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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Justin W. Patchin, Joseph Schafer and John P. Jarvis

Cyberbullying – using technology to intentionally and repeatedly engage in bullying behaviors – has gained considerable public attention over the last decade. Parents and…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyberbullying – using technology to intentionally and repeatedly engage in bullying behaviors – has gained considerable public attention over the last decade. Parents and educators regularly instruct students about appropriate online behaviors and threaten consequences for misbehaviors. The role and responsibility of law enforcement officers in preventing and responding to cyberbullying incidents remains uncertain. While clear violations of the law (e.g. threats of physical harm) most directly implicate the police, other – more common behaviors – such as rumor spreading or hurtful online commenting do not. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study surveyed 1,596 law enforcement supervisors attending the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s National Academy (NA) program. The survey instrument assessed perceptions of law enforcement responsibility in cyberbullying incidents. Data were collected in three waves over a nine-year period, allowing the measurement of attitudinal changes over time.

Findings

The authors find that certain officer characteristics are associated with a greater interest in responding to different types of cyberbullying (including having children at home and having previous experience dealing with cyberbullying) and that these perceptions have evolved over time.

Research limitations/implications

The data are specific to law enforcement leaders who participated in the NA and are therefore not generalizable to all officers. Nevertheless, implications for explaining variance and law enforcement involvement in cyberbullying incidents are discussed.

Originality/value

This is the first study to survey law enforcement leaders over time to assess their evolving perceptions of law enforcement’s role in addressing cyberbullying among youth.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Catherine Marcum, Elicka Sparks, Shelly Clevenger and Jeffrey Sedlacek

To date, there is a gap in the literature exploring the perceptions and experiences of law enforcement regarding enforcement of online and offline prostitution. The…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, there is a gap in the literature exploring the perceptions and experiences of law enforcement regarding enforcement of online and offline prostitution. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of law enforcement in the USA regarding the safety and mobility of individuals who prostitute online compared to those who sell sexual services offline. The next section will explain the methodology of the exploratory study, including the method of original data collection.

Design/methodology/approach

All police departments in the USA located in a jurisdiction of 50,000 people or more were requested participation in the study (n=689). Respondents were sent an initial mailing of a cover letter and survey, followed by an e-mail reminder and a second mailing of a cover letter and survey. Individual respondents were asked questions about their own perceptions of behaviors and lifestyles of offline vs online prostitutes.

Findings

The majority of law enforcement respondents did not feel as if online prostitutes were safer compared to offline prostitutes. However, the majority of respondents did believe that online prostitutes are afforded a better lifestyle and are more mobile.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of the respondents were from the Northeast and Southwest may mean that their perceptions could be different from those that are not located within either region. In addition, since almost 80 percent of the agencies were in a jurisdiction with a population between 50,000 and 249,000, this too may have influenced their perceptions. Law enforcement in a smaller or larger area may have felt differently or have had different experiences to report.

Originality/value

This study is very unique as to date, another study with the same methodology and question content was not found.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Adam M. Bossler and Thomas J. Holt

Little empirical research exists regarding how local law enforcement has responded to cybercrime. This paper aims to understand: the law enforcement agencies that line…

Abstract

Purpose

Little empirical research exists regarding how local law enforcement has responded to cybercrime. This paper aims to understand: the law enforcement agencies that line officers believe should be primarily responsible for investigating cybercrime cases; their perceptions about their agency's current ability to respond to these offenses; and their beliefs regarding the best ways to improve the social response to cybercrime.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed patrol officers in the Charlotte‐Mecklenburg and Savannah‐Chatham Metropolitan police departments.

Findings

The authors found that officers do not believe that local law enforcement should be primarily responsible for handling cybercrime cases and they have little information on how upper management is addressing cybercrime. Officers indicated that the best strategies to deal with cybercrime were greater care taken by citizens online and improvements to the legal system.

Research limitations/implications

Local law enforcement agencies feel they are unable to fully address cybercrime. Although the findings were generally consistent across demographic and experiential characteristics and cities, two cities in the southeastern United States were surveyed.

Practical implications

According to these officers, they want citizens to be more careful online and for clarification of cybercrime laws and increased prosecutions. They do not favor local cybercrime units and additional computer training for line officers as much as scholars and police administrators advocate.

