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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Kaylee J. Hackney and Pamela L. Perrewé

Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during…

Abstract

Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during pregnancy has been shown consistently to lead to detrimental consequences for the mother and her baby. Using job stress theories, we develop an expanded theoretical model of experienced stress during pregnancy and the potential detrimental health outcomes for the mother and her baby. Our theoretical model includes factors from multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, sociocultural, and community) and the role they play on the health and well-being of the pregnant employee and her baby. In order to gain a deeper understanding of job stress during pregnancy, we examine three pregnancy-specific organizational stressors (i.e., perceived pregnancy discrimination, pregnancy disclosure, and identity-role conflict) that are unique to pregnant employees. These stressors are argued to be over and above the normal job stressors experienced and they are proposed to result in elevated levels of experienced stress leading to detrimental health outcomes for the mother and baby. The role of resilience resources and learning in reducing some of the negative outcomes from job stressors is also explored.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Isaac Emmanuel Sabat, Whitney Botsford Morgan, Kristen Price Jones and Sarah Singletary Walker

The authors aims to use stigma theory to predict and test a model wherein a person’s stage of pregnancy influences their workplace outcomes associated with pregnancy

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aims to use stigma theory to predict and test a model wherein a person’s stage of pregnancy influences their workplace outcomes associated with pregnancy concealment behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the model using two separate survey studies, examining these relationships from the perspectives of both the pregnant employees and their supervisors.

Findings

The authors find support for the model across both studies, showing that concealment of a pregnant identity predicts increased discrimination, but only for those in later stages of pregnancy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine how one’s stage of pregnancy impacts identity management outcomes. This is important given that pregnancy is an inherently dynamic stigma that becomes increasingly visible over time.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Nefertiti Chester and Brian H. Kleiner

Cites that the problem of pregnancy discrimination is most prevalent in the hiring practices of a corporation. Reviews the legislation passed that addresses pregnancy

2241

Abstract

Cites that the problem of pregnancy discrimination is most prevalent in the hiring practices of a corporation. Reviews the legislation passed that addresses pregnancy discrimination in the workplace in the US compared to Europe and looks at new developments on this topic though the perspective of the pregnant employee and the employer. Concludes that the issue is a worldwide one and the need for retention of good staff an important factor. Gives examples of policies which help retention of employees after childbirth.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 21 no. 8/9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Hasiato‐Kuan Yang and Brian H. Kleiner

Sets out the US laws that give women protection from discrimination when pregnant. Defines the scope of pregnancy disability and outlines the responsibilities that…

Abstract

Sets out the US laws that give women protection from discrimination when pregnant. Defines the scope of pregnancy disability and outlines the responsibilities that employers have under the law. Focuses on pregnancy regulations in California, describing the provisions made for pregnancy leave, the medical certification needed, the right to reinstatement, the employer’s right to transfer a pregnant employee, and the pregnant employee’s right to transfer. Sets down the policy developed by UCLA concerning pregnancy discrimination. Briefly outlines the evidence a woman would need to show to win a case of discrimination because of pregnancy.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Omar Torres and Brian H. Kleiner

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the Unruh Act affects the workplace during these times. The Unruh Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination and enforces…

165

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the Unruh Act affects the workplace during these times. The Unruh Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination and enforces equal rights in business establishments. Since its enactment it has been modified to try to encompass the diversity of all of California’s residents. Yet is remains an act that has its loopholes due to the way it can be interpreted, and has caused confusion in the court system. Today, discrimination in the workplace is rampant according to the number of recent court case filings. Recently, sex discrimination of different type appears to be the most prevalent. Despite efforts to curb such behaviour by companies and employees, it is still amajor controversial issue that still cannot be resolved. This has caused company management to review and restructure company policies in order to try to minimise lawsuits.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Abstract

Organizational researchers studying well-being – as well as organizations themselves – often place much of the burden on employees to manage and preserve their own well-being. Missing from this discussion is how – from a human resources management (HRM) perspective – organizations and managers can directly and positively shape the well-being of their employees. The authors use this review to paint a picture of what organizations could be like if they valued people holistically and embraced the full experience of employees’ lives to promote well-being at work. In so doing, the authors tackle five challenges that managers may have to help their employees navigate, but to date have received more limited empirical and theoretical attention from an HRM perspective: (1) recovery at work; (2) women’s health; (3) concealable stigmas; (4) caregiving; and (5) coping with socio-environmental jolts. In each section, the authors highlight how past research has treated managerial or organizational support on these topics, and pave the way for where research needs to advance from an HRM perspective. The authors conclude with ideas for tackling these issues methodologically and analytically, highlighting ways to recruit and support more vulnerable samples that are encapsulated within these topics, as well as analytic approaches to study employee experiences more holistically. In sum, this review represents a call for organizations to now – more than ever – build thriving organizations.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-046-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Ben Phan and Brian H. Kleiner

