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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Alexander Paulsson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen

The point of departure of this book is that smart mobility will only be developed in a desired direction and fulfil societal objectives if it is steered in that direction…

Abstract

The point of departure of this book is that smart mobility will only be developed in a desired direction and fulfil societal objectives if it is steered in that direction. The market, left to itself, will most certainly not deliver on these objectives. This message has been conveyed extensively in recent literature, but this book aims to take this discussion one step further by focussing on what governance of smart mobility looks like today and in the future. In this introductory chapter, the authors provide a framework of different understandings of policy instruments, how they are selected, developed and used. After the array of policy instruments within the transport sector has been extensively discussed, the authors turn to discussing a broader understanding of policy instruments found within political science and political sociology. In doing so, this book contributes to the critical scholarship on policy instruments, while exploring the why, the how and the what of policy instruments in relation to smart mobility. The chapter closes with a brief introduction to the structure of the book as well as a description of the content of each chapter.

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Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Managing Urban Mobility Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85-724611-0

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Jingru Li, Jian Zuo, Weiping Jiang, Xizeng Zhong, Jinggang Li and Yulun Pan

This study aims to identify and quantitatively evaluate the factors that influence the construction and demolition waste (CDW) policy instrument choice, and provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify and quantitatively evaluate the factors that influence the construction and demolition waste (CDW) policy instrument choice, and provide a systematic framework for local governments to select the appropriate policy instruments with a consideration of their specific situations.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review and expert interviews were conducted to identify the key factors. These factors were quantitatively evaluated via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed to explore the underlying structure of these variables and organize the factors into a systematic framework.

Findings

Resource, clarity of policy problem and goal, legitimacy, acceptance of targeted group and environmental concern of public are the five top variables, which should be emphasized in the selection of CDW policy. The respondents with experience in policymaking and those without experience had slightly different views on the importance of these variables. A total of six latent factors were identified and organized into a framework.

Research limitations/implications

The questionnaire survey was conducted with government staff via a snowball sampling method, which may affect the representativeness of conclusions to a certain extent.

Practical implications

This study provides a useful reference for local government to choose appropriate policies to address the CDW problem. Matching attributes of policy instruments with the policy goal and the problem is the starting point in choice of the CDW policy. The matched instruments will be further narrowed by social context, i.e. environmental concern and socioeconomic situation. The final selection must undergo bargaining between policymakers and targeted groups.

Originality/value

Policy instruments choice is a complicated process, which is shaped by the interaction of many influential factors. However, the impact of these factors on CDW policy choice is largely overlooked. This study will contribute to the knowledge body pertaining to policy selection in the CDW field.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Martijn Poel and Linda Kool

The purpose of this paper is to explore how innovation has become more important in information society policy and what the implications are for policy design, policy

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how innovation has become more important in information society policy and what the implications are for policy design, policy coordination and policy evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Against the background of European information society policy, a case study is done on the policy mix for ICT innovation in The Netherlands. A highly structured qualitative methodology is developed to analyse the relevant policy instruments in information society policy and innovation policy. The methodology includes a typology for rationale, policy instruments and element of the innovation process.

Findings

To a large extent, information society policy and innovation policy are complementary. There is some overlap between policy instruments. The rationale and objectives can be more explicit. The policy mix had a positive impact on information communication technology (ICT) knowledge, broadband and e‐government.

Originality/value

The paper presents the relevance, methods and results of a detailed study on the intersection of two policy fields: information society policy and innovation policy.

Details

info, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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The Impacts of Monetary Policy in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-319-8

Abstract

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Urban Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-047029-0

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Book part
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Iryna Kushnir

Policy instruments are specific policiespolicy content, which is associated not just with policy texts, but also with how they are negotiated and practised (Dolowitz &…

Abstract

Policy instruments are specific policiespolicy content, which is associated not just with policy texts, but also with how they are negotiated and practised (Dolowitz & Marsh, 2000; Fimyar, 2008). In the context of Bologna, policy instruments are Bologna action lines (such as the credit system, the study cycles, etc.).

