reasons women may use to terminate their pregnancies. The disability critique of prenatal testing and selective abortion finds itself in productive tension with reproductive rights politics, which increasingly features disability in both pro-life and pro-choice messages. The uneasy alliance between disability and pro-life interests has profound implications for both disability legal scholarship and the sociolegal inquiry into the role of rights articulation – and rejection – by social movements.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors responsible for the utilisation of safe motherhood practices under the Government of India (GOI)-run maternal health…
The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors responsible for the utilisation of safe motherhood practices under the Government of India (GOI)-run maternal health programme Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY).
Data for the survey were collected from 435 expectant mothers registered under JSY from seven districts of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on the existing theories of behaviour change and the social marketing framework, a model of antecedents of adoption of safe motherhood practices was tested out empirically.
The results suggested that controlling for demographic variables such as age, education, number of children, intention to follow safe motherhood practices, maternal health self-efficacy, attitude towards safe motherhood, life satisfaction and facilitating conditions all contributed towards the adoption of safe motherhood practices. However, facilitating conditions moderated the relationship between intention to follow safe motherhood practices and adoption of safe motherhood practices.
The study focused only on maternal health, excluding child health under JSY.
The study findings suggest that social marketers should focus on the individual (micro)- as well as programme (macro)-level factors to bring about systemic behaviour change.
The adoption of safe motherhood practices will result in a reduction of the maternal mortality rate. This will improve the overall health of mother and child.
The JSY programme is targeted at promoting safe motherhood practices among poor women in the reproductive age group from India. The adoption of safe motherhood practices will result in less maternal mortality and contribute to the well-being of the family.
Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during…
Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during pregnancy has been shown consistently to lead to detrimental consequences for the mother and her baby. Using job stress theories, we develop an expanded theoretical model of experienced stress during pregnancy and the potential detrimental health outcomes for the mother and her baby. Our theoretical model includes factors from multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, sociocultural, and community) and the role they play on the health and well-being of the pregnant employee and her baby. In order to gain a deeper understanding of job stress during pregnancy, we examine three pregnancy-specific organizational stressors (i.e., perceived pregnancy discrimination, pregnancy disclosure, and identity-role conflict) that are unique to pregnant employees. These stressors are argued to be over and above the normal job stressors experienced and they are proposed to result in elevated levels of experienced stress leading to detrimental health outcomes for the mother and baby. The role of resilience resources and learning in reducing some of the negative outcomes from job stressors is also explored.
Past research suggests that whether pregnancies are wanted, unwanted, or mistimed may influence breastfeeding behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to develop a more…
Past research suggests that whether pregnancies are wanted, unwanted, or mistimed may influence breastfeeding behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to develop a more precise understanding of this relationship. Specifically, this chapter asks three questions: first, do pregnancy intentions matter most in sustaining breastfeeding for long or for short durations postpartum; second, at what time postpartum are rates of breastfeeding discontinuation most differentiated by pregnancy intentions; and third, how does poverty (measured here by Medicaid receipt) moderate the relationship between pregnancy intentions and breastfeeding duration.
Logistic regression analysis of survey data from a national sample representative of US mothers is used to determine the relationship of pregnancy intentions to whether breastfeeding continues for various durations and through various intervals after birth. Interaction terms between pregnancy intentions and mother’s Medicaid status are used to test for relationships specific to poor or nonpoor mothers between pregnancy intentions and breastfeeding duration.
Results show that pregnancy timing matters most for sustaining breastfeeding for durations past 6 months and that differences in rates of breastfeeding discontinuation between mothers with wanted, unwanted, and mistimed pregnancies are most pronounced in the 3–7 months postpartum period. In addition, findings show that Medicaid recipients (but not nonrecipients) are less likely to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months when their pregnancies are mistimed.
The literature on fundamental causes of health disparities typically suggests that poverty impairs access to resources necessary for effective planning to achieve desirable health outcomes. This study’s results, however, show that planning of pregnancies is more critical for poor mothers to sustain exclusive breastfeeding. Further research is needed to explain this relationship. The results also suggest that policy interventions to help mothers with unplanned pregnancies to sustain breastfeeding should target the period from 3 to 7 months postpartum.
These findings can help shape policies for facilitating the continuation of breastfeeding for durations recommended by health authorities and advance our understanding of the effects of poverty on health behaviors.
The purpose of this paper is to propose two new constructs reflecting different levels of entrepreneurial intentions which precede actual venture creation: impulsive…
The purpose of this paper is to propose two new constructs reflecting different levels of entrepreneurial intentions which precede actual venture creation: impulsive entrepreneurial intention and deliberate entrepreneurial intention. With a large survey database, this research empirically illustrates the importance in differentiating these two constructs and explores factors facilitating entrepreneurial intentions. Specifically, it examines how different types of prior experiences and social networks contribute to these two levels of entrepreneurial intentions.
Data for the analysis come from a survey database on immigrant professionals in Silicon Valley, where 17 key professional associations in Silicon Valley participated (15 of which are Chinese and Indian). The survey was distributed to 10,840 individuals, and 2,273 responses were received.
This research enriches the understanding of a widely‐discussed concept of entrepreneurial intention by introducing two levels of entrepreneurial intentions: impulsive entrepreneurial intention and deliberate entrepreneurial intention. It is shown that personal characteristics and cultural background in general contribute to impulsive entrepreneurial intention, which reflects a person's willingness or desire to start up a new business in the future. On the other hand, for deliberate entrepreneurial intention, different types of prior experiences and active involvement in social network can be more important to potential entrepreneurs through helping them identify and configure various resources needed for subsequent entrepreneurial behaviors.
This is an original research. The analysis, discussion and result of the paper have not been published anywhere before submission of the manuscript. The differentiation of impulsive entrepreneurial intention from deliberate entrepreneurial intention in this paper helps understand entrepreneurial behaviors better and improve the predictability of entrepreneurial behaviors in the future.