Originality/value

This paper studied the perceptions of patrol officers, who are the first responders to most crime scenes, on local law enforcement responses to cybercrime and the strategies they view to be most effective in combating cybercrime.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Tara O’Connor Shelley, Michael J. Hogan, N. Prabha Unnithan and Paul B. Stretesky

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining…

Abstract

Purpose

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining public perceptions regarding state law enforcement agencies (particularly state patrols) is rare.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes a representative state‐wide sample of state residents and examine their perceptions of the Colorado State Patrol (CSP).

Findings

The paper finds positive views of the CSP overall and place particular emphasis on how individual, contextual, and contact‐related variables affect opinions.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses on one state patrol and is not generalizable to all state patrols and to other forms of state law enforcement.

Originality/value

The paper fills a void in the research on public opinion regarding state law enforcement and discuss similarities and differences in how they are viewed when compared to municipal agencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Margaret M. Chrusciel, Scott Wolfe, J. Andrew Hansen, Jeff J Rojek and Robert Kaminski

The purpose of this paper is to assess the perspectives of law enforcement executives and public school principals regarding school resource officers (SROs), armed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the perspectives of law enforcement executives and public school principals regarding school resource officers (SROs), armed teachers, and armed school administrators in order to inform the policy discussion surrounding school safety issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes data collected from two surveys that were sent to law enforcement executives and public school principals in South Carolina. Respondents were asked about their experience with SROs and their perspectives on these officers’ ability to maintain school safety. Both groups of respondents were also asked about their attitudes regarding arming school employees.

Findings

There is a large amount of support for SROs from both law enforcement executives and principals. However, in general, both groups of respondents do not believe armed administrators or armed teachers to be an effective school safety strategy.

Originality/value

SROs have been the primary strategy adopted by schools to maintain safety, but in the wake of the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, public outcry and political debate has spawned a number of proposed alternatives. Among these alternative security measures has been the idea of arming school teachers and/or administrators. However, there appears to have been little effort to empirically consider the perspectives of those directly impacted by school safety policy decisions. In particular, a gap in the literature remains regarding the perceptions of police executives and school principals concerning school safety policies and how the attitudes of these key actors compare. Thus, the current study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of key school safety stakeholders.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Aqmarina Vaharani Paramaduhita and Elia Mustikasari

The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors may affect taxpayer (TP) compliance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors may affect taxpayer (TP) compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses five independent variables such as income, TP’s perception on tax penalties, law and enforcement, fair tax treatment and the use of tax money in a transparent and accountable way. The dependent variable is the compliance of individual TPs non-employees. The data used are primary data obtained from questionnaires on KPP Surabaya Rungkut and processed using a multiple linear regression method with SPSS 21.0 Software for Windows.

Findings

The results show that partially income does not affect the compliance of individual TP non-employees; however, four other independent variables on the TP’s perception of penalties, law enforcement, tax treatment and the use of tax money simultaneously had a positive effect.

Originality/value

All independent variables had a positive effect on compliance by individual TP non-employees on KPP Surabaya Rungkut.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Onder Karakus, Edmund F. McGarrell and Oguzhan Basibuyuk

In this study, the aim is to address the void in the comparative literature of criminology and criminal justice by investigating public attitudes toward law enforcement in…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the aim is to address the void in the comparative literature of criminology and criminal justice by investigating public attitudes toward law enforcement in a rapidly developing country, Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different models of satisfaction with law enforcement, the demographic model, the quality of life model and the experiential model are subjected to empirical scrutiny in the context of policing in Turkey. In line with extant research on satisfaction with law enforcement in the West, all three models significantly explain the variation of satisfaction with law enforcement across a random sample of 6,713 individuals living in urban and rural parts of Turkey. Specifically, the quality of life model and the experiential model had considerable impact on public satisfaction with law enforcement and in general, all three models produced results in the predicted direction.

Findings

Overall, the findings suggest the robust nature of the integrated demographic, quality of life, and experiential models in explaining public satisfaction with law enforcement. In the demographic model, however, income and education had significant negative impact on global satisfaction with law enforcement. Considering the fact that more educated and well off citizens are likely to value freedom more and that law enforcement may represent an oppressive part of a democratic government, this might account for the reaction of higher socioeconomic classes to the power distance between the state, the police in particular, and civil society.

