Search results

1 – 10 of over 5000
Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Kristen Marcussen and Christian Ritter

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Methodology/approach

Data for this chapter come from structured interviews and service data for 140 individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses. We use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between perceived and internalized stigma, as well as the relationships among stigma, self-concept (self-esteem and mastery), and well-being (quality of life and functioning).

Findings

We find that case management is negatively related to quality of life and psychiatric services are positively related to functioning. Crisis services and assessment are associated with mastery in opposite directions. Internalized stigma is positively associated with self-esteem and mastery, and negatively associated with functioning. We do not find a relationship between services and stigma.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation to this chapter is the sample size, which prohibits us from examining a full range of services and outcomes. Nonetheless, our findings provide information about how services and stigma impact well-being, and may be used as a starting point for considering strategies for improving services and reducing stigma. Future work should consider pairing outcomes with services to determine their effectiveness.

Originality/value

This chapter builds on previous research that examines the relative effects of services and stigma among individuals in community health care by extending measures of both services and stigma, and by examining the relationship between them, in order to better determine their implications for self-concept and well-being.

Details

50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-403-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Karin Martin, Andrew Taylor, Benjamin Howell and Aaron Fox

This paper aims to determine whether criminal justice (CJ) stigma affects health outcomes and health care utilization.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine whether criminal justice (CJ) stigma affects health outcomes and health care utilization.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed medical and public health literature through May 2020. Structured terms were used to search four databases identifying articles that related to CJ stigma. Included articles were in English, examined CJ stigma and had people with CJ involvement as subjects. The studies without health outcomes were excluded. Quantitative and qualitative studies were reviewed and assessed for bias. Results were synthesized into a systematic review.

Findings

The search yielded 25 studies relating to CJ stigma and health. Three stigma domains were described in the literature: perceived or enacted, internalized and anticipated stigma. Tenuous evidence linked CJ stigma to health directly (psychological symptoms) and indirectly (social isolation, health care utilization, high-risk behaviors and housing or employment). Multiple stigmatized identities may interact to affect health and health care utilization.

Research limitations/implications

Few studies examined CJ stigma and health. Articles used various measures of CJ stigma, but psychometric properties for instruments were not presented. Prospective studies with standard validated measures are needed.

Practical implications

Understanding whether and how CJ stigma affects health and health care utilization will be critical for developing health-promoting interventions for people with CJ involvement. Practical interventions could target stigma-related psychological distress or reduce health care providers’ stigmatizing behaviors.

Originality/value

This was the first systematic review of CJ stigma and health. By providing a summary of the current evidence and identifying consistent findings and gaps in the literature, this review provides direction for future research and highlights implications for policy and practice.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Azad Shokri, Ghobad Moradi, Amjad Mohamadi Bolbanabad, Mitra Satary, Mahin Shabrandi, Parsa Sadeghkhani, Aram Mohammadi, Armin Ghorishi, Ronak Veisy, Arshad Veysi, Bakhtiar Piroozi, Shina Amiri Hoseini, Sonia Darvishi and Heshmatollah Asadi

The purpose of the study is to investigate the perceived stigma among residents of Sanandaj, west of Iran, following COVID-19 pandemic.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate the perceived stigma among residents of Sanandaj, west of Iran, following COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional study conducted from March to April 2020. The sample consisted of 1,000 participants who live in Sanandaj. The data collection tool was a self-report electronic questionnaire. ANOVA and T-test were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The mean perceived stigma for COVID-19 was 5.50±2.24 (IQR: 3.75–6.87) out of 10-point scale. The highest point was seen for perceived external stigma (6.73±2.49, IQR: 5–8.75) followed by disclosure stigma (4.95±3.92, IQR: 0–10). Interestingly, self-employers were more concerned about disclosing their illness than those with governmental jobs (25±3.93 vs. 4.31±4.14, P<0.05), and also had an overall higher stigma score; 5.72±2.23 vs. 5.19±2.37, P<0.05).

