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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Seth Abrutyn

Recent scholarship in neo-evolutionary sociology has rejected stage-models in favor of multilinear theories that shift the study of sociocultural change away from…

Abstract

Recent scholarship in neo-evolutionary sociology has rejected stage-models in favor of multilinear theories that shift the study of sociocultural change away from teleological arguments toward those that emphasize selection pressures and macrodynamics. The paper below adopts a neo-evolutionary frame to revisit one of the most epochal moments in human sociocultural evolution, the urban revolution (about 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, and perhaps the Indus Valley) and the rise of the first political units. Shifting the analysis from conventional perspectives, this paper asks the question why the polity was the first autonomous institution besides kinship and what consequences did this have on the trajectory of the human societies, and more generally, human sociocultural evolution. By doing so, a slightly different historiography is presented in which institutional autonomy corresponds not with stages, but rather an historical “phasing” that emphasizes the role that institutional entrepreneurs have played in driving institutional evolution via structural opportunities and historical contingencies.

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Voices of Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-546-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Yiyuan Mai, Chan Xiong and Xiaobin He

This study aims to examine, by drawing upon resource dependence theory and upper echelon theory, how entrepreneurs’ socioeconomic statuses and political characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine, by drawing upon resource dependence theory and upper echelon theory, how entrepreneurs’ socioeconomic statuses and political characteristics influence the establishment of formal political ties by new ventures, and how these relationships are moderated by new ventures’ degrees of innovation and internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical research approach is used in this paper. This is because this model evaluates the interaction effects between the socioeconomic statuses and political characteristics of entrepreneurs and the market strategies of their new ventures. Moderated multiple regression models were used to test our hypotheses with data from 2,297 new ventures in China.

Findings

Using a questionnaire survey about new ventures in China, it was found that entrepreneurs’ socioeconomic statuses and political characteristics are positively related to the establishment of formal political ties by new ventures. It was also found that this positive relationship is stronger when new ventures have a higher degree of internationalization, while the relationship between the socioeconomic statuses of entrepreneurs’ and the establishment of formal political ties by new ventures is weaker when new ventures have a higher degree of innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides a deeper insight into the personal roles that are played in the establishment of formal political ties and it advances the research into new ventures’ competitive strategies.

Practical implications

This study reveals the situations in which formal political ties are connected with new-venture advantages in China, and it will help entrepreneurs establish and use formal political ties strategically to correspond with the different strategies of new ventures.

Originality/value

This research distinguishes the effects of two types of personal status on the establishment of formal political ties by new ventures, and it contributes to an understanding of the situations under which entrepreneurs should establish formal political ties. The findings will also be helpful for entrepreneurs who are choosing how to combine their market and non-market strategies.

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Aiqi Wu, Xiaotong Zhong and Di Song

This paper aims to explore the influence of entrepreneur’s political involvement on private-own enterprises’ (POEs’) selection of two inter-organizational conflict…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the influence of entrepreneur’s political involvement on private-own enterprises’ (POEs’) selection of two inter-organizational conflict resolutions approaches (private approach and public approach), in the context of China’s transition economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a sample of POEs operating in China’s transition economy in the year 2000, this study investigates the possible association between the entrepreneur’s political involvement and the approach chosen to resolve inter-organizational conflicts. A further step is taken to look into the implications of such a choice.

Findings

The empirical study reveals that those POEs with greater entrepreneurial political involvement have the propensity to rely on public approach. In general, POEs are more satisfied with the private approach than the public approach when managing conflicts. Besides, the study shows that the positive effects derived from the entrepreneur’s satisfaction on private approach will be weakened in more established institutions.

Originality/value

This paper has its unique contribution in highlighting the significance of how entrepreneurspolitical involvement interferes with inter-organizational conflict resolution.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2016

Arash Najmaei and Zahra Sadeghinejad

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of public business models and develop a theory for the process of developing and managing public business models.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of public business models and develop a theory for the process of developing and managing public business models.

Methodology

This research synthesizes insights from various fields into a set of theoretical ideas that lay out what public business models are, to what extent they differ from commercial/industrial business models, and how they are developed and managed by public entrepreneurs.

Findings

Developing and managing a business model is an entrepreneurial task that has been missing from the public entrepreneurship literature. Public entrepreneurs perform these tasks using public and private resources, leveraging public institutional systems, and developing capabilities that differ in several dimensions from private entrepreneurs due to the nature of public goods and existence of quasi-markets where public business models are developed and used.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter opens new avenues for research in public entrepreneurship by suggesting that (1) public business models form the foundation of public entrepreneurship, (2) public business models differ from commercial business models not in their functionality but rather in their scope and design, and (3) public business models co-evolve with public institutions to maintain their legitimacy and value creation potential.

Practical implications

This chapter equips public entrepreneurs with new insights into enterprising behaviors and the dynamism of value creation and capture in public ventures.

Originality/value

The current study represents the first attempt to directly incorporate the notion of business models into the public entrepreneurship literature.

Details

New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice in Public Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-821-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Haijian Liu, Shandan Shi and Mo Zhang

This study mainly aims to examine whether entrepreneurs’ utilization of political connections is purely egoistic. Addressing this issue could shed light on traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

This study mainly aims to examine whether entrepreneurs’ utilization of political connections is purely egoistic. Addressing this issue could shed light on traditional debate which concerns whether political connections still have strategic value at advanced stage of institutional transition today in China. Here, at the background of Chinese economic transformation, the utilization of political connections is studied, and a double-role model of the pro-self-mechanism and the pro-social mechanism between political connections and performance in China is put forward.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses survey of questionnaires randomly from 363 entrepreneurs in Jiangsu, Anhui and Shandong Provinces of China and adopts the first stage and direct moderation model in examination.