Introduces employment discrimination and the various US acts to fight this. Looks, particularly, at the Equal Employment Opportunity Committee (EEOC), created in 1964 to…

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Abstract

Introduces employment discrimination and the various US acts to fight this. Looks, particularly, at the Equal Employment Opportunity Committee (EEOC), created in 1964 to enforce the laws against employment discrimination. Discusses the make up of this federal committee and how it operates on behalf of the individual. Further discusses and highlights the main categories which are: sexual harassment; race/colour discrimination; age discrimination; national origin discrimination; and fills out the Americans with Disabilities Act, giving all the relevant information required to take action against employers. Gives further examples of complaints procedures and how to use them. Concludes that employees have many more safeguards now than previously and that firms now have to respect the individual or “pay” the consequences.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Vandana Nath and Graeme Lockwood

The purpose of this study is to examine the practical and legal complexities associated with tele-homeworking in the context of the UK Equality Law. First, the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the practical and legal complexities associated with tele-homeworking in the context of the UK Equality Law. First, the paper provides a background to the recent growth of tele-homeworking as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, outlining the tenets of the UK Equality Act 2010 and referring to additional legislation pertinent to the ensuing discussion. Second, illustrative case law relevant to the UK Equality Law is put forward to demonstrate the potential challenges that employers and employees might encounter with continued and longer-term tele-homeworking arrangements. Third, the paper outlines implications for employers and human resource managers in terms of policies and practices that might shape the nature of the employment relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a review of the literature and an examination of UK case law applicable to tele-homeworking, taking into consideration equality, diversity and inclusion concerns in the workplace.

Findings

Remote working can be beneficial to both employers and employees. However, there are a number of significant concerns surrounding the management of tele-homeworkers in the aftermath of the pandemic that can act as a stimulus for legal disputes around discrimination, infringement of human rights and breach of contract claims. Several policy implications surface from the analysis that relate to equality and fair treatment associated with both current and future work arrangements.

Originality/value

The paper is significant in offering legal insights into how the UK Equality Law relates to the complexities associated with the management of tele-homeworkers. The study also highlights how return-to-office undertakings might need to consider wider legal issues. COVID-19 and its repercussions have demanded the reorganisation of work, which can give rise to a greater possibility of legal challenges and the study highlights the importance of employers undertaking an evaluation of their equality practices and complying with the legal framework.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 64 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Abstract

Details

Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Other Social Characteristics as Factors in Health and Health Care Disparities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-798-3

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1987

Djehane Hosni and Uma Gupta

In the age of working mothers, the human resources base of society cannot go unprotected. An established labour market trend indicates the prompt return of female workers…

Abstract

In the age of working mothers, the human resources base of society cannot go unprotected. An established labour market trend indicates the prompt return of female workers to their jobs following the birth of their babies. That fact appears to be not so widely recognised by policy makers and seems to be deliberately ignored by the business community. American society, legislatively speaking, is still operating on the basis of an old norm — that of women dropping out of the labour force to give birth to children and to raise a family. This perception is not valid and should no longer be held. “Working mothers” represent a universal pattern in the industrial countries of the world. This is evidenced by the high labour force participation rate (80 per cent) of young women of child‐bearing age (25–39 years). There is a worldwide general consensus on the effective need to protect working mothers against enduring multiple penalties in meeting work and family obligations. These sacrifices include loss of income and job, physical and psychological strain and stress as well as infant development risks. The ILO Maternity and Protection resolution of 1919 and its subsequent revisions called for supportive pregnancy and maternity measures. All the industrial and developing countries — except five — have whole‐heartedly adopted and even exceeded the ILO guidelines. The US, to this date, has not ratified the ILO recommendations, and has no national maternity policy despite a high and increasing percentage of young female workers in the labour market. Instead, there is strong opposition to any move in this direction.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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