Originality/value

COVID-19 stigma is high among Iranians and more common among men, youngsters and self-employers.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2022

Keheng Xiang, Fan Gao, Guanghui Qiao and Qingwen Chen

Hotel employees’ occupational stigma is often overlooked. Exploration of hotel employees’ occupational stigma representations, perception pathways and destigmatization…

Abstract

Purpose

Hotel employees’ occupational stigma is often overlooked. Exploration of hotel employees’ occupational stigma representations, perception pathways and destigmatization provides an empirical basis for positive organizational behavior and psychology in the hotel industry. Therefore, this study aims to better understand the mechanism underlying inherent of occupational stigma.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a five-factor narrative analysis involving stigma narrative interviews with a purposed sampling of hotel employees (n = 18). Based on occupational stigma and resource conservation theories, this study designed a five-factor narrative analysis structure chart as the basis for data analysis.

Findings

Findings indicate the existence of four quadrants of perceived occupational stigma attribute distribution, two paths of perceived occupational stigma formation and a more systematic occupational destigmatization mechanism path.

Research limitations/implications

The occupational destigmatization path and countermeasures proposed in this study can resolve talent drain and eliminate stereotyping in the hotel industry, which promote the industry’s rapid recovery and sustainable healthy development, providing the practical management guidelines for public communication via social media, and offer practical significance for existing hotel human resource management in modules such as organizational culture and training.

Originality/value

This study broadens investigations of occupational stigma in a single, static context and explains the relationship between hotel employees’ stigma perceptions and destigmatization paths. Further, the mechanism of emotional energy distribution on spatial stigma was identified. These results have practical implications for organizational culture, training and employee care in hotel human resource management.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2022

Ksenia Keplinger and Andria Smith

Gender balance has been a declared goal in business and society for decades as gender diversity leads to more equality and better decision-making, enhances financial…

Abstract

Gender balance has been a declared goal in business and society for decades as gender diversity leads to more equality and better decision-making, enhances financial performance of organizations, and fosters creativity and innovation. Although there is a steady upward trend in the number of women actively participating in the workplace, there is still a dearth of women in top leadership positions. This motivates a closer look at the reasons why this happens. Stigmatization – a social process of disapproval based on stereotypes or particular distinguishing characteristics of individuals (e.g. gender) – has been recognized as one of the primary explanations for the barriers to career advancement of women. This chapter aims to address workplace inequality by analysing different sources of stigma women face in the workplace. Previous research has mostly focused on visible sources of stigma, such as gender or race/ethnicity. We propose to go beyond visible sources of stigma and expand the focus to other physical (e.g. physical appearance, age, childbearing age), emotional (e.g. mental health) and societal (e.g. flexibility) sources of stigma. We are especially interested in the consequences of stigma for women in the workplace. Stigmatization of women is a multi-level process, so this chapter focuses on the antecedents (sources of stigma) and outcomes (consequences of stigma) for women at the individual level, organizational level and the societal level. The proposed chapter will make contributions to the areas of management, diversity and gender studies.

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Louise Alexander, Jade Sheen, Nicole Rinehart, Margaret Hay and Lee Boyd

This critical review of historical and contemporary literature explores the role of television media in the prevalence of stigma towards persons experiencing a mental…

Abstract

Purpose

This critical review of historical and contemporary literature explores the role of television media in the prevalence of stigma towards persons experiencing a mental health challenge. In addition to this, the purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of perceived dangerousness, which is a concept where persons with mental illness are thought by others to be inherently dangerous.

Design/methodology/approach

A vigorous search of databases was undertaken for articles published between 2000 and 2016. Some seminal literature prior to 2000 was used to compare historical data with current literature. In total, 1,037 publications were reviewed against inclusion criteria.

Findings

While mental illness stigma has received much attention in the literature, television media and public perceptions of dangerousness have not. While these concepts are complex and multi-factorial, what we do understand is that approaches to address stigma have been largely unsuccessful, and that persons experiencing mental health challenges continue to be significantly disadvantaged.

Practical implications

Implications to practice for clinicians working in mental health on this issue have not been adequately explored within the literature. While media guidelines assist journalists to make informed choices when they portray mental health issues in television news, there are no such guidelines to inform drama television viewing.

Originality/value

Significantly, television’s role in perpetuation of perceptions of dangerousness has not been adequately explored as a combined co-occurring factor associated with the stigmatisation and avoidance of persons experiencing a mental health challenge. In an era when mental health challenges are on the rise, it is of great importance that we collectively seek to minimise negative impacts and improve the experiences of those with a mental health challenge through addressing stigma both individually and in television media.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Sara E. Green, Rosalyn Benjamin Darling and Loren Wilbers

This chapter reviews qualitative research on parenting children with disabilities published over the last 50 years to explore whether shifts in academic discourse and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews qualitative research on parenting children with disabilities published over the last 50 years to explore whether shifts in academic discourse and changes in professional training have affected research on parenting and/or the experiences of parents who are the subject of such research.