Findings

The results show that there exists mediated mechanism of both pro-self and pro-social mechanism in the relationship between political connections and firm performance. The authors conclude that utilization of political connections is not only purely egoistic but also altruistic. So, both dark-side and bright-side mechanisms of political connections in China are of equal importance. In addition, the authors take into consideration of the contingency effects of institution, industry and firm-level factors of this moderation model. The pro-self and pro-social mechanisms have differences in terms of moderator-within and moderator-between comparisons of these three contingency effects. Among these comparisons, the pro-self-mediating mechanism is most sensitive to changes of institutional quality, whereas the pro-social mediating mechanism is most sensitive to the uncertainty of industry competition.

Research limitations/implications

This evidence furthermore verifies that the process of institutional transition is nonlinear and political connections still have strategic value in advanced stage of institutional transition today.

Originality/value

This study combines the dual perspectives of “give” and “take.” The former implies the pro-social motivation, while the latter implies the pro-self-motivation. Based on the framework of “resource-conduct-performance,” this study explores how these two mechanisms mediate the relationship between political ties and firm performance. In addition, the authors adopt the framework of “Strategy Tripod,” which was proposed by Peng et al. (2009) and examine the difference between pro-self and pro-social motivation at different level of institution environment improvement, industry dynamics and firm absorptive capacity.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Frances Stokes Berry and Geraldo Flowers

How do entrepreneurs in the public sector effect major policy changes? Are the same entrepreneurs likely to be involved from the idea initiation stage through design…

Abstract

How do entrepreneurs in the public sector effect major policy changes? Are the same entrepreneurs likely to be involved from the idea initiation stage through design, adoption, implementation and institutionalnation, or are there different prominent entrepreneurs in each of the policy stages? What does the pattern of entrepreneurial participation mean for the success of the policy? Utilizing a case study of Performance-Based Program Budgeting (PB2 ) in the State of Florida, this paper employs the observations of key Florida policymakers and advocates to describe the strategic and purposive actions of public entrepreneurs in the four stages of the PB2 budget reform policy process. The work supports current research that major policy changes, such as the adoption of PB2 in Florida, require purposive and strategic actions from public entrepreneurs for their fruition. The paper also contributes to the growing implementation and budgeting literature that describes and assesses performance-based budgeting in the states, and provides observations on necessary conditions for institutionalizing PB2 in Florida.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Alexander Salter

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory of sovereign entrepreneurship, which is a special kind of political entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory of sovereign entrepreneurship, which is a special kind of political entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses qualitative methods/historical survey.

Findings

Sovereignty is rooted in self-enforced exchange of political property rights. Sovereign entrepreneurship is the creative employment of political property rights to advance a plan.

Research limitations/implications

Because a polity’s constitution is determined by its distribution of political property rights, sovereign entrepreneurship and constitutional change are necessarily linked. The author illustrated how sovereign entrepreneurship can be applied by using it to explain the rise of modern states.

Practical implications

In addition to studying instances of sovereign entrepreneurship in distant history, scholars can apply it to recent history. Sovereign entrepreneurship can be especially helpful as a tool for doing analytic narratives of low-n cases of political-economic development, especially when those polities attract interests for being “development miracles.”

Originality/value

This paper uses treats sovereignty as a political property right.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2016

Anthony Brown, Timothy M. Devinney and Mario Kafouros

It is well known that entrepreneurs possess human, political and social capital that allow them to be successful. While we know that each of these “capitals” possess…

Abstract

It is well known that entrepreneurs possess human, political and social capital that allow them to be successful. While we know that each of these “capitals” possess value, we know much less about how they interact – for example, are they substitutes or complements? – and whether where the capital was acquired matters. The latter point is particularly Germaine to the issue of global entrepreneurship and the importance of returnee entrepreneurs for economic development. We provide an overview of this research to date and call for an agenda that concentrates more on the total value a portfolio of these capitals generates and on how that capital is acquired both at home and overseas.

Details

Global Entrepreneurship: Past, Present & Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-483-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Xi Zhan and Choon-kwang Kim

This paper aims to set social network, which is recently drawing the most attention in the business administration field, as a major dependent variable of political skill…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to set social network, which is recently drawing the most attention in the business administration field, as a major dependent variable of political skill. It is because social network plays a very important role in improving the productivity and performance of firms, and, in actuality, many researches have proved that social network greatly contributes to firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Researches into social network have not yet established that “through what” or “how” social network can be formed and affected.

Findings

In this study, the authors attempt to connect social network with political skill, which is a cause variable.

Originality/value

This approach will give us a better understanding on the formation of social networks and its relationship with political skill, and so eventually, such negative recognition about the politics can be viewed from a different sight of angle.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

W.S. Peirce and P. Kruger

Discusses the factors relating to the success of Friedrich Althoffas an innovator (or entrepreneur), within the nineteenth centurybureaucratic Prussian public…

Abstract

Discusses the factors relating to the success of Friedrich Althoff as an innovator (or entrepreneur), within the nineteenth century bureaucratic Prussian public administration, that enabled him to be the driving force in the building of the university system. These include acquiring control over resources (salesmanship); the political skills of evaluation, of dealing with superiors in the system, and negotiating with other departments and other powerful groups (Althoff had to bypass hierarchical constraints from above); mastery of his own field, tight management; and an immense capacity for work. The prevailing stereotypes of bureaucracy have no room for the public entrepreneur who succeeds only by usurping the role of bureaucracy within his own private realm.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 20 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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