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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Hailey Khatchatourian, Grace MacFarland, Mindy Thai, Danika Hickling, Brad Smith and Yuning Wu

While public support for and cooperation with the police has been deemed vital for police effectiveness, what shapes such support and cooperation has not been fully…

Abstract

Purpose

While public support for and cooperation with the police has been deemed vital for police effectiveness, what shapes such support and cooperation has not been fully examined. The purpose of this study is to explore three perspectives on public cooperation with police simultaneously: (1) police legitimacy, (2) legal cynicism, and (3) neighborhood norms.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study came from a survey conducted with 408 residents across three neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan, in 2009. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to assess the relationship between the three groups of theory-based predictors, representing police legitimacy, legal cynicism, and neighborhood norms, and the dependent variable of cooperation.

Findings

The findings partially support the legitimacy model, as trust in police, but not perceived obligation to obey, predicts cooperation with police. This study provides strong support for the legal cynicism and neighborhood norms perspectives. Specifically, residents who have higher levels of legal cynicism and who report a stronger anti-snitch neighborhood subculture report being less inclined to cooperate with the police.

Originality/value

This study is the first to compare the relative influences of three major perspectives on public cooperation. Future studies should continue to analyze competing theories in explaining public cooperation with the police and determine if findings from this study are applicable to locations outside Detroit.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2022

Yuning Wu, Ivan Sun, Tzu-Ying Lo and Jianhong Liu

This paper comparatively assesses the connections between individual demographic traits, occupational characteristics, and organizational factors and officers' attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper comparatively assesses the connections between individual demographic traits, occupational characteristics, and organizational factors and officers' attitudes toward important groups in China and Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data used in this study were collected from 722 police officers from mainland China and 531 officers from Taiwan. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the correlates of police attitudes toward peers, supervisors, and citizens.

Findings

The Chinese and Taiwanese officers do not differ in their trust in peers, but the Chinese officers hold significantly more positive views on the trustworthiness of supervisors and citizens compared to the Taiwanese officers. Supervisor justice and organizational identification are significant predictors of officers' attitudes toward all three groups in both countries.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation revolves around the inability to test and explain exactly why findings from the two groups vary in their ways. Future research should include specific social, political, and cultural predictors.

Originality/value

This study represents one of the few studies that compare police attitudes toward important groups of peers, supervisors, and citizens across nations/cultures.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2022

Robert Patrick Peacock, Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich, Yuning Wu, Ivan Sun, Valentina Pavlović Vinogradac and Marijan Vinogradac

This paper examines whether dissimilarities in societal cultures impact the path by which a key component of organizational culture—supervisory procedural justice…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines whether dissimilarities in societal cultures impact the path by which a key component of organizational culture—supervisory procedural justice (SPJ)—influences police officer compliance with police agency rules.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized structural equation modeling across a data set of 1,189 Croatian and Taiwan police officers to test whether a societal value (individualism/collectivism) impacts the role of three intermediary variables (trust in the public, job satisfaction and pro-organization initiative) in a procedural justice model of officer compliance with the rules.

Findings

The study found that, despite a strong statistical similarity in the individual attitudes of Croatian and Taiwan police officers, the intermediary variables in the model significantly differed between the two countries. Most notably, the role of trust in the public and pro-organization initiative supported past research suggesting that collectivist versus individualistic societal cultures lead to divergent organizational attitudes and policing outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to compare the impact of societal values on a model of SPJ on officer compliance with agency rules.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Xu Haoran, Antoinette Verhage and Christophe Vandeviver

This research uses rational choice theory to analyze the effects of motivation, premeditation and offender characteristics on offenders' weapons during decision-making…

Abstract

Purpose

This research uses rational choice theory to analyze the effects of motivation, premeditation and offender characteristics on offenders' weapons during decision-making processes when they are violent towards on-duty police officers. The paper aims to discuss the aforementioned issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers examined 597 cases (n = 597) of violence against the police in the China Judgments Online (CJO) database, and analyzed the data using multinomial logistic regression methods. Rational choice theory was used to explore the offenders' weapons decision-making process.

Findings

The research results showed that offenders with premeditation were more likely to use a weapon, and tended to choose sharp weapons; offenders motivated to “escape arrest” were more likely to use a weapon, and tended to choose a vehicle as a weapon; and offenders motivated by “conflict resolution” were more likely to choose a sharp or blunt weapon.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have limited applicability to other countries and must be considered in the local background of violence against police.

Practical implications

Through the rational choice theory analytical framework, this study clarifies how motivation and premeditation influence offenders' weapons decision-making processes.

Social implications

Also, this study may provide support for frontline police officers' law enforcement.

Originality/value

The research identified some specific connections between offenders' weapon choice preferences, their motivation for the violence and whether or not there was premeditation. The findings provide guidance for police agencies developing preventive policies, and for frontline officers in interpreting and managing the situations they face.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Ben Stickle, Teresa C. Kulig, Sadie Creel, Kayla N. Meyer, Bethany Maynard and Garrett C. Jeanes

Human trafficking is challenging to address; one facet of response has been to engage with the public to increase awareness of trafficking and create connections that…

Abstract

Purpose

Human trafficking is challenging to address; one facet of response has been to engage with the public to increase awareness of trafficking and create connections that facilitate identification. Police officials are uniquely situated to engage with the community on human trafficking through their online presence. However, little is known about how police officials use these virtual platforms to discuss trafficking.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examines how Tennessee police use agency websites and Twitter to connect with their community on the issue of human trafficking.

Findings

Out of 241 police agencies studied in Tennessee, 80% (n = 192) had websites, while 35% (n = 84) had Twitter accounts. Findings suggest that Tennessee agencies are not currently using websites (1%) or Twitter (4.7%) to engage with the public about human trafficking. Further, when it did occur, the communication to the public was limited in depth and resources.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should include other police agencies and additional social media sites.

Practical implications

Police agencies could be more proactive at engaging the community, with the caveat that any future initiatives should have clear goals and monitor their effectiveness at achieving their intended outcomes.

Originality/value

This research provides a fundamental analysis of how police agencies communicate to the public on issues related to human trafficking.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2022

Lisa M. Dario, Gabriel T. Cesar and Vaughn J. Crichlow

The current and ongoing police legitimacy crises demand a renewed analysis of the police mission in American law enforcement. This research aims to examine the mission…

Abstract

Purpose

The current and ongoing police legitimacy crises demand a renewed analysis of the police mission in American law enforcement. This research aims to examine the mission statements of a national sample of police agencies, and generates an organizational typology of contemporary policing styles.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the responsive agencies listed in the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) as a sampling frame, mission statements from 2,826 departments were collected from official law enforcement websites. Wilson's (1968) seminal typology of policing styles was then used to classify the emergent patterns from the mission statements. Mission statement patterns that did not fit squarely into Wilson's model (i.e. watchman, service and legalistic styles of policing) were classified to update the model and account for contemporary police goals and organizational orientations.

Findings

A theme of outward-facing legitimacy among police organizations emerged as a new variety of police behavior, according to collected mission statements. The researchers’ findings suggest that public perceptions of police legitimacy are a primary concern for today's police forces.

Originality/value

This research reappreciates the utility of Wilson's typology of policing styles, and provides insight into the cultivation of police legitimacy. The authors identify a fourth typology of organizational behavior, legitimacy, that may be an emerging, professional police response to both contemporary crime issues and public antipathy.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich, Yang Liu, Valentina Pavlović Vinogradac and Irena Cajner Mraović

This study examines the effects of diffuse support for the police, specific support for the police, experience with the police, and demographic characteristics on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effects of diffuse support for the police, specific support for the police, experience with the police, and demographic characteristics on citizens' own expressed willingness to report police misconduct. The authors surveyed immigrants from Croatia who now reside in Germany and Ireland to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relative role these factors play in regard to immigrants' willingness to report misconduct in Croatia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study, based on a survey of 358 Croatian immigrants to Germany and 226 Croatian immigrants to Ireland, utilizes multivariate logistic regression models that assess factors affecting the respondents' expressed willingness to report police misconduct in their homeland and their current countries of residence.

Findings

The authors' multivariate models reveal that diffuse support for the police (e.g. confidence in the police and perceptions of widespread police corruption) plays a strong and significant role in explaining the respondents' willingness to report misconduct in the authors' initial models. However, the direct effect of the diffuse support completely disappears in most of the models once scenario-specific police integrity measures (e.g. views of expected discipline severity and estimates whether police officers would report misconduct) are included as well. With the exception of age, other demographic characteristics and contact with the police were not systematically and significantly related to the respondents' willingness to report.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to provide an in-depth exploration of various factors associated with the citizens' willingness to report police misconduct.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Cathrine Filstad, Trude Høgvold Olsen and Anja Overgaard Thomassen

This paper aims to contribute to the literature on distributed sensemaking by studying how the police establish and develop their new position as police contacts during…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the literature on distributed sensemaking by studying how the police establish and develop their new position as police contacts during the police reform.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied how the position of police contact, a cornerstone of the recent Norwegian police reform, was interpreted and practised. The authors interviewed police contacts at two different times during reform implementation to explore how they made sense of and practised their job.

Findings

The authors identified three interpretations of the position of police contact and describe them as ideal types: an administrative position, a professional position and a strategic position. The ideal types were reinforced rather than developing towards a shared understanding. Our data demonstrate that the sensemaking processes and experimentation to settle into the new position involved local actors internally in the police and externally in relation to local authorities, and reinforced local interpretations.

Originality/value

This study supports the notion of sensemaking as distributed but extends previous research by suggesting that “ideal types” help us understand the content of interpretations. This study also extends the understanding by showing that distributed sensemaking takes place as individuals make sense of more open-ended problems. This challenges the understanding of the term distributed, because unless challenged, distributed sensemaking in isolated pockets of the organization remain local, and the authors suggest that the term local distributed sensemaking captures this phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Mohammed Saleh Alosani and Hassan Saleh Al-Dhaafri

Limited use of Kaizen practices in police agencies, together with very few studies that investigated the link between it and police performance, gives a gap and good…

Abstract

Purpose

Limited use of Kaizen practices in police agencies, together with very few studies that investigated the link between it and police performance, gives a gap and good indication to conduct this study. Thus, this study seeks to explore and examine this relationship through the lens of innovation culture as a mediating factor.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was based on a survey with 352 effective participants, including the head section officers of the Dubai Police in the UAE. A structural equation modelling technique was used for statistical analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that Kaizen was positively associated with police performance. Innovation culture also plays a mediating role in the relationship between Kaizen and police performance.

Originality/value

This paper has theoretical and practical contributions. It is one of the first studies to create and test the direct and indirect associations between Kaizen and police performance, providing evidence on the mediating role of innovation culture with regard to Kaizen and performance in the policing field.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Leanne Fiftal Alarid and Hsiao‐Ming Wang

Notes that the practice of Japanese management contributed to Japan’s renovation from the ashes of the Second World War to become one of the world’s economic leaders, and…

4422

Abstract

Notes that the practice of Japanese management contributed to Japan’s renovation from the ashes of the Second World War to become one of the world’s economic leaders, and at the same time, expand the proficiency of Japanese police administration. Identifies, through Ouchi’s Management Theory Z, three commonalties to Japanese police operations and the practices of Japanese corporations: groupism, seniority, and non‐specialized career paths. Concludes with a discussion on implementing Japanese management and policing with American community‐oriented policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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