Methodology/approach

An extensive literature search was conducted, and 78 peer-reviewed, qualitative studies on the experience of parenting a child with a disability were included in the sample. Themes were extracted from the reviewed literature and compared across decades.

Findings

The findings of the present review suggest that some aspects of the parenting experience have changed very little. In particular, parents continue to experience negative reactions such as stress and anomie, especially early in their children’s lives, and socially imposed barriers such as unhelpful professionals, and a lack of needed services continue to create problems and inspire an entrepreneurial response. In addition, stigmatizing encounters with others continue to be a common occurrence. In contrast to earlier decades, studies conducted in more recent years have begun to use the social model of disability as an analytic frame and also increasingly report that parents are questioning and challenging the concept of “normal” itself.

Social/practical implications

Additional improvements are needed in professional education and services to reduce the negative reactions experienced by parents of children with disabilities.

Originality/value of chapter

The findings of this meta-analysis can serve as a guide to future research on parenting children with disabilities.

Details

Disability and Intersecting Statuses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-157-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Lori Kepford

The basic family unit is an important institution whose scope and function has changed greatly over the past one hundred years. The contemporary form of the family is…

Abstract

The basic family unit is an important institution whose scope and function has changed greatly over the past one hundred years. The contemporary form of the family is understood as “conjugal and nuclear.” This implies a greater emphasis than previously on individual roles and relationships within the private sphere of the contemporary family. Additionally, the family is understood to have lost many of its former functions, further separating itself from the external world. The separation has further stripped the family from many of the roles it once had, with traditional familial functions performed by other institutions.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 14 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Shaun Pichler and Oscar Holmes IV

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether sexual minority candidates are viewed as less likely to fit-in in their work environments than heterosexual candidates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether sexual minority candidates are viewed as less likely to fit-in in their work environments than heterosexual candidates and, hence, to their being evaluated as less promotable.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with previous research, the authors used a hiring scenario where evaluators saw one of four different resumes, which varied based on candidate sexual orientation and gender, yet were equal on all factors, including candidate qualifications. The research included a pre-test and manipulation check to ensure the validity of the authors’ research design.

Findings

As the authors expected based on stigma theory, gay and lesbian candidates were more likely to be perceived as unable to fit-in than heterosexual candidates. Perceptions of a lack of fitting-in were negatively related to promotability ratings, as were beliefs about the controllability of sexual orientation. However, counter to the authors’ expectations, gay and lesbian candidates were rated more promotable than heterosexual candidates. This presents a more nuanced picture of sexual orientation discrimination than has been offered heretofore.

Originality/value

Previous research has suggested that gay men and lesbians may be trapped in “gay ghettos,” yet there is little if any research on evaluations of sexual minority candidates in employment decisions beyond hiring. The present study extends research on sexual orientation discrimination by investigating whether decision makers are biased against gay and lesbian candidates in promotion decisions, and the factors that are related to promotability ratings.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Iain McPhee, Anne Brown and Colin Martin

The purpose of this paper is to explore how injecting opiate users on a methadone treatment programme experience stigma as drug addicts, and as service users in health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how injecting opiate users on a methadone treatment programme experience stigma as drug addicts, and as service users in health care and pharmacy settings. In particular the paper explores the rationale for injecting drugs, which the paper is argued to create the conditions for experiencing shame at the micro interactional level, influenced by macro institutional factors. The paper links this issue of being an injecting drug user in treatment to question whether the definition of recovery as “drug free” in the Scottish drug policy document The Road to Recovery (2008) creates the potential for stigma of service users receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 14 participants, all of whom identified themselves as problem intravenous users of drugs, were recruited from three voluntary sector (third sector) treatment agencies in Scotland. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews; these were recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analysed thematically.

Findings

Participants describe feelings of stigma in relation to their drug taking as problem users. Their experiences as recovering opiate injectors raises further challenges in distancing themselves from stigmatised addict identities.

Originality/value

Reasons for injecting rather than smoking heroin were principally financially challenging a widely held belief that users inject primarily for pleasure, which is argued as increasing the potential for stigma. Shame and perceived discrimination was documented before and during drug treatment.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000