This Chapter explains the development of the Bologna instruments in Ukraine until 2014 through the interaction of the policy continuity and change. In particular, I review how the development of the Bologna instruments in Ukraine was triggered and guided by the Bologna action lines, as well as by the old national higher education policies. I look at the cases of four Bologna instruments. They are the system of credits, the study cycles, the diploma supplement and quality assurance. All of these instruments have been developed through the reconfiguration of the pre-Bologna policies, which were chosen by the Ministry to represent these instruments. Namely, the national module system became the basis for the Bologna system of credits. The pre-Bologna education-qualification and scientific cycles made a foundation for the Bologna study cycles. The old national diploma supplement was a reason for the delay in dealing with the Bologna diploma supplement, given that a diploma supplement existed. The national diploma supplement was taken as the Bologna instrument even though their structure and content differed. Apart from this, the pre-Bologna higher education quality assurance policies started representing the Bologna quality assurance instruments at the outset of the reform in Ukraine.

The examination of these four cases of policy instruments shows that their development began with a mere change of labels for the old policies and proceeded with building up innovations to gradually alter the old national higher education policies.

Details

The Bologna Reform in Ukraine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-114-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson

In this chapter, the authors will summarise the entire book and look ahead. The aim of this book has been to take the calls for governance of smart mobility one step…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors will summarise the entire book and look ahead. The aim of this book has been to take the calls for governance of smart mobility one step further by analysing and discussing current and future policy instruments to govern smart mobility. The task has been carried out by discussing the why, how and what of policy instruments. So far, the policy instruments governing smart mobility to a large extent are focussed on understanding this new field of mobility, establishing relations and roles between companies and authorities, and making the field governable. What is lacking in this equation are policy instruments that establish the population as citizens with rights, voices and roles. In order to align the smart mobility transition and the transition towards a sustainable society, the authors consider the development of deliberative citizen participation an important initiative and the authors suggest it as an important field for future research.

Details

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Bo Xu, Qie Sun, Ronald Wennersten and Nils Brandt

This paper aims to analyse Chinese policy instruments for climate change mitigation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse Chinese policy instruments for climate change mitigation.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper reviews Chinese energy consumption per unit of GDP (EC/GDP) in order to determine the overall effects of the combined policy instruments. Second, the different policy instruments are compared in terms of their effects. Third, the actual trends of EC/GDP in two provinces and the instruments adopted by them are analysed on the provincial level.

Findings

The decline in EC/GDP can indirectly reflect the Chinese contribution to mitigation of CO2 emissions since fossil fuels dominate Chinese energy consumption. The national EC/GDP values have shown a declining trend from 2005 to date, indicating that the policy instruments are very important to mitigate climate change as regards reducing EC/GDP. The technological improvement regulations have made the greatest contribution to date to reduce EC/GDP values. The experiences from the Beijing and Shandong province indicate that their final targets in 2010 will be most likely achieved because the different provinces are not only following the national policy instruments but have also developed quite a few new instruments to assist in reaching the these reductions.

Research limitations/implications

There are three limitations regarding Chinese policy instruments analysis. First, the paper does not go far to determine the other factors which can affect EC/GDP apart from policy instruments. Second, some data were lacking and there may be inaccuracies in the existing data that could affect the analysis results. Third, EC/GDP cannot reflect the Chinese contribution to mitigation of CO2 emissions if the composition of Chinese energy consumption changes significantly.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the importance of various policy instruments in reducing EC/GDP. The results can be referenced by Chinese policy makers on both the national and provincial level.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Hans Bressers and Pieter‐Jan Klok

Scientific theories on the effects of various policy instruments are often formulated without accounting for the circumstances under which these instruments are applied…

Abstract

Scientific theories on the effects of various policy instruments are often formulated without accounting for the circumstances under which these instruments are applied. Also the implementation process is often neglected. Economic theory formulation often concentrates solely on the influence of the instrument‐as‐intended on the cost‐benefit relationship of various behavioural alternatives. Theories based on the joint influence of possible combinations of circumstances rather than the isolated influences of individual circumstances tend to become tremendously complex. Consequently, attempts to formulate such theories are few. Nevertheless, precisely that combined perspective offers invaluable insights when it comes to making choices concerning practical policy issues. This holds true regardless of whether the choice is part of a,more or less rational and conscious decision‐making process or, alternatively, involves a more personal and intuitive decision which is later to be tabled as the subject of political or administrative debate. This article deals with some fundamentals which provided the groundwork for formulating a scientific theory on the effects of policy instruments by the authors. The complexity of the matter will be reduced without affecting either the number or the diversity of circumstances that can be discussed simultaneously. In addition, attention will be focused on the role and influence of the implementation process which acts as an intermediary between the “paper” policy instruments and the actual policy measures.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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