Originality/value

In terms of policy recommendations, to the extent that community policing is regarded as a set of strategies for improving the quality of police‐citizen encounters and reforming police organizations, these findings lend support for the potential of community policing in Turkey.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Scott W. Phillips, Dae-Young Kim and Joseph Gramaglia

The past five years have seen a growth in studies of police body-worn cameras (BWCs). A large share of the research focused on individual officer attitudes toward these…

Abstract

Purpose

The past five years have seen a growth in studies of police body-worn cameras (BWCs). A large share of the research focused on individual officer attitudes toward these new law enforcement tools. The scholarship, however, focused almost exclusively on their positive and negative perceptions of body cameras or correlations between those attitudes and general officer characteristics. This study examined whether the influence of negative or “concerning” policing attitudes toward body cameras is mediated by other variables, such as officer outlooks toward law enforcement, officers' perceptions of citizen cooperation or their opinions of the public.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of police offices from two Northeastern police agencies.

Findings

Findings indicate that the relationship between experience and concerning perceptions of body cameras is mediated by distrust in citizens and perceived civilian cooperation. Further, an office's outlooks regarding aggressive law enforcement tactics do not have a direct effect on concerning perceptions of body cameras, nor do they serve as a mediator between years of experience and concerning perceptions of body cameras.

Originality/value

Findings uncover the nuance and complexity of studying and understanding police officer outlooks and perceptions of BWCs. Future experimental designs should include general outlook measures.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2016

Melissa Thompson, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Jean McMahon and Madeline O’Neil

Previous research on community attitudes toward the police focuses on suspect race as an important predictor of attitudes toward law enforcement and police use of force…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research on community attitudes toward the police focuses on suspect race as an important predictor of attitudes toward law enforcement and police use of force. Generally, missing from these studies, however, is the role of mental illness, both independently and in conjunction with race, and its effect on perceptions of police. This chapter summarizes our recent research addressing two issues: (1) how race and mental illness of suspects affect perceptions of the appropriateness of police use of force, and (2) how race and mental illness of citizens affect perceptions of police.

Methodology/approach

We examine these issues by summarizing research obtained through The Portland Race and Mental Illness Project (PRMIP), a survey administered to residents of Portland, Oregon. For our first topic, we use an experimental vignette that randomly alters race and mental health status of suspects. For our second topic, we ask respondents to self-report race, mental health status, and perceptions of the police.

Findings

Our dual focus provides two key findings: first, citizens’ perceptions of police use of force are affected by suspect race and mental health status. Second, like Black citizens, citizens with mental illness also have a negative impression of law enforcement.

Originality/value

Our research builds on research indicating racial disparity in trust in police by showing that mental illness – both that of the respondent and that of a suspect – affects attitudes toward the police. These results suggest that mental health status affects attitudes toward law enforcement and should be considered in future research and public policy.

Details

The Politics of Policing: Between Force and Legitimacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-030-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Sara E. McClellan and Bryon G. Gustafson

This paper seeks to analyze how institutional arrangements and discourses shape law enforcement professionalization efforts, to identify opportunities and potential…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyze how institutional arrangements and discourses shape law enforcement professionalization efforts, to identify opportunities and potential problems associated with professionalization, and to propose research to address practitioner interests in education and training and public interests in accountability and service equity.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores discourses surrounding law enforcement professionalization efforts to identify implementation barriers and potential consequences. It reviews earlier literatures and analyzes occupational standards data, utilizing a communicative perspective to investigate professionalization problems that have often been approached from political or economic perspectives.

Findings

Although law enforcement is often urged to professionalize, educational standards for officers remain low. There is no clear nexus between college curriculum and law enforcement as a profession. This paper shows that competing discourses about professionalization in general and law enforcement in particular undermine efforts to establish professional status and increased standards for law enforcement.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should include greater cross‐sectional data analysis. Investigation of law enforcement standards or professionalization should account for social discourses that contribute to norms and expectations.

Practical implications

Law enforcement agencies and criminal justice programs have opportunities to better coordinate practice and scholarship. Failure to attend to institutional relationships and the role of communication in shaping professional standards will hamper advances in either field.

Social implications

The paper shows that professional norms shape law enforcement accountability to the public in critical and sometimes unintended ways.

Originality/value

Previous authors have not considered social discourse impacts on law enforcement standards and professionalization, nor their relationship to higher education. By introducing these variables, barriers and alternative approaches are